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Lewes (/ˈlɪs/ LOO-iss) is an incorporated city on the Delaware Bay in eastern Sussex County, Delaware. According to the 2010 census, the population is 2,747.[6] Along with neighboring Rehoboth Beach, Lewes is one of the principal cities of Delaware's rapidly growing Cape Region. The city lies within the Salisbury, Maryland–Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lewes proudly claims to be "The First Town in The First State."

Lewes, Delaware
City
Second Street in downtown Lewes in 2006
Second Street in downtown Lewes in 2006
Official seal of Lewes, Delaware
Seal
Motto: "The First Town in The First State"[1]
Location of Lewes in Sussex County, Delaware.
Location of Lewes in Sussex County, Delaware.
Lewes is located in Delaware
Lewes
Lewes
Lewes is located in the US
Lewes
Lewes
Location within the state of Delaware
Coordinates: 38°46′28″N 75°08′22″W / 38.77444°N 75.13944°W / 38.77444; -75.13944Coordinates: 38°46′28″N 75°08′22″W / 38.77444°N 75.13944°W / 38.77444; -75.13944
Country United States
State Delaware
County Sussex
Founded June 3, 1631
Incorporated February 2, 1818
Government
 • Mayor Theodore W. Becker [2]
Area[3]
 • Total 4.72 sq mi (12.24 km2)
 • Land 3.80 sq mi (9.85 km2)
 • Water 0.92 sq mi (2.39 km2)
Elevation 13 ft (4 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 2,747
 • Estimate (2016)[4] 3,074
 • Density 808.31/sq mi (312.07/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code 19958
Area code(s) 302
FIPS code 10-41830
GNIS feature ID 214214[5]
Website City of Lewes Delaware Website

Contents

HistoryEdit

Lewes was the site of the first European settlement in Delaware, a whaling and trading post that Dutch settlers founded on June 3, 1631 and named Zwaanendael (Swan Valley).[7] The colony had a short existence, as a local tribe of Lenape Native Americans wiped out the 32 settlers in 1632.

The area remained rather neglected by the Dutch until, under the threat of annexation from the English colony of Maryland, the city of Amsterdam made a grant of land at the Hoernkills (the area around Cape Henlopen, near the current town of Lewes) to a group of Mennonites for settlement in 1662. A total of 35 men were to be included in the settlement, led by a Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy of Zierikzee and funded by a sizable loan from the city to get them established. The settlement was established in 1663, but the timing of the settlement was terrible: In 1664, the English wrested New Netherland from the Dutch, and they had the settlement destroyed with British reports indicating that “not even a nail” was left there.[8]

The area was slow to resettle, but a new settlement gradually regrew around the Hoernkills. In late December 1673, when the area was briefly held again by the Dutch, the settlement was attacked and burned down again by soldiers from the English colony of Maryland. In 1680, under the authority of James Stuart, Duke of York, who had been granted such authority by his brother, King Charles II, the village (and county) was reorganized and known for two years as New Deale, Deale County, Delaware. A log courthouse was authorized to be built at this time. A Church of England congregation was established by 1681 and a Presbyterian church was built in 1682.

In 1682, the Delaware colonies were given to William Penn by English King Charles II in payment of a family debt. When Penn arrived in the New World later that year, he renamed the county as Sussex and the Hoernkills settlement as Lewes, in commemoration of sites back in England. Lewes became and remained the county seat of Sussex County until 1791, when it was moved to a more west-central county location, the current town of Georgetown.[9]

On April 5 and 6, 1813, during the War of 1812, British naval vessels led by HMS Poictiers under the command of Captain Sir John Beresford briefly and ineffectually bombarded the town. A cannonball from the bombardment is lodged in the foundation of Cannonball House, which now serves as the town's maritime museum.

Lewes was incorporated by an act of the state assembly on Feb. 2, 1818. The act provided for five persons to be chosen as commissioners to be known as "Trustees of the Town of Lewes." [10] [11]

Lewes Beach itself was an important stop on the Underground Railroad in the years leading up to the American Civil War. As a "border state," Delaware was not part of the Confederacy, but was still quite dangerous for fugitive slaves. Several houses in Lewes thus housed escaping slaves; these "safe houses" were identified by the residents placing a single candle in the top window of the house. [1]

In 1941, the United States built Fort Miles on Cape Henlopen, immediately south of Lewes, to defend Delaware Bay and the Delaware River and the oil refineries and factories on its shores, as well as the city of Philadelphia. It was one of the largest and most heavily armed coastal fortifications ever built.[citation needed]

Fort Miles never saw any major action; except for range practice, it fired its guns only once between its establishment and the end of World War II. Fort Miles ceased operation altogether in 1991 and was deeded to the State of Delaware.

 
Lightship Overfalls, preserved as a tourist attraction.

In addition to Fort Miles, the Cape Henlopen Archeological District, Coleman House, Cool Spring Presbyterian Church, De Vries Palisade, Delaware Breakwater and Lewes Harbor, Fisher Homestead, Fisher's Paradise, Col. David Hall House, Hopkins Covered Bridge Farm, Lewes Historic District, Lewes Presbyterian Church, Lightship WAL 539, Maull House, National Harbor of Refuge and Delaware Breakwater Harbor Historic District, Pagan Creek Dike, Roosevelt Inlet Shipwreck, William Russell House, St. George's Chapel, Lewes, Townsend Site, and Wolfe's Neck Site are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[12]

Mayoral historyEdit

  • Theodore Becker 2014–present
  • James L. Ford 2004–2014
  • George H.P. Smith 1994–2004
  • Dr. John Adams 1992–1994
  • Al Stango 1968–1992
  • Otis H. Smith 1950–1968
  • H. Edward Maull 1944–1950
  • Thomas H. Carpenter 1940–1944
  • William E. Walsh 1938–1940
  • David W. Burbage 1936–1938
  • Dr. Ulysses W. Hocker 1931–1936
  • Dr. James T. Thompson 1927–1930 (died in office, May 20, 1930)
  • Willard H. Collins 1926–1927
  • Dr. James T. Thompson 1914–1926
  • Thomas B. Schellenger 1913–1914
  • Dr. James T. Thompson 1900–1913
  • Alfred L. Burton 1898–1900[13]

Home to governorsEdit

Six men who served as Delaware governor were born in or made their home in Lewes. Three of the men lived on Lewes' Second Street. Brothers Daniel and Caleb Rodney, descendants of Caesar Rodney each served as governor of Delaware. Each a member of the Federalist Party, Daniel served from 1814–1817 while Caleb served as acting governor from 1822–1823. Ebe Walters Tunnell moved to Lewes in 1873 to enter the drug and hardware business in part of the old Caleb Rodney House on Second Street. Tunnell worked his way up the state government hierarchy before unsuccessfully running for governor in 1892. Four years later, the Democrat won the election, and served from 1897–1901. [14]

City motto and nameEdit

As Lewes was the earliest settlement in the state, and Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution, the town refers to itself as "The First Town in the First State."[1][15] Lewes is named after the town of Lewes in England,[16] which is situated in a county named Sussex (from which Sussex County, Delaware, takes its name).[17] Lewes, Sussex, England, also has the same seal.

GeographyEdit

Lewes is located at 38°46′28″N 75°08′22″W / 38.77444°N 75.13944°W / 38.77444; -75.13944 (38.7745565, -75.1393498).[18]

 
1655 Ryves Holt House, the oldest structure in Delaware

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.3 square miles (11 km2), of which 3.7 sq mi (9.6 km2) is land, and 0.6 sq mi (1.6 km2) (14.69%) is water.

ClimateEdit

Situated on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Lewes's weather is moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and the Delaware Bay. Lewes has a mild subtropical climate consisting of hot, humid summers and mild winters. The average daytime high in July is 87 °F (30.6 °C) and a low of 70 °F (21 °C); in January, the average high is 45 °F (7 °C) with an average low of 30 °F (-1 °C)[19] The month of highest average rainfall is July with 4.78 inches of rain, while February is historically the driest month, receiving an average of only 3.23 inches (80.5 mm) of rain.[19]

The highest official temperature ever recorded in Lewes was 102 °F (38.8 °C) in 1997. The lowest official temperature ever recorded in Lewes was -11 °F (-28.8 °C) in 1982.

Climate data for Lewes, Delaware
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 78
(26)
86
(30)
89
(32)
92
(33)
97
(36)
102
(39)
101
(38)
101
(38)
98
(37)
92
(33)
88
(31)
77
(25)
102
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 45
(7)
48
(9)
55
(13)
65
(18)
74
(23)
83
(28)
87
(31)
85
(29)
79
(26)
69
(21)
59
(15)
49
(9)
66.5
(19.1)
Average low °F (°C) 30
(−1)
31
(−1)
37
(3)
46
(8)
55
(13)
65
(18)
70
(21)
69
(21)
63
(17)
52
(11)
43
(6)
34
(1)
49.6
(9.8)
Record low °F (°C) −11
(−24)
0
(−18)
9
(−13)
18
(−8)
32
(0)
40
(4)
47
(8)
47
(8)
37
(3)
26
(−3)
16
(−9)
0
(−18)
−11
(−24)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.62
(91.9)
3.23
(82)
4.40
(111.8)
3.59
(91.2)
3.72
(94.5)
3.39
(86.1)
4.78
(121.4)
4.73
(120.1)
4.04
(102.6)
3.94
(100.1)
3.66
(93)
3.85
(97.8)
46.95
(1,192.5)
Source: The Weather Channel[20]
Climate data for Lewes, Delaware (Ocean Water Temperature).
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °F (°C) 37
(3)
36
(2)
41
(5)
51
(11)
60
(16)
68
(20)
73
(23)
76
(24)
72
(22)
62
(17)
52
(11)
44
(7)
56
(13)
Source: NOAA [21]

DemographicsEdit

Census Pop.
1870 1,090
1900 2,259
1910 2,158 −4.5%
1920 2,074 −3.9%
1930 1,923 −7.3%
1940 2,246 16.8%
1950 2,904 29.3%
1960 3,025 4.2%
1970 2,563 −15.3%
1980 2,197 −14.3%
1990 2,295 4.5%
2000 2,932 27.8%
2010 2,747 −6.3%
Est. 2016 3,074 [4] 11.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[22]

As of the census[23] of 2000, there were 2,932 people, 1,338 households, and 797 families residing in the city. The population density was 801.5 people per square mile (309.3/km²). There were 2,368 housing units at an average density of 647.3 per square mile (249.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.31% White, 9.89% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.02% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, and 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.67% of the population.

There were 1,338 households out of which 15.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.4% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.99 and the average family size was 2.53.

In the city, the population was spread out with 13.6% under the age of 18, 3.7% from 18 to 24, 18.0% from 25 to 44, 31.5% from 45 to 64, and 33.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 55 years. For every 100 females, there were 78.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $66,387, and the median income for a family was $72,605. Males had a median income of $39,500 versus $35,227 for females. The per capita income for the city was $36,685. About 3.1% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.

EducationEdit

 
University of Delaware's wind turbine seen from Canary Creek

Lewes is served by the Cape Henlopen School District. Lewes is home to:

The University of Delaware's Hugh R. Sharp Campus is also within the city. This is home to the University's College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment.

Arts and cultureEdit

Museums and other points of interestEdit

 
Based on the Statenlogement building in Hoorn, the Netherlands, used as a women's club starting 1930, now the Zwaanendael Museum

Lewes serves as a vacation and resort spot popular with residents of Washington, D.C., and the surrounding suburbs. Even though the city limits primarily sit on the lower reach of the Delaware Bay, it is nonetheless considered an ocean resort, particularly as the ocean is nearby at Cape Henlopen. Lewes is among those communities which have banned smoking in its public parks.[24]

Lewes is the home of the Zwaanendael Museum, which features exhibits about Delaware's history. Savannah, Second and Front Streets are the town's main streets and have many shops, restaurants, parks and historical venues. Fisherman's Wharf is a dock that stretches along the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. It features multiple restaurants and bait shops, and in season the dock hosts hundreds of boats from all over.

The Lewes Historical Society promotes the preservation, interpretation and cultural enrichment of the Lewes region through museum exhibits, educational programs, historical research and publications.[25]

Lewes in Bloom is an organization that promotes and maintains the beauty of Historic Lewes. Lewes in Bloom won America in Bloom's contest in 2003, 2005, 2010 and 2015 for cities with population under 5,000. In 2012 and 2015 Lewes in Bloom was honored in the AIB “Circle of Champions”.[26]

LighthousesEdit

 
Lighthouse in the National Harbor of Refuge

United States Lightship Overfalls (LV-118/WAL-539), one of nine surviving lightships at museums in the United States, is moored in Lewes along the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal

Lewes is home to several iconic Lighthouses in the Delaware Bay. Just offshore lies the National Harbor of Refuge which is home to the Delaware Breakwater East End Light and the Harbor of Refuge Light.

Parks and recreationEdit

 
Lewes Beach on the Delaware Bay

Lewes is adjacent to Cape Henlopen State Park. Lewes also maintains several parks within the city limits:

  • Blockhouse Pond Park
  • Stango Park
  • Zwaanendael Park & Herb Garden
  • 1812 Memorial Park (Cannonball Park)
  • Mary Vessels Park
  • George H.P. Smith Park
  • Canalfront Park & Marina
  • Lewes Beach
  • Great Marsh Park [27]

DNREC maintains a boat ramp just outside the city limits along the Broadkill River, adjacent to the Roosevelt Inlet.

InfrastructureEdit

TransportationEdit

 
The Lewes terminal of the Cape May–Lewes Ferry

Delaware Route 1 (DE 1) passes just outside city limits at Five Points where DE 1, U.S. Route 9 (US 9), DE 404, DE 23 and DE 1D (Plantation Road) intersect. There are three main arterial roads that connect Lewes to DE 1: New Road, Savannah Road (US 9 Business) and King's Highway (US 9). US 9 passes to the southeast of the city on the Theodore C. Freeman Memorial Highway.[28] Parking meters are in effect for on-street parking and parking lots in the downtown area between May 1 and October 14 and at parking lots at Lewes Beach between May 1 and September 30.[29]

The southern terminus of the Cape May–Lewes Ferry is located in Lewes. The ferry provides passenger and automobile ferry service between southern Delaware and southern New Jersey, crossing the Delaware Bay to North Cape May, New Jersey, and serves as part of US 9. The ferry crossing is 17 miles (27 km) long and takes 85 minutes.[28][30]

DART First State operates the year-round Route 206 bus, which connects Lewes to Rehoboth Beach and Georgetown. Between September and May, the bus provides service into Lewes while in the summer months bus service stops at the Lewes Transit Center outside the town.[31][32] During the summer months, DART First State operates Beach Bus service out of the Lewes Transit Center Park and Ride just outside Lewes along DE 1. This park and ride serves the Route 201 bus to the Rehoboth Beach Boardwalk, the Route 203 bus to Dewey Beach, and the Route 204 bus which heads along Savannah Road into Lewes to Cape Henlopen Drive. The Route 305 "Beach Connection" bus provides service on weekends and holidays in the summer to the Lewes Transit Center Park and Ride from Wilmington, the Christiana Mall, Middletown, and Dover, with service continuing south to Rehoboth Beach.[32] The Delaware Department of Transportation built the Lewes Transit Center Park and Ride, with groundbreaking taking place on March 9, 2016 and the park and ride opening in May 2017.[33][34] The Delaware River and Bay Authority operates shuttle bus routes in the summer months that connect the Cape May–Lewes Ferry to downtown Lewes, Cape Henlopen State Park, the Lewes Transit Center, the Tanger Outlets, and Rehoboth Beach.[35]

Lewes was served by a branch of the Delaware Coast Line Railroad that originated in Georgetown.[28] A rail with trail known as the Lewes-to-Georgetown Trail opened along the railroad line on October 19, 2016, with future plans to extend the trail to Georgetown.[36] In 2017, it was announced the Delaware Coast Line Railroad would be abandoned between Cool Spring and Lewes after the swing bridge over the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal was closed due to being structurally unsound and repairs were determined to be too costly.[37]

UtilitiesEdit

The Lewes Board of Public Works (BPW) provides electricity, water, and sewer service to the city. The BPW was established by an act of the Delaware General Assembly on March 15, 1901.[38] Lewes formerly had a power plant that generated electricity for the city, but the plant's usage was reduced as the city brought in power from outside and the plant was shut down in the 1970s due to rising fuel costs. Lewes currently purchases power from Constellation Energy which is transmitted to the city over Delmarva Power lines.[39] The BPW is a member of the Delaware Municipal Electric Corporation.[40] Trash collection is provided by the city while recycling collection is provided under contract by Republic Services.[41][42] Natural gas service in Lewes is provided by Chesapeake Utilities.[43]

Health careEdit

Beebe Healthcare Medical Center is located in Lewes, founded in 1916 by the brothers, Drs. James Beebe and Richard C. Beebe.[44] Because of Beebe Healthcare Medical Center, there is a growing healthcare industry in and around the city. The hospital's name was changed to Beebe Healthcare in 2013, and 2016 marked its 100th anniversary.[45]

Notable eventsEdit

On August 21, 2013, a helicopter reportedly dumped $10,000 in multiple dollar bill denominations over Lewes Harbor in the fulfillment of a deceased local resident's last wish.[46]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "City of Lewes Delaware Website". City of Lewes Delaware Website. Retrieved September 19, 2012. 
  2. ^ http://www.ci.lewes.de.us/index.cfm?ref=20300&ref6=18
  3. ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 25, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  5. ^ "Lewes". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 
  6. ^ "The Delaware Census State Data Center". Stateplanning.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  7. ^ Munroe, John A.: Colonial Delaware: A History: Millwood, New York: KTO Press; 1978; pp. 9–12.
  8. ^ Scharf, Thomas J., History of Delaware, 1609–1888, 1888
  9. ^ History of Lewes Delaware and Vicinity, Colonel David Hall Chapter, DAR
  10. ^ Scharf's History of Delaware
  11. ^ Journal of the Lewes Historical Society, Vol. 1, Dec. 1998
  12. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  Lightship WAL 539 is also listed as a National Historic Landmark.
  13. ^ Journal of the Lewes Historical Society, Vol. 1, Dec. 1998
  14. ^ Journal of the Lewes Historical Society, Vol. 2, Nov. 1999
  15. ^ "Lewes Chamber of Commerce". 
  16. ^ "Profile for Lewes, Delaware, DE". ePodunk. Retrieved September 19, 2012. 
  17. ^ Katy Rice, 'Across the Pond', in Sussex Society, September 2011, p. 28
  18. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  19. ^ a b "Average Weather for Lewes, DE – Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  20. ^ "Climate Statistics for Lewes, Delaware". Retrieved June 19, 2017. 
  21. ^ "Weather Data". NOAA. Retrieved June 21, 2017. 
  22. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  23. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  24. ^ Molly Murray (16 April 2011). "Delaware cities: Smoking still legal on Rehoboth Beach". The News Journal. Gannett. DelawareOnline. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  25. ^ "Lewes Historical Society Home Page". Historic Lewes. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  26. ^ "America in Bloom". 
  27. ^ http://capegazette.villagesoup.com/p/lewes-adds-great-marsh-park/1304573
  28. ^ a b c Delaware Department of Transportation (2008). Delaware Official Transportation Map (PDF) (Map). Dover: Delaware Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 26, 2016. 
  29. ^ "City of Lewes General Questions". City of Lewes Delaware. Retrieved May 5, 2017. 
  30. ^ "Welcome Aboard". Cape May-Lewes Ferry. Retrieved September 29, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Routes and Schedules". DART First State. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  32. ^ a b "DART Beach Bus - DART To The Beach" (PDF). DART First State. Retrieved May 12, 2017. 
  33. ^ "State of Delaware Workshop - Lewes Park & Ride and Transit Maintenance Facility". Egov.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  34. ^ "Groundbreaking for Lewes Transit Center Celebrated Today" (Press release). DART First State. March 9, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016. 
  35. ^ "Getting Here & Getting Around". Cape May-Lewes Ferry. Retrieved June 20, 2017. 
  36. ^ Murray, Molly (October 19, 2016). "New connector trail opens in Lewes". The News Journal. Wilmington, DE. Retrieved November 27, 2017. 
  37. ^ Roth, Nick (July 11, 2017). "Cool Spring to Lewes railroad to be decommissioned". Cape Gazette. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  38. ^ "Home". Lewes Board of Public Works. Retrieved June 19, 2017. 
  39. ^ "About BPW". Lewes Board of Public Works. Retrieved June 19, 2017. 
  40. ^ "Members". Delaware Municipal Electric Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  41. ^ "Trash Collection". City of Lewes Delaware. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  42. ^ "Recycling". City of Lewes Delaware. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  43. ^ "Delmarva Service Territory". Chesapeake Utilities. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  44. ^ "About Beebe Healthcare Medical Center". Beebe Medical Center. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 
  45. ^ http://www.beebehealthcare.org/about-beebe-healthcare
  46. ^ "Look, up in the sky! It's... money!?". HLN News. 

External linksEdit