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Libmanan, Camarines Sur

Libmanan, officially the Municipality of Libmanan, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 108,716 people.[3] The town is home to the Morales Ruins, a 1937 architectural Art Deco masterpiece in the heart of the historic town. The Art Deco building is reportedly designed by a Filipino national artist.

Municipality of Libmanan
J. Hernandez Park Libmanan
J. Hernandez Park Libmanan
Official seal of Libmanan
Rice Granary of Camarines Sur
Map of Camarines Sur with Libmanan highlighted
Map of Camarines Sur with Libmanan highlighted
Libmanan is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 13°42′N 123°04′E / 13.7°N 123.07°E / 13.7; 123.07Coordinates: 13°42′N 123°04′E / 13.7°N 123.07°E / 13.7; 123.07
Country Philippines
RegionBicol Region (Region V)
ProvinceCamarines Sur
District2nd district
FoundedApril 3, 1574
Barangays75 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Bayan
 • MayorBernard P. Brioso
 • Vice MayorGerardo M. Atienza Jr.
 • CongressmanLuis Raymund F. Villafuerte Jr.
 • Electorate68,551 voters (2019)
 • Total342.82 km2 (132.36 sq mi)
 (2015 census)[3]
 • Total108,716
 • Density320/km2 (820/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)54
Climate typetropical rainforest climate
Income class1st municipal income class
Revenue (₱)219,425,574.91 (2016) [4]
Poverty incidence38.00% (2012)[5]
Native languagesCentral Bikol


Libmanan was a bario of Quipayo in 1580 with the name of "Piglabanan". Records from a historian revealed that the municipality was named Libmanan on September 15, 1574. Missionaries started working in Libmanan in 1589 and the area's church was dedicated to St. James the Apostle. Several local stories hint as to the origin of the town’s name. One was that “ligmanan” means "a place surrounded with waterways". Another was Libangan since visitors forgot their former homes because they were said to be “na libang” or "enjoying themselves" - Libangan can also translate to "place of enjoyment". Another version was associated with the conditions during years of moro raids where area was called “Linabanan”, a battle ground. In the Old Spanish Records, Fray Paschual dela Cruz, writes the name of the town as "Libñanan" the Spanish way of pronouncing the word. The same Record also show that in 1823, Fray Francisco Valverde wrote it as "Libmanan" because it was easier to write and pronounce as well.[citation needed]

German ethnographer Fedor Jagor described visiting Libmanan in his 1875 work "Travels in the Philippines", wherein he visited the local parish priest and learned from him about an ancient human settlement that had been dug up in 1851 during road construction in the Poro area of the southwest close near the Tres Marias islands: the excavation consisted of "numerous remains of the early inhabitants—skulls, ribs, bones of men and animals, a child’s thighbone inserted in a spiral of brass wire, several stags’ horns, beautifully-formed dishes and vessels, some of them painted, probably of Chinese origin; striped bracelets, of a soft, gypseous, copper-red rock, gleaming as if they were varnished; small copper knives, but no iron utensils; and several broad flat stones bored through the middle; besides a wedge of petrified wood, embedded in a cleft branch of a tree." [6]

During the occupation of their country by the United States, the Philippine Legislature greatly expanded the network of railroads throughout the island of Luzon, and a railway headed to the city of Legazpi, Albay and Naga, Camarines Sur was built through Libmanan to provide direct access to those cities.[7] This railway was damaged severely during World War II, but partially restored using American funds thereafter, providing transportation service down the Bicol Peninsula off and on until ending in 2012 despite plans to rehabilitate the route. The historical Morales Ruins Art Deco masterpiece at the heart of the heritage town was built in 1937.[8]

Even during the time of the Spaniards, the town of Libmanan was already considered the "rice basket" of the province.[citation needed] This generous production of rice is attributed to the fertile soil and the town's abundant water supply. In 1991 the area's irrigation canals (shared with its northern neighbor Cabusao, Camarines Sur) were sufficient to water 2996 hectares of land during the dry season.[9]

Important Dates & EventsEdit

[citation needed]

  • The first name of town was "Piglabanan".
  • March 18, 1484: Invasion of the Moros; those who killed were buried beside the Present Church.
  • February 1572: Construction of the First Church.
  • September 15, 1574: Changing the town name from Piglabanan to Libmanan by fray Bartolome Cabello.
  • 1586-1589: Construction of the Second Church of Libmanan.
  • 1732: Start of the first town government of Libmanan.
  • 1838: Construction of Catholic Cemetery In Barangay Puro Batia.
  • 1903: Founding of the first public schools.
  • 1915: Construction of the municipal cemetery In Barangay Puro Batia.
  • 1921: Construction of the Rizal Monument.
  • 1927: Passing of the MRR Co. in Libmanan.
  • 1929: Construction of MRR Co. (Philippine National Railways) Bridge.
  • 1930-31: Installation of the water system.
  • 1933: Construction of first and second market pavilion.
  • 1939-40: Construction of a concrete municipal hall under Mayor Francisco Frondozo.
  • 1941: Construction of the post office under Mayor Teodoro Dilanco
  • March 3, 1951: Naming of Barangay Bagumbayan by Municipal Council.
  • 1954-57: Construction of the municipal irrigation system.
  • 1955: Renaming the streets of the Poblacion and improvement of the Town Plaza.
  • 1956: Construction of the 30-Door Market.
  • May 1957: Dredging of the Libmanan River
  • 1957: Construction of a two-story building for the private Central School and also a public toilet.
  • March 1961: Construction of the concrete Easter tower under Mayor Amadeo Castaneda.
  • 1978: Construction of the Bulaong Bridge.
  • 1993: Construction of the Libmanan Town Arc in Barangay Potot.


Puro Island in the Ragay Gulf

Libmanan is a large municipality, one of the biggest in Camarines Sur. It stretched across nearly the whole width of the Bicol peninsula, from where it borders Cabusao Municipality on the San Miguel Bay all the way out to the Ragay Gulf, including three islands known locally as the 'tres Marias', including one island known as 'puro island'. The main town, or 'poblacion', is located along the Libmanan River on the lowland alluvial plain adjacent to Cabusao.

Heading to the southern coast from the poblacion the municipality becomes hilly. In this hilly region between the poblacion and the highway lies the Libmanan Caves National Park. Continuing on towards the coast from the hills, the municipality becomes truly mountainous beginning in Barangay Malinao beyond the Pan-Philippine Highway, where the "Boro-Boro Spring Resort" is located; a series of waterfalls that are a locally popular swimming destination.[10] Beyond Malinao the upland region features the mountain 'Tancong Vaca' - in the local dialect meaning 'the cow's hump' - which is a local landmark visible from most locations on the Pan-Philippine Highway in western Camarines Sur and was a base of operations for local guerrillas fighting the Japanese during World War II.[11] Up to the present day, the area around Tancong Vaca has remained an area of conflict between anti-government insurgents and the Philippine National Police.[12]

The municipality's rural barangays lie behind Mount Tancong Vaca, and mostly lack access to paved roads, of which there is only one which terminates in the fishing village of Barangay Bahao, within sight of the tres Marias.


Climate data for Libmanan, Camarines Sur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 33
Average low °C (°F) 27
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.2
Average rainy days 21 22 19 19 24 26 30 29 27 29 24 29 299
Source: World Weather Online[13]


Libmanan is politically subdivided into 75 barangays; five of which are located in the coastal areas and the remaining 70 barangays are distributed in the low land and upland portions of the municipality. Its town center, poblacion or centro, is 7.7 kilometres (4.8 mi) away from the National Highway. The road leading to Poblacion and other major baranggays is marked by a memorial for the Ten Outstanding Young Men trophy awarded to a past mayor and local hero, Jose Bulaong.

  • Aslong
  • Awayan
  • Bagacay
  • Bagadion
  • Bagamelon
  • Bagumbayan
  • Bahao
  • Bahay
  • Beguito Nuevo
  • Beguito Viejo
  • Bigajo Norte
  • Bigajo Sur
  • Bikal
  • Busak
  • Caima
  • Calabnigan
  • Camambugan
  • Cambalidio
  • Candami
  • Candato
  • Cawayan
  • Concepcion
  • Cuyapi
  • Danawan
  • Duang Niog
  • Handong
  • Ibid
  • Inalahan
  • Labao
  • Libod I
  • Libod II
  • Loba-loba
  • Mabini
  • Malansad Nuevo
  • Malansad Viejo
  • Malbogon
  • Malinao
  • Mambalite
  • Mambayawas
  • Mambulo Nuevo
  • Mambulo Viejo
  • Mancawayan
  • Mandacanan
  • Mantalisay
  • Padlos
  • Pag-Oring Nuevo
  • Pag-Oring Viejo
  • Palangon
  • Palong
  • Patag
  • Planza
  • Poblacion
  • Potot
  • Puro-Batia
  • Rongos
  • Salvacion
  • San Isidro
  • San Juan
  • San Pablo
  • San Vicente
  • Sibujo
  • Sigamot
  • Station-Church Site
  • Taban-Fundado
  • Tampuhan
  • Tanag
  • Tarum
  • Tinalmud Nuevo
  • Tinalmud Viejo
  • Tinangkihan
  • Udoc
  • Umalo
  • Uson
  • Villasocorro
  • Villadima (Santa Cruz)


YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 17,416—    
1918 11,729−2.60%
1939 23,000+3.26%
1948 43,482+7.33%
1960 52,512+1.58%
1970 62,762+1.80%
1975 66,601+1.20%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1980 68,413+0.54%
1990 77,565+1.26%
1995 85,337+1.81%
2000 88,476+0.78%
2007 92,839+0.67%
2010 100,002+2.74%
2015 108,716+1.60%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][14][15][16]


The religious needs of its people and those of neighboring towns prompted the erection of the Prelature of Libmanan in 1990 and installation the first bishop, Msgr. Prospero N. Arellano . On 25 March 2009 Pope Benedict XVI elevated the prelature to become a diocese with Bishop Jose Rojas Rojas becoming its first bishop.[17]

The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines lists the following Catholic church parishes of Libmanan:[18]

Parish Barangay Fiesta Day
St. James the Apostle Libmanan Centro July 25
Our Lady of Pillar San Isidro October 12
St. Vincent Ferrer San Vicente April 25


Libmanan public market

Libmanan, one of the largest and most populous municipality in the province, benefits from the transportation being offered by the Libmanan River, the railroad and the national highway. Though rail service through Libmanan no longer connects directly to Manila there are still commuter trips available bringing passengers to nearby Naga, Camarines Sur and the route that was reopened in 2015 bringing them all the way to Legazpi, Albay.[19]

Generally, Libmanan soil is adapted for growing different agricultural products. Portions are also adopted to pottery-the making of which has been a local industry for centuries. Libmanan has been the “rice-basket” not only of the province but of Southern Luzon-even during the Spanish regime. In spite of problems encountered by rice farmers, Libmanan maintains its status of being the rice granary of the province.[citation needed]


The town possess one of the most important cultural examples of ancestral houses in western Camarines Sur. Among these architectural marvels are the 1920s municipal hall building with its arcade-embellished facade, the 1875 Dilanco House which is the oldest structure in the town and was home to three former municipal mayors, the 1937 Morales Ruins which is the most culturally-important Art Deco building in the town, the Nacieno House which is another Art Deco ancestral house, and the 1926 Jaucian House (Built by Andres or Jose Jaucian Sr). Most heritage houses in the town have already been abandoned, including the Morales Ruins, Nacieno House, and the Dilanco House. In 2013, a campaign was administered by some locals to transform the Morales Ruins into a municipal museum, along with other heritage houses in the town to spur a heritage-based tourism industry and to conserve the remaining immovable cultural heritage of the town.

List of former Executives of LibmananEdit

[citation needed]

Libmanan municipal hall
Dates Name
1732-1755 Capt. Josep Domingo Ramos
1756-1758 Capt. Feipe Medina
1759-1760: Capt. Jose Guevarra
1761 Capt. Sebastian De la Cruz
1762-1763 Capt. Pascual de Lajor
1764 Capt. Luis Arambulo
1765 Capt. Francisco Severo
1766 Capt. Pedro Simon
1767-1768 Capt. Miguel Damiano
1769 Capt. Antonio De Leon
1770-1771 Capt. Domingo De la Concepcion
1772 Capt. Francisco Catimbang
1773 Capt. Francisco Del Llagas
1774-1777 Capt. Domingo De la Cruz
1778 Capt. Francisco Del Llagas
1779 Capt. Matias Cabanos
1780 Capt. Antonio De Leon
1781 Capt. Miguel Damiano
1782 Capt. Matias Cabanos
1783 Capt. Antonio De Leon
1784 Capt. Domingo De la Concepcion
1785 Capt. Victorino Simon
1786 Capt. Pedro Gonzales
1787 Capt. Tomas Baldesoto
1788 Capt. Domingo De la Concepcion
1789 Capt. Luis Arambulo
1790 Capt. Domingo De la Concepcion
1791 Capt. Nicholas Tolentino
1792 Capt. Victorino Simon
1793 Capt. Francisco Del Llagas
1794 Capt. Juan De la Cruz
1795-1796 Capt. Mateo De la Concepcion
1797 Capt. Miguel De la Concepcion
1798 Capt. Marcelino De la Trinidad
1799 Capt. Pedro Baldesoto
1800 Capt. Francisco Espiritu
1801 Capt. Clemente Eugenio
1802 Capt. Francisco del Llagas
1803 Capt. Juan San Antonio
1804 Capt. Luis Balaguer
1805 Capt. Melchor de los Reyes
1806 Capt. Francisco del Llagas
1807 Capt. Mariano de los Nieves
1808 Capt. Juan San Antonio
1809 Capt. Santiago Arambulo
1810 Capt. Melchor de los Reyes
1811 Capt. Tomas de la Soledad
1812 Capt. Fabiano de Galicia
1813 Capt. Esteban Anunciacion
1814 Capt. Juan Ramirez
1815 Capt. Antonio San Pascual
1816 Capt. Miguel Juliano Francisco
1817 Capt. Jose del Puerto
1818 Capt. Francisco Santa Maria
1819 Capt. Pedro Alcantara
1820 Capt. Pedro Sabino
1821 Capt. Ambrosio de la Cruz
1822 Capt. Francisco Custudio
1823 Capt. Placido Anunciacion
1824 Capt. Matias Manga
1825 Capt. Maximo Fernandez
1826 Capt. Augustin Tolentino
1827 Capt. Placido Anunciacion
1828 Capt. Pedro San Pablo Alcantara
1829 Capt. Maximo Fernandez
1830 Capt. Mariano Villanueva
1831 Capt. Vicente Cabanos
1832 Capt. Ludovico Lopez
1833 Capt. Martin Gonzales
1834 Capt. Carlos de los Santos
1835 Capt. Andres Espiritu
1836 Capt. Pater de Avila
1837 Capt. Hilario Domingo
1838 Capt. Santiago Aguirre
1839-1840 Capt. Maximo Hernandez
1841 Capt. Luis Alcantara
1842 Capt. Sebastian Baldesoto
1843 Capt. Placido Anunciacion
1844 Capt. Francisco Espiritu
1845 Capt. Marianon Natividad
1846 Capt. Isidro Archangel
1847 Capt. Rufino Nacianceno
1848 Capt. Anacleto de los Santos
1849 Capt. Facundo del Pascual
1850 Capt. Francisco Gonzales
Dates Name
1851-1852 Capt. Pacifico Roldan
1853 Capt. Bruno Sol
1854 Capt. Salvador Espiritu
1855 Capt. Mariano Albacarte
1856 Capt. Aniceto Floresca
1857 Capt. Victoriano Bautista
1858 Capt. Casiano Flores
1859 Capt. Mariano Septimo
1860 Capt. Mariano Rubi
1861 Capt. Domingo Durante
1862 Capt. Ramon Hernandez
1863-1864 Capt. Juan Hernandez
1865-1866 Capt. Tomas Durante
1867-1868 Capt. Juan Razonable
1869-1870 Capt. Mariano Angeles
1871-1872 Capt. Agaton Ursua
1873-1874 Capt. Juan Sanchez
1875-1878 Capt. Rufino Hernandez
1879-1880 Capt. Rafael Nacianceno
1881-1882 Capt. Anacleto Atendido
1883-1884 Capt. Rufino Hernandez
1885-1886 Capt. Agustin Abellera
1887 Capt. Vicente Ursua
1888-1889 Capt. Agaton Ursua
1890-1891 Capt. Norberto Durante
1892-1893 Capt. Celedonio Reyes
1894 Capt. Raymundo Espiritu
1895-1898 Capt. Casimiro Onate
1899-1901 Pres. Celedonio Reyes
1902-1903 Pres. Francisco Ursua
1904-1905 Pres. Nicolas Ortiz
1906-1907 Pres. Ligorio Colores
1908-1910 Pres. Nicolas Ortiz
1911-1912 Pres. Antonio Peredo
1913-1915 Pres. Vicente Aureus
1916-1921 Pres. Ramon Hernandez
1922-1926 Pres. Marciano Bagadion
1927-1931 Pres. Macario Zeda
1932-1937 Mayor Teodoro Dilanco
1938-1940 Mayor Francisco Frondozo
1941-1942 Mayor Teodoro Dilanco
1943-1945 Mayor Eliseo Portin
1946-1947 Mayor Policarpo Benitez
1948-1951 Mayor Policarpo Benitez
1952-1955 Mayor Teofilo Dilanco
1956-1959 Mayor Teofilo Dilanco
1960-1971 Mayor Amadeo Castaneda
1972-1979 Mayor Jose Bulaong, M.D.
October 1979-April 1980 Actg. Mayor Jose Villaluz, M.D.
1980-1986 Mayor Jose Bulaong, M.D.
March 1986-November 1987 Mayor Juan Echano (OIC)
December 1987-June 1988 Mayor Ramon Villaluz
1988-1998 Mayor Teodoro Dilanco III
1998-June 2001 Mayor Gerardo Atienza,Sr.
July 2001-June 2004 Mayor Rodolfo Jimenez, Sr.
July 2004-June 2007 Mayor Rodolfo Jimenez, Sr.
July 2007-June 2010 Mayor Rodolfo Jimenez, Sr.
July 2010 – June 2016 Mayor Marilyn Jimenez
July 2016 – Present Mayor Bernard Brioso


The Department of Education (Philippines) lists the following schools for Libmanan:[20]

  • CASIFMAS (Libmanan Campus) - Potot, Libmanan
  • Luis H. Dilanco Sr. Foundation College, Inc. - Bahay, Libmanan
  • Colegio del Santisimo Rosario - Station Church Site, Libmanan
  • Bicol Central Academy - Libod 1,Libmanan
  • Central Bicol State University Sipocot - Libmanan Extension College (formerly: Bicol Institute of Science and Technology - Libmanan Extension College- Sibujo,Libmanan
  • Bahay Provincial High School- Bahay,Libmanan
  • San Juan National High School - Handong, Libmanan
  • San Isidro National High School - San Isidro, Libmanan
  • Bahao National High School - Bahao, Libmanan
  • Carmel National High School - Potot, Libmanan
  • Pag-oring Nuevo National High School - Pag-oring Nuevo, Libmanan
  • Malansad Nuevo National High School - Malansad, Libmanan
  • Mambulo Nuevo National High School - Mambulo Nuevo, Libmanan
  • Libmanan North Central School
  • Candato Elementary School - Candato, Libmanan
  • Libmanan South Central School
  • Tarum Elementary School
  • Ibid Elementary School - Ibid, Libmanan
  • Umalo Elementary School - Umalo, Libmanan
  • Fundado Elementary School- Taban-Fundado,Libmanan
  • St. Joseph Academy - Potot, Libmanan
  • Don Jose Ursua Elementary School - Malinao, Libmanan
  • Bikal Elementary School- Bikal, Libmanan
  • Duang Niog Elementary School-Duang Niog, Libmanan
  • Sixto Bulaong Elementary School- Busak, Libmanan
  • Mambulo Nuevo Elementary School - Mambulo Nuevo, Libmanan
  • San Juan Elementary School - Handong, Libmanan
  • Malansad Nuevo Elementary School, Malansad Nuevo Elementary School


  1. ^ "Municipality". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  2. ^ "Province: Camarines Sur". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2015). "Region V (Bicol Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Camarines Sur : Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index". Makati City, Philippines: National Competitiveness Council (Philippines). Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  5. ^ "PSA Releases the 2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  6. ^ Jagor, Fedor (1875). Travels in the Philippines. London: Chapman and Hall. p. 155. ISBN 9781230389998.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Bagdion, Benjamin (1991). Joint Management of the Libmanan-Cabusao Pump Irrigation System between Farmers and the National Irrigation Administration in the Philippines (PDF). International Water Management Institute. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  10. ^ malinao libmanan. Youtube Retrieved 10 July 2014. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ Escandor, Juan (March 5, 2009). "Homegrown WW2 vets wait to receive call for recognition". Bicol Mail. 25 (38).
  12. ^ "NPA warns Camarines Sur Mayors on allowing town cops in counter-insurgency combat operations". Bicol Today. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2016. The warning came up when four (4) policemen were wounded by guerillas of the Norben Gruta Command-New People’s Army (NGC-NPA) in a firefight Friday, March 13, at Barangays Pag-oring and Malinao in Libmanan, Camarines Sur.
  13. ^ "Libmanan, Camarines Sur: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". World Weather Online. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  14. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region V (Bicol Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  15. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region V (Bicol Region)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  16. ^ "Province of Camarines Sur". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  17. ^ Vatican Daily Bulletin (in Italian)
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^

External linksEdit