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Conjugation has two meanings.[1] One meaning is the creation of derived forms of a verb from basic forms, or principal parts. It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, aspect, voice, or other language-specific factors.

The second meaning of the word conjugation is a group of verbs which all have the same pattern of inflections. Thus all those Latin verbs which have 1st singular , 2nd singular -ās, and infinitive -āre are said to belong to the 1st conjugation, those with 1st singular -eō, 2nd singular -ēs and infinitive -ēre belong to the 2nd conjugation, and so on. The number of conjugations of regular verbs is usually said to be four.

The word "conjugation" comes from the Latin coniugātiō, a calque of the Greek συζυγία syzygia, literally "yoking together (horses into a team)".

For simple verb paradigms, see the Wiktionary appendix pages for first conjugation, second conjugation, third conjugation, and fourth conjugation.

Number of conjugationsEdit

The ancient Romans themselves, beginning with Varro (1st century BC), originally divided their verbs into three conjugations (coniugationes verbis accidunt tres: prima, secunda, tertia "there are three different conjugations for verbs: the first, second, and third" (Donatus), 4th century AD), according to whether the ending of the 2nd person singular had an a, an e or an i in it.[2] However, others, such as Sacerdos (3rd century AD), Dositheus (4th century AD) and Priscian[3] (c. 500 AD), recognised four different groups.[4]

Modern grammarians[5] generally recognise four conjugations, according to whether their active present infinitive has the ending -āre, -ēre, -ere, or -īre (or the corresponding passive forms), for example: (1) amō, amāre "to love", (2) videō, vidēre "to see", (3) regō, regere "to rule" and (4) audiō, audīre "to hear". There are also some verbs of mixed conjugation, having some endings like the 3rd and others like the 4th conjugation, for example, capiō, capere "to capture".

In addition to regular verbs, which belong to one or other of the four conjugations, there are also a few irregular verbs, which have a different pattern of endings. The most important of these is the verb sum, esse "to be". There also exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning), as well as defective verbs (verbs in which some of the tenses are missing).

Principal partsEdit

The grouping in conjugations is based on the behaviour of the verb in the present system[clarification needed]; the stems for other tenses cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of forms for any particular verb.

In a dictionary, Latin verbs are therefore listed with four "principal parts" (or fewer for deponent and defective verbs) which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are:

  1. the first person singular of the present indicative active
  2. the present infinitive active
  3. the first person singular of the perfect indicative active
  4. the supine or, in some grammars, the perfect passive participle, which uses the same stem. (Texts that list the perfect passive participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs.) Some verbs lack this principal part altogether.

The present infinitive active form shows the verb's conjugation.

Regular conjugationsEdit

First conjugationEdit

The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ā and can be recognized by the -āre ending of the present active infinitive form. The non-perfect tenses conjugate as follows:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I love I will love I was loving I may love I might love
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
amō
amās
amat
amāmus
amātis
amant
amābō
amābis
amābit
amābimus
amābitis
amābunt
amābam
amābās
amābat
amābāmus
amābātis
amābant
amem
amēs
amet
amēmus
amētis
ament
amārem
amārēs
amāret
amārēmus
amārētis
amārent
Passive I am loved I will be loved I was being loved I may be loved I might be loved
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
amor
amāris
amātur
amāmur
amāminī
amantur
amābor
amāberis/e*
amābitur
amābimur
amābiminī
amābuntur
amābar
amābāris/e*
amābātur
amābāmur
amābāminī
amābantur
amer
amēris/e*
amētur
amēmur
amēminī
amentur
amārer
amārēris/e*
amārētur
amārēmur
amārēminī
amārentur

* The 2nd person singular passive amāberis, amābāris, amēris, amārēris can be shortened to amābere, amābāre, amēre, amārēre. -re was the regular form in early Latin and (except in the present indicative) in Cicero; -ris was preferred later.[6]

In early Latin (Plautus), the 3rd singular endings -at and -et were pronounced -āt and -ēt with a long vowel.[7]

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: amāre "to love"
  • Passive infinitive: amārī "to be loved" (in early Latin often amārier)[8]
  • Imperative: amā! (pl. amāte!) "love!"
  • Future imperative: amātō! (pl. amātōte!) "love! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: amāre! (pl. amāminī!) "be loved!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: amāns (pl. amantēs) "loving"
  • Future participle: amātūrus (pl. amātūrī) "going to love"
  • Gerundive: amandus (pl. amandī) "needing to be loved"
  • Gerund: amandī "of loving", amandō "by/for loving", ad amandum "in order to love"

The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix -āvī. The majority of first-conjugation verbs follow this pattern, which is considered to be "regular", for example:
    • amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum, "to love";
    • imperō, imperāre, imperāvī, imperātum, "to order";
    • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātum, "to praise";
    • negō, negāre, negāvī, negātum, "to deny";
    • nūntiō, nūntiāre, nūntiāvī, nūntiātum, "to announce, report";
    • ōrō, ōrāre, ōrāvī, ōrātum, "to beg, pray";
    • parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum, "to prepare";
    • portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum, "to carry";
    • pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātum, "to fight";
    • putō, putāre, putāvī, putātum, "to think";
    • rogō, rogāre, rogāvī, rogātum, "to ask";
    • servō, servāre, servāvī, servātum, "to save";
    • vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātum, "to call";
  • perfect has the suffix -uī, for example:
    • fricō, fricāre, fricuī, frictum, "to rub";
    • secō, secāre, secuī, sectum, "to cut, to divide";
    • vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitum, "to forbid, to prohibit";
  • perfect has the suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem, for example:
    • iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum, "to help, to assist";
    • lavō, lavāre, lāvī, lautum, "to wash, to bathe";
  • perfect is reduplicated, for example:
    • dō, dare, dedī, datum, "to give"
    • stō, stāre, stetī, statum, "to stand";

The verb "I give" is irregular in that except in the 2nd singular dās and imperative , the a is short, e.g. dabō "I will give".

The a is also short in the supine statum and its derivatives, but the other parts of stō "I stand" are regular.

Deponent verbs in this conjugation all follow the pattern below, which is the passive of the first type above:[9]

  • arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum "to think"
  • cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum "to try"
  • cūnctor, cūnctāri, cūnctātus sum "to hesitate"
  • hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum "to exhort"
  • mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum "to be surprised, to be amazed at"

Perfect tensesEdit

The three perfect tenses of the 1st conjugation go as in the following table:

Indicative Subjunctive
Perfect Future perfect Pluperfect Perfect Pluperfect
Active I loved I will have loved I had loved I loved I had loved
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
amāvī
amāvistī
amāvit
amāvimus
amāvistis
amāvērunt/re
*
amāverō
amāverīs/is
amāverit
amāverīmus/imus
amāverītis/itis
amāverint
amāveram
amāverās
amāverat
amāverāmus
amāverātis
amāverant
amāverim
amāverīs
amāverit
amāverīmus
amāverītis
amāverint
amā(vi)ssem*
amāvissēs
amāvisset
amāvissēmus
amāvissētis
amāvissent
Passive I was loved I will have been loved I had been loved I was loved I had been loved
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
amātus sum
amātus es
amātus est
amātī sumus
amātī estis
amātī sunt
amātus erō
amātus eris
amātus erit
amātī erimus
amātī eritis
amātī erunt
amātus eram
amātus erās
amātus erat
amātī erāmus
amātī erātis
amātī erant
amātus sim
amātus sīs
amātus sit
amātī sīmus
amātī sītis
amātī sint
amātus essem
amātus essēs
amātus esset
amātī essēmus
amātī essētis
amātī essent

In poetry (and also sometimes in prose, e.g. Livy), the 3rd person plural of the perfect indicative is often amāvēre instead of amāvērunt. Occasionally the form amāverunt is also found.[10]

In early Latin, the future perfect indicative had a short i in amāvēris, amāverimus, amāveritis, but by the time of Cicero these forms were usually pronounced with a long i, in the same way as in the perfect subjunctive.[11] Virgil has a short i for both tenses; Horace uses both forms for both tenses; Ovid uses both forms for the future perfect, but a long i in the perfect subjunctive.[12]

The -v- of the perfect active tenses sometimes drops out, especially in the pluperfect subjunctive: amāssem for amāvissem. Forms such as amārat and amāstī are also found.

The passive tenses also have feminine and neuter forms, e.g. amāta est "she was loved", nūntiātum est "it was announced".

Forms made with fuī instead of sum and forem instead of essem are also found. See Latin tenses.

For other meanings of the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive, see Latin tenses#Perfect subjunctive.

Other forms:

  • Perfect infinitive active: amāvisse (amāsse) "to have loved"
  • Perfect infinitive passive: amātus esse (amātum esse) "to have been loved"
  • Perfect participle passive: amātus, -a, -um "loved (by someone)"

Second conjugationEdit

The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ē, and can be recognized by the -eō ending of the first person present indicative and the -ēre ending of the present active infinitive form:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I see I will see I was seeing I may see I might see
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
videō
vidēs
videt
vidēmus
vidētis
vident
vidēbō
vidēbis
vidēbit
vidēbimus
vidēbitis
vidēbunt
vidēbam
vidēbās
vidēbat
vidēbāmus
vidēbātis
vidēbant
videam
videās
videat
videāmus
videātis
videant
vidērem
vidērēs
vidēret
vidērēmus
vidērētis
vidērent
Passive I am seen I will be seen I was being seen I may be seen I might be seen
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
videor
vidēris
vidētur
vidēmur
vidēminī
videntur
vidēbor
vidēberis/e
vidēbitur
vidēbimur
vidēbiminī
vidēbuntur
vidēbar
vidēbāris/e
vidēbātur
vidēbāmur
vidēbāminī
vidēbantur
videar
videāris/e
videātur
videāmur
videāminī
videantur
vidērer
vidērēris/e
vidērētur
vidērēmur
vidērēminī
vidērentur

The passive vidēor also often means "I seem".

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: vidēre "to see"
  • Passive infinitive: vidērī "to be seen"
  • Imperative: vidē! (pl. vidēte!) "see!"
  • Future imperative: vidētō! (pl. vidētōte!) "see! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: vidēre! (pl. vidēminī!) "be seen!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: vidēns (pl. videntēs) "seeing"
  • Future participle: vīsūrus (pl. vīsūrī) "going to see"
  • Gerundive: videndus (pl. videndī) "needing to be seen"
  • Gerund: videndī "of seeing", videndō "by /for seeing", ad videndum "in order to see"

The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix -uī. Verbs which follow this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitum "to owe, be obliged"
    • doceō, docēre, docuī, doctum "to teach, to instruct"
    • iaceō, iacēre, iacuī, iacitum "to lie (on the ground/bed)"
    • mereō, merēre, meruī, meritum "to deserve"
    • misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtum "to mix"
    • moneō, monēre, monuī, monitum "to warn, advise"
    • noceō, nocēre, nocuī, nocitum "to be harmful"
    • praebeō, praebēre, praebuī, praebitum "to provide, show"
    • teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentum "to hold, to keep"
    • terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum "to frighten, to deter"
    • timeō, timēre, timuī, – "to fear"
    • valeō, valēre, valuī, (valitum) "to be strong"
  • perfect has the suffix –ēvī. Example:
    • dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētum "to destroy"
    • fleō, flēre, flēvī, flētum "to weep"

In verbs with perfect in -vī, syncopated (i.e. abbreviated) forms are common, such as dēlēram, dēlēssem, dēlēstī for dēlēveram, dēlēvissem, dēlēvistī.[13]

  • perfect has the suffix –īvī. Example:
    • cieō, ciēre, cīvī, citum "to arouse, to stir"
  • perfect has the suffix -sī (which combines with a preceding c or g to –xī). Examples:
    • ārdeō, ārdēre, ārsī, ārsum "to burn"
    • augeō, augēre, auxī, auctum "to increase, to enlarge"
    • haereō, haerēre, haesī, haesum "to stick, to adhere, to get stuck"
    • iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussum "to order"
    • maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsum "to remain"
    • persuādeō, persuādēre, persuāsī, persuāsum "to persuade"
    • rīdeō, rīdēre, rīsī, rīsum "to laugh"
  • perfect is reduplicated with -ī. Examples:
    • mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsum "to bite"
    • spondeō, spondēre, spopondī, spōnsum "to vow, to promise"
  • perfect has suffix -ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • caveō, cavēre, cāvī, cautum "to be cautious"
    • faveō, favēre, fāvī, fautum "to favour"
    • foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtum "to caress, to cherish"
    • sedeō, sedēre, sēdī, sessum "to sit"
    • videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum "to see"
  • perfect has suffix -ī. Examples:
    • respondeō, respondēre, respondī, respōnsum "to reply"
    • strīdeō, strīdēre, strīdī, – "to hiss, to creak" (also strīdō 3rd conj.)

Deponent verbs in this conjugation are few. They mostly go like the passive of terreō, but fateor and confiteor have a perfect participle with ss:[14]

  • fateor, fatērī, fassus sum "to confess"
  • mereor, merērī, meritus sum "to deserve"
  • polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum "to promise"

The following are semi-deponent, that is, they are deponent only in the three perfect tenses:[15]

  • audeō, audēre, ausus sum "to dare"
  • gaudeō, gaudēre, gāvīsus sum "to rejoice, to be glad"
  • soleō, solēre, solitus sum "to be accustomed"

Third conjugationEdit

The third conjugation has a variable short stem vowel, which may be e, i,or u in different environments. Verbs of this conjugation end in –ere in the present active infinitive.

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I lead I will lead I was leading I may lead I might lead
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
dūcō
dūcis
dūcit
dūcimus
dūcitis
dūcunt
dūcam
dūcēs
dūcet
dūcēmus
dūcētis
dūcent
dūcēbam
dūcēbās
dūcēbat
dūcēbāmus
dūcēbātis
dūcēbant
dūcam
dūcās
dūcat
dūcāmus
dūcātis
dūcant
dūcerem
dūcerēs
dūceret
dūcerēmus
dūcerētis
dūcerent
Passive I am led I will be led I was being led I may be led I might be led
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
dūcor
dūceris
dūcitur
dūcimur
dūciminī
dūcuntur
dūcar
dūcēris/re
dūcētur
dūcēmur
dūcēminī
dūcentur
dūcēbar
dūcēbāris/re
dūcēbātur
dūcēbāmur
dūcēbāminī
dūcēbantur
dūcar
dūcāris/re
dūcātur
dūcāmur
dūcāminī
dūcantur
dūcerer
dūcerēris/re
dūcerētur
dūcerēmur
dūcerēminī
dūcerentur

The future tense in the 3rd and 4th conjugation (-am, -ēs, -et etc.) differs from that in the 1st and 2nd conjugation (-bō, -bis, -bit etc.).

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: dūcere "to lead"
  • Passive infinitive: dūcī "to be led" (the 3rd conjugation has no r)
  • Imperative: dūc! (pl. dūcite!) "lead!"
  • Future imperative: dūcitō! (pl. dūcitōte!) "lead! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: dūcere! (pl. dūciminī!) "be led!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: dūcēns (pl. dūcentēs) "leading"
  • Future participle: ductūrus (pl. ductūrī) "going to lead"
  • Gerundive: dūcendus (pl. dūcendī) "needing to be led"
  • Gerund: dūcendī "of leading", dūcendō "by /for leading", ad dūcendum "in order to lead"

Four 3rd conjugation verbs have no ending in the imperative singular: dūc! "lead!", dīc! "say!", fer! "bring!", fac! "do!". Others, like curre "run!", have the ending -e.[16]

There is no regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used:

  • perfect has suffix -sī (-xī when c or h comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptum "to pluck, to select"
    • cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessum "to yield, depart"
    • claudō, claudere, clausī, clausum "to close"
    • contemnō, contemnere, contempsī, contemptum "to despise, disdain, treat with contempt"
    • dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum "to say"
    • dīvidō, dīvidere, dīvīsī, dīvīsum "to divide"
    • dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum "to lead"
    • flectō, flectere, flexī, flexum "to bend, to twist"
    • gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum "to wear, to bear; wage (war)"
    • mittō, mittere, mīsī, missum "to send"
    • regō, regere, rēxī, rēctum "to rule"
    • scrībō, scrībere, scrīpsī, scrīptum "to write"
    • tegō, tegere, tēxī, tēctum "to cover, conceal"
    • trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctum "to drag, to pull"
    • vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, victum "to live"
  • perfect is reduplicated with suffix –ī. Examples:
    • cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsum "to fall"
    • caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesum "to kill, to slay"
    • currō, currere, cucurrī, cursum "to run, to race"
    • discō, discere, didicī, – "to learn"
    • fallō, fallere, fefellī, falsum "to cheat"
    • occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsum "to kill"
    • pēdō, pēdere, pepēdī, pēditum "to fart"
    • pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsum "to beat, to drive away"
    • pōscō, pōscere, popōscī, – "to claim, request"
    • tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctum "to touch, to hit"
    • tendō, tendere, tetendī, tentum/tēnsum "to stretch"

Although dō, dare, dedī, datum "to give" is 1st conjugation, its compounds are 3rd conjugation and have internal reduplication:

    • condō, condere, condidī, conditum "to found"
  • crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, crēditum "to entrust, believe"
  • dēdō, dēdere, dēdidī, dēditum "to surrender"
  • perdō, perdere, perdidī, perditum "to destroy, lose"
  • reddō, reddere, reddidī, redditum "to give back"
  • trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditum "to hand over"

Likewise the compounds of sistō have internal reduplication. Although sistō is transitive, its compounds are intransitive:[17]

  • sistō, sistere, (stitī), statum "to cause to stand"
  • cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, cōnstitum "to come to a halt"
  • dēsistō, dēsistere, dēstitī, dēstitum "to stand off"
  • resistō, resistere, restitī, restitum "to resist"
  • perfect has suffix -vī. Examples:
    • linō, linere, lēvī (līvī), litum "to smear, to daub" (also 4th conj. liniō, linīre, līvī, lītum)
    • petō, petere, petīvī, petītum "to seek, to attack"
    • quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum "to look for, ask"
    • serō, serere, sēvī, satum "to sow, to plant"
    • sternō, sternere, strāvī, strātum "to spread, to stretch out"
    • terō, terere, trīvī, trītum "to rub, to wear out"
  • perfect has suffix -ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. If the present stem has an n infix, as in fundō, relinquō and vincō, it disappears in the perfect. Examples:
    • agō, agere, ēgī, āctum "to do, to drive"
    • cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctum "to compel, gather together"
    • emō, emere, ēmī, ēmptum "to buy"
    • fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsum "to pour"
    • legō, legere, lēgī, lēctum "to collect, to read"
    • relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictum "to leave behind"
    • rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptum "to burst"
    • vincō, vincere, vīcī, victum "to conquer, to defeat"
  • perfect has suffix -ī only. Examples:
    • ascendō, ascendere, ascendī, ascēnsum "to climb, to go up"
    • cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtum "to establish, decide, cause to stand"
    • dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfēnsum "to defend"
    • expellō, expellere, expulī, expulsum "to drive out, expel"
    • īcō, īcere, īcī, ictum "to strike"
    • metuō, metuere, metuī, metūtum "to fear, be apprehensive"
    • occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsum "to kill"
    • ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentum (ostensum) "to show"
    • tollō, tollere, sustulī, sublātum "to lift, raise, remove"
    • vertō, vertere, vertī, versum "to turn"
    • vīsō, vīsere, vīsī, vīsum "to visit"
  • perfect has suffix –uī. Examples:
    • colō, colere, coluī, cultum "to cultivate, to till"
    • cōnsulō, consulere, cōnsuluī, cōnsultum "to consult, act in the interests of"
    • gignō, gignere, genuī, genitum "to beget, to cause"
    • pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positum "to place"
    • texō, texere, texuī, textum "to weave, to plait"
    • vomō, vomere, vomuī, vomitum "to vomit"
  • Present tense indicative first person singular form has suffix –scō. Examples:
    • adolēscō, adolēscere, adolēvī, adultum "to grow up, to mature"
    • nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtum "to get to know, to learn"
    • pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstum "to feed upon, to feed (an animal)"
    • quiēscō, quiēscere, quiēvī, quiētum "to rest, keep quiet"

Deponent verbs in the 3rd conjugation include the following:

  • complector, complectī, complexus sum "to embrace"
  • fruor, fruī, frūctus sum "to enjoy" (fruitus is occasionally found)
  • fungor, fungī, fūnctus sum "to perform, discharge, busy oneself with"
  • lābor, lābī, lāpsus sum "to glide, slip"
  • loquor, loquī, locūtus sum "to speak"
  • nītor, nītī, nīxus sum "to lean on; to strive" (nīsus is occasionally found)
  • queror, querī, questus sum "to complain"
  • sequor, sequī, secūtus sum "to follow"
  • ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum "to use"
  • vehor, vehī, vectus sum "to ride"

There are also a number of 3rd conjugation deponents with the ending -scor:

  • adipīscor, adipīscī, adeptus sum "to obtain"
  • īrāscor, īrāscī, īrātus sum "to get angry"
  • nancīscor, nancīscī, nactus sum "to obtain"
  • nāscor, nāscī, nātus sum "to be born"
  • oblīvīscor, oblīvīscī, oblītus sum "to forget"
  • proficīscor, proficīscī, profectus sum "to set out"
  • ulcīscor, ulcīscī, ultus sum "to avenge, take vengeance on"

Deponent in some tenses only is the following:[18]

  • fīdō, fīdere, fīsus sum "to trust"

The following is deponent only in the non-perfect tenses:

  • revertor, revertī, revertī "to turn back"

Third conjugation -iō verbsEdit

Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation verbs with suffix –iō. These resemble the fourth conjugation in some forms.

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I capture I will capture I was capturing I may capture I might capture
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
capiō
capis
capit
capimus
capitis
capiunt
capiam
capiēs
capiet
capiēmus
capiētis
capient
capiēbam
capiēbās
capiēbat
capiēbāmus
capiēbātis
capiēbant
capiam
capiās
capiat
capiāmus
capiātis
capiant
caperem
caperēs
caperet
caperēmus
caperētis
caperent
Passive I am captured I will be captured I was being captured I may be captured I might be captured
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
capior
caperis
capitur
capimur
capiminī
capiuntur
capiar
capiēris/re
capiētur
capiēmur
capiēminī
capientur
capiēbar
capiēbāris/re
capiēbātur
capiēbāmur
capiēbāminī
capiēbantur
capiar
capiāris/re
capiātur
capiāmur
capiāminī
capiantur
caperer
caperēris/re
caperētur
caperēmur
caperēminī
caperentur

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: capere "to capture, to take"
  • Passive infinitive: capī "to be captured" (the 3rd conjugation has no r)
  • Imperative: cape! (pl. capite!) "capture!"
  • Future imperative: capitō! (pl. capitōte!) "capture! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: capere! (pl. capiminī!) "be captured!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: capiēns (pl. capientēs) "capturing"
  • Future participle: captūrus (pl. captūrī) "going to capture"
  • Gerundive: capiendus (pl. capiendī) "needing to be captured" (capiundus is also sometimes found)
  • Gerund: capiendī "of capturing", capiendō "by /for capturing", ad capiendum "in order to capture"

Some examples are:

  • accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptum "to receive, accept"
  • capiō, capere, cēpī, captum "to take, capture"
  • cōnspiciō, cōnspicere, cōnspexī, cōnspectum "to take, capture"
  • cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum "to desire, long for"
  • faciō, facere, fēcī, factum "to do, to make"
  • fugiō, fugere, fūgī, fugitum "to flee"
  • iaciō, iacere, iēcī, iactum "to throw"
  • interficiō, interficere, interfēcī, interfectum "to kill"
  • rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptum "to plunder, seize"
  • respiciō, respicere, respexī, respectum "to look back"

Deponent verbs in this group include:

  • aggredior, aggredī, aggressus sum "to attack"
  • ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum "to go out"
  • morior, morī, mortuus sum "to die"
  • patior, patī, passus sum "to suffer, to allow"
  • prōgredior, prōgredī, prōgressus sum "to attack"
  • regredior, regredī, regressus sum "to go back"

Fourth conjugationEdit

The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ī and can be recognized by the –īre ending of the present active infinitive:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I hear I will hear I was hearing I may hear I might hear
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
audiō
audīs
audit
audīmus
audītis
audiunt
audiam
audiēs
audiet
audiēmus
audiētis
audient
audiēbam
audiēbās
audiēbat
audiēbāmus
audiēbātis
audiēbant
audiam
audiās
audiat
audiāmus
audiātis
audiant
audīrem
audīrēs
audīret
audīrēmus
audīrētis
audīrent
Passive I am heard I will be heard I was being heard I may be heard I might be heard
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
audior
audīris
audītur
audīmur
audīminī
audiuntur
audiar
audiēris/re
audiētur
audiēmur
audiēminī
audientur
audiēbar
audiēbāris/re
audiēbātur
audiēbāmur
audiēbāminī
audiēbantur
audiar
audiāris/re
audiātur
audiāmur
audiāminī
audiantur
audīrer
audīrēris/re
audīrētur
audīrēmur
audīrēminī
audīrentur

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: audīre "to hear"
  • Passive infinitive: audīrī "to be heard"
  • Imperative: audī! (pl. audīte!) "hear!"
  • Future imperative: audītō! (pl. audītōte!) "hear! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: audīre! (pl. audīminī!) "be heard!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: audiēns (pl. audientēs) "hearing"
  • Future participle: audītūrus (pl. audītūrī) "going to hear"
  • Gerundive: audiendus (pl. audiendī) "needing to be heard"
  • Gerund: audiendī "of hearing", audiendō "by /for hearing", ad audiendum "in order to hear"

Principal parts of verbs in the fourth conjugation generally adhere to the following patterns:

  • perfect has suffix -vī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum "to hear, listen (to)"
    • custōdiō, custōdīre, custōdīvī, custodītum "to guard"
    • dormiō, dormīre, dormīvī (dormiī), dormītum "to sleep"
    • impediō, impedīre, impedīvī, impedītum "to hinder, impede"
    • mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī, mūnītum "to fortify, to build"
    • pūniō, pūnīre, pūnīvī, pūnītum "to punish"
    • sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītum "to know"
  • perfect has suffix -uī. Examples:
    • aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum "to open, to uncover"
  • perfect has suffix -sī (-xī when c comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • saepiō, saepīre, saepsī, saeptum "to surround, to enclose"
    • sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum "to confirm, to ratify"
    • sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsum "to feel, to perceive"
    • vinciō, vincīre, vīnxī, vīnctum "to bind"
  • perfect has suffix -ī and reduplication. Examples:
    • reperiō, reperīre, repperī, repertum "to find, discover"
  • perfect has suffix -ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum "to come, to arrive"
    • inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventum "to find"

Deponent verbs in the 4th conjugation include the following:[19]

  • assentior, assentīrī, assēnsus sum "to assent"
  • experior, experīrī, expertus sum "to experience, test"
  • largior, largīrī, largītus sum "to bestow"
  • mentior, mentīrī, mentītus sum "to tell a lie"
  • mētior, mētīrī, mēnsus sum "to measure"
  • mōlior, mōlīrī, mōlītus sum "to exert oneself, set in motion, build"
  • potior, potīrī, potītus sum "to obtain, gain possession of"
  • sortior, sortīrī, sortītus sum "to cast lots"

The verb orior, orīrī, ortus sum "to arise" is also regarded as 4th conjugation, although some parts, such as the 3rd singular present tense oritur and imperfect subjunctive orerer, have a short vowel like the 3rd conjugation. But its compound adorior "to rise up, attack" is entirely 4th conjugation.

In the perfect tenses, shortened forms without -v- are common, for example, audīstī, audiērunt, audierat, audīsset for audīvistī, audīvērunt, audīverat, audīvisset. Cicero, however, prefers the full forms audīvī, audīvit to audiī, audiit.[20]

Irregular verbsEdit

Sum and possumEdit

The verb sum, esse, fuī "to be" is the most common verb in Latin. It is conjugated as follows:[21]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I am I will be I was I may be I might be
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
sum
es
est
sumus
estis
sunt
erō
eris
erit
erimus
eritis
erunt
eram
erās
erat
erāmus
erātis
erant
sim
sīs
sit
sīmus
sītis
sint
essem
essēs
esset
essēmus
essētis
essent
Active I am able I will be able I was able I may be able I might be able
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
possum
potes
potest
possumus
potestis
possunt
poterō
poteris
poterit
poterimus
poteritis
poterunt
poteram
poterās
poterat
poterāmus
poterātis
poterant
possim
possīs
possit
possīmus
possītis
possint
possem
possēs
posset
possēmus
possētis
possent

In early Latin (e.g. Plautus), siem, siēs, siēt can be found for the present subjunctive sim, sīs, sit. In poetry the subjunctive fuam, fuās, fuat also sometimes occurs.[22]

An alternative imperfect subjunctive is sometimes made using forem, forēs, foret etc. See further: Latin tenses#Forem.

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: esse "to be", posse "to be able"
  • Perfect infinitive: fuisse "to have been", potuisse "to have been able"
  • Future infinitive: fore "to be going to be" (also futūrus esse)
  • Imperative: es! (pl. este!) "be!"
  • Future imperative: estō! (pl. estōte!) "be! (at a future time)"
  • Future participle: futūrus (pl. futūrī) "going to be" (Possum has no future participle or future infinitive.)

The present participle is found only in the compounds absēns "absent" and praesēns "present".[23]

In Plautus and Lucretius, an infinitive potesse is sometimes found for posse "to be able".

The principal parts of these verbs are as follows:

  • sum, esse, fuī "to be"
  • absum, abesse, āfuī "to be away"
  • adsum, adesse, adfuī "to be present"
  • dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī "to be wanting"
  • possum, posse, potuī "to be able"
  • prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī "to be for, to profit" (adds d before a vowel)[24]

The perfect tenses conjugate in the regular way.

For the difference in meaning between eram and fuī, see Latin tenses#Eram and fuī

Volō, nōlō, and mālōEdit

The verb volō and its derivatives nōlō and mālō (short for magis volō) resemble a 3rd conjugation verb, but the present subjunctive ending in -im is different:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I want I will want I was wanting I may want I might want
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
volō
vīs
vult
volumus
vultis
volunt
volam
volēs
volet
volēmus
volētis
volent
volēbam
volēbās
volēbat
volēbāmus
volēbātis
volēbant
velim
velīs
velit
velīmus
velītis
velint
vellem
vellēs
vellet
vellēmus
vellētis
vellent
Active I am unwilling I will be unwilling I was unwilling I may be unwilling I might be unwilling
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
nōlō
nōn vīs
nōn vult
nōlumus
nōn vultis
nōlunt
nōlam
nōlēs
nōlet
nōlēmus
nōlētis
nōlent
nōlēbam
nōlēbās
nōlēbat
nōlēbāmus
nōlēbātis
nōlēbant
nōlim
nōlīs
nōlit
nōlīmus
nōlītis
nōlint
nōllem
nōllēs
nōllet
nōllēmus
nōllētis
nōllent
Active I prefer I will prefer I was preferring I may prefer I might prefer
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
mālō
māvīs
māvult
mālumus
māvultis
mālunt
mālam
mālēs
mālet
mālēmus
mālētis
mālent
mālēbam
mālēbās
mālēbat
mālēbāmus
mālēbātis
mālēbant
mālim
mālīs
mālit
mālīmus
mālītis
mālint
māllem
māllēs
māllet
māllēmus
māllētis
māllent

The spellings volt and voltis were used up until the time of Cicero for vult and vultis.[25]

These verbs are not used in the passive.

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: velle "to want", nōlle "to be unwilling", mālle "to prefer"
  • Present participle: volēns "willing", nōlēns "unwilling"
  • Imperative: nōlī, pl. nōlīte (used in expressions such as nōlī mīrārī "don't be surprised!")

Principal parts:

  • volō, velle, voluī "to want"
  • nōlō, nōlle, nōluī "not to want, to be unwilling"
  • mālō, mālle, māluī "to prefer"

The perfect tenses are formed regularly.

and compoundsEdit

The verb "I go" is an irregular 4th conjugation verb, in which the i of the stem sometimes becomes e. Like 1st and 2nd conjugation verbs, it uses the future -bō, -bis, -bit:[26]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I go I will go I was going I may go I might go
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they

īs
it
īmus
ītis
eunt
ībō
ībis
ībit
ībimus
ībitis
ībunt
ībam
ībās
ībat
ībāmus
ībātis
ībant
eam
eās
eat
eāmus
eātis
eant
īrem
īrēs
īret
īrēmus
īrētis
īrent

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: īre "to go"
  • Passive infinitive: īrī "to go" (used impersonally, e.g. quō īrī dēbēret ignōrantēs "not knowing which way to go")
  • Imperative: ī! (pl. īte!) "go!"
  • Future imperative: ītō! (pl. ītōte!) "go! (at a future time)" (rare)
  • Present participle: iēns (pl. euntēs) "going"
  • Future participle: itūrus (pl. itūrī) "going to go"
  • Gerundive: eundum "necessary to go" (used impersonally only)
  • Gerund: eundī "of going", eundō "by / for going", ad eundum "in order to go"

The impersonal passive forms ītur "they go", itum est "they went" are sometimes found.[27]

The principal parts of some verbs which conjugate like are the following:

  • eō, īre, iī/(īvī), itum "to go"
  • abeō, abīre, abiī, abitum "to go away"
  • adeō, adīre, adiī, aditum "to go up to"
  • coeō, coīre, coiī, coitum "to meet, assemble"
  • exeō, exīre, exiī/(exīvī), exitum "to go out"
  • ineō, inīre, iniī, initum "to enter"
  • intereō, interīre, interiī, interitum "to perish"
  • introeō, introīre, introiī, introitum "to enter"
  • pereō, perīre, periī, peritum "to die, to perish"
  • praetereō, praeterīre, praeteriī, praeteritum "to pass by"
  • redeō, redīre, rediī, reditum "to return, to go back"
  • subeō, subīre, subiī, subitum "to go under, to approach stealthily, to undergo"
  • vēneō, vēnīre, vēniī, vēnitum "to be sold"

In the perfect tenses of these verbs, the -v- is almost always omitted, especially in the compounds,[28] although the form exīvit is common in the Vulgate Bible translation.

Ferō and compoundsEdit

The verb ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum "to bring, to bear, to carry" is 3rd conjugation, but irregular in that the vowel following the root fer- is sometimes omitted. The perfect tense tulī and supine stem lātum are also irregularly formed.[29]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I bring I will bring I was bringing I may bring I might bring
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
ferō
fers
fert
ferimus
fertis
ferunt
feram
ferēs
feret
ferēmus
ferētis
ferent
ferēbam
ferēbās
ferēbat
ferēbāmus
ferēbātis
ferēbant
feram
ferās
ferat
ferāmus
ferātis
ferant
ferrem
ferrēs
ferret
ferrēmus
ferrētis
ferrent
Passive I am brought I will be brought I was being brought I may be brought I might be brought
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
feror
ferris
fertur
ferimur
feriminī
feruntur
ferar
ferēris/re
ferētur
ferēmur
ferēminī
ferentur
ferēbar
ferēbāris/re
ferēbātur
ferēbāmur
ferēbāminī
ferēbantur
ferar
ferāris/re
ferātur
ferāmur
ferāminī
ferantur
ferrer
ferrēris/re
ferrētur
ferrēmur
ferrēminī
ferrentur

The future tense in the 3rd and 4th conjugation (-am, -ēs, -et etc.) differs from that in the 1st and 2nd conjugation (-bō, -bis, -bit etc.).

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: ferre "to bring"
  • Passive infinitive: ferrī "to be brought"
  • Imperative: fer! (pl. ferte!) "bring!"
  • Passive imperative: ferre! (pl. feriminī!) "be carried!" (rare)
  • Present participle: ferēns (pl. ferentēs) "bringing"
  • Future participle: lātūrus (pl. lātūrī) "going to bring"
  • Gerundive: ferendus (pl. ferendī) "needing to be brought"
  • Gerund: ferendī "of bringing", ferendō "by /for bringing", ad ferendum "in order to bring"

Compounds of ferō include the following:[30] The principal parts of some verbs which conjugate like are the following:

  • afferō, afferre, attulī, allātum "to bring (to)"
  • auferō, auferre, abstulī, ablātum "to carry away, to steal"
  • cōnferō, cōnferre, contulī, collātum "to collect"
  • differō, differre, distulī, dīlātum "to put off"
  • efferō, efferre, extulī, ēlātum "to carry out"
  • offerō, offerre, obtulī, oblātum "to offer"
  • referō, referre, rettulī, relātum "to refer"

The perfect tense sustulī, however, belongs to the verb tollō:

  • tollō, tollere, sustulī, sublātum "to raise, to remove"

FīōEdit

The irregular verb fīō, fierī, factus sum "to become, to happen, to be done, to be made" as well as being a verb in its own right serves as the passive of faciō, facere, fēcī, factum "to do, to make".[31] The perfect tenses are identical with the perfect passive tenses of faciō.

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I become I will become I was becoming I may become I might become
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
fīō
fīs
fit
(fīmus)
(fītis)
fīunt
fīam
fīēs
fīet
fīēmus
fīētis
fīent
fīēbam
fīēbās
fīēbat
fīēbāmus
fīēbātis
fīēbant
fīam
fīās
fīat
fīāmus
fīātis
fīant
fierem
fierēs
fieret
fierēmus
fierētis
fierent

The 1st and 2nd plural forms are almost never found.

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: fierī "to become, to be done, to happen"
  • Imperative: fī! (pl. fīte!) "become!"

EdōEdit

The verb edō, edere/ēsse, ēdī, ēsum "to eat" has regular 3rd conjugation forms appearing alongside irregular ones:[32]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I eat I will eat I was eating I may eat I might eat
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
edō
edis, ēs
edit, ēst
edimus
editis, ēstis
edunt
edam
edēs
edet
edēmus
edētis
edent
edēbam
edēbās
edēbat
edēbāmus
edēbātis
edēbant
edam
edās
edat
edāmus
edātis
edant
ederem, ēssem
ederēs, ēssēs
ederet, ēsset
ederēmus, ēssēmus
ederētis, ēssētis
ederent, ēssent

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: edere/ēsse "to eat"
  • Passive infinitive: edī "to be eaten"
  • Imperative: ede!/ēs! (pl. edite!/ēste) "eat!"
  • Present participle: edēns (pl. edentēs) "eating"
  • Future participle: ēsūrus (pl. ēsūrī) "going to eat"
  • Gerundive: edendus (pl. edendī) "needing to be eaten"
  • Gerund: edendī "of eating", edendō "by /for eating", ad edendum "in order to eat" / "for eating"

The passive form ēstur "it is eaten" is also found.

In early Latin a present subjunctive edim, edīs, edit etc. is found.

In writing, there is a possibility of confusion between the forms of this verb and those of sum "I am" and ēdō "I give out, put forth"; for example, ēsse "to eat" vs. esse "to be"; edit "he eats" vs. ēdit "he gives out".

The compound verb comedō, comedere/comēsse, comēdī, comēsum "to eat up, consume" is similar.

Non-finite formsEdit

The non-finite forms of verbs are participles, infinitives, supines, gerunds and gerundives. The verbs used are:

1st conjugation: laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātum – to praise
2nd conjugation: terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum – to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum – to seek, attack
3rd conjugation (-i stem): capiō, capere, cēpī, captum – to take, capture
4th conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)

Participles Edit

There are four participles: present active, perfect passive, future passive, and future active.

  • The present active participle is declined as a 3rd declension adjective. The ablative singular is -e, but the plural follows the i-stem declension with genitive -ium and neuter plural -ia.
  • The perfect passive participle is declined like a 1st and 2nd declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations, the perfect participle is formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –us (masculine nominative singular).
  • The future active participle is declined like a 1st and 2nd declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations the -um is removed from the supine, and an -ūrus (masculine nominative singular) is added.
  • The future passive participle, more usually called the gerundive, is formed by taking the present stem, adding "-nd-", and the usual first and second declension endings. Thus laudare forms laudandus. The usual meaning is "needing to be praised", expressing a sense of obligation.
Participles
laudāre terrēre petere capere audīre
Present active laudāns, -antis terrēns, -entis petēns, -entis capiēns, -entis audiēns, -entis
Perfect passive laudātus, -a, -um territus, -a, -um petītus, -a, -um captus, -a, -um audītus, -a, -um
Future active laudātūrus, -a, -um territūrus, -a, -um petītūrus, -a, -um captūrus, -a, -um audītūrus, -a, -um
Gerundive laudandus, -a, -um terrendus, -a, -um petendus, -a, -um capiendus, -a, -um audiēndus, -a, -um

Infinitives Edit

There are seven main infinitives. They are in the present active, present passive, perfect active, perfect passive, future active, future passive, and potential active. Further infinitives can be made using the gerundive.

  • The present active infinitive is the second principal part (in regular verbs). It plays an important role in the syntactic construction of Accusative and infinitive, for instance.
    • laudāre means, "to praise."
  • The present passive infinitive is formed by adding a –rī to the present stem. This is only so for the first, second and fourth conjugations. In the third conjugation, the thematical vowel, e, is taken from the present stem, and an –ī is added.
    • laudārī translates into "to be praised."
  • The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding an –isse onto the perfect stem.
    • laudāvisse/laudāsse translates into "to have praised."
  • The perfect passive infinitive uses the perfect passive participle along with the auxiliary verb esse. The perfect passive infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number, gender, and case (nominative or accusative).
    • laudātus esse means, "to have been praised."
  • The future active infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb esse.
    • laudātūrus esse means, "to be going to praise." The future active infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number, gender, and case (nominative or accusative).
    • Esse has two future infinitives: futurus esse and fore
  • The future passive infinitive uses the supine with the auxiliary verb {{lang|la|īrī. Because the first part is a supine, the ending -um does not change for gender or number.
    • laudātum īrī is translated as "to be going to be praised." This is normally used in indirect speech. For example: 'Spērat sē absolūtum īrī.[33] "He hopes that he will be acquitted."
  • The potential infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb fuisse.
    • laudātūrus fuisse is used only in indirect statements to represent a potential imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive of direct speech. It is translated with "would" or "would have". For example: nōn vidētur mentītūrus fuisse, nisī dēspērāsset (Quintilian)[34] 'it seems unlikely that he would have told a lie, if he had not been desperate'
Infinitives (with masculine endings used for participles)
laudāre terrēre petere capere audīre
Present active laudāre terrēre petere capere audīre
Present passive laudārī terrērī petī capī audīrī
Perfect active laudāvisse terruisse petīvisse cēpisse audīvisse
Perfect passive laudātus esse territus esse petītus esse captus esse audītus esse
Future active laudātūrus esse territūrus esse petītūrus esse captūrus esse audītūrus esse
Future passive laudātum īrī territum īrī petītum īrī captum īrī audītum īrī
Potential laudātūrus fuisse territūrus fuisse petītūrus fuisse captūrus fuisse audītūrus fuisse

The future passive infinitive was not very commonly used. The Romans themselves often used an alternate expression, fore ut followed by a subjunctive clause.

Supine Edit

The supine is the fourth principal part of the verb, as given in Latin dictionaries. It resembles a masculine noun of the fourth declension. Supines only occur in the accusative and ablative cases.

  • The accusative form ends in a –um, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show purpose. Thus it is only used with verbs like īre "to go", venīre "to come", etc. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object if needed.
    • Pater līberōs suōs laudātum vēnit. – The father came to praise his children.
  • The ablative, which ends in a –ū, is used with the Ablative of Specification.
    • Arma haec facillima laudātū erant. – These arms were the easiest to praise.
Supine
laudāre terrēre petere capere audīre
Accusative laudātum territum petītum captum audītum
Ablative laudātū territū petītū captū audītū

Gerund Edit

The gerund is formed similarly to the present active participle. However, the -ns becomes an -ndus, and the preceding ā or ē is shortened. Gerunds are neuter nouns of the second declension, but the nominative case is not present. The gerund is a noun, meaning "the act of doing (the verb)", and forms a suppletive paradigm to the infinitive, which cannot be declined. For example, the genitive form laudandī can mean "of praiseing", the dative form laudandō can mean "for praiseing", the accusative form laudandum can mean "praiseing", and the ablative form laudandō can mean "by praiseing", "in respect to praiseing", etc.

Gerund
laudāre terrēre petere capere audīre
Accusative laudandum terrendum petendum capiendum audiendum
Genitive laudandī terrendī petendī capiendī audiendī
Dative laudandō terrendō petendō capiendō audiendō
Ablative

One common use of the gerund is with the preposition ad to indicate purpose. For example, paratus ad oppugnandum could be translated as "ready to attack". However the gerund was avoided when an object was introduced, and a passive construction with the gerundive was preferred. For example, for "ready to attack the enemy" the construction paratus ad hostes oppugnandos is preferred over paratus ad hostes oppugnandum.[35]

Gerundive Edit

The gerundive has a form similar to that of the gerund, but it is a first and second declension adjective, and functions as a future passive participle (see § Participles above). It means "(which is) to be ...ed". Often, the gerundive is used with part of the verb esse, to show obligation.

  • Puer laudandus est "The boy needs to be praised"
  • Oratio laudanda est means "The speech is to be praised". In such constructions a substantive in dative may be used to identify the agent of the obligation (dativus auctoris), as in Oratio nobis laudanda est meaning "The speech is to be praised by us" or "We must praise the speech".
Gerundive
laudāre terrēre petere capere audīre
laudandus, -a, -um terrendus, -a, -um petendus, -a, -um capiendus, -a, -um audiendus, -a, -um

An older form of the 3rd and 4th conjugation gerundive ends in -undum, e.g. (faciundum for faciendum).[36] This ending is also found with the gerundive of 'I go': eundum est 'it is necessary to go'.

For some examples of uses of Latin gerundives, see the Gerundive article.

Periphrastic conjugationsEdit

There are two periphrastic conjugations. One is active, and the other is passive.

ActiveEdit

The first periphrastic conjugation uses the future participle. It is combined with the forms of esse. It is translated as "I am going to praise," "I was going to praise", etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. laudātūrus sum I am going to praise
Imp. ind. laudātūrus eram I was going to praise
Fut. ind. laudātūrus erō I shall be going to praise
Perf. ind. laudātūrus fuī I have been going to praise
Plup. ind. laudātūrus fueram I had been going to praise
Fut. perf. ind. laudātūrus fuerō I shall have been going to praise
Pres. subj. laudātūrus sim I may be going to praise
Imp. subj. laudātūrus essem I should be going to praise
Perf. subj. laudātūrus fuerim I may have been going to praise
Plup. subj. laudātūrus fuissem I should have been going to praise

Passive Edit

The second periphrastic conjugation uses the gerundive. It is combined with the forms of esse and expresses necessity. It is translated as "I am needing to be praised", "I was needing to be praised", etc., or as "I have to (must) be praised", "I had to be praised," etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. laudandus sum I am needing to be praised
Imp. ind. laudandus eram I was needing to be praised
Fut. ind. laudandus erō I will be needing to be praised
Perf. ind. laudandus fuī I was needing to be praised
Plup. ind. laudandus fueram I had been needing to be praised
Fut. perf. ind. laudandus fuerō I will have been needing to be praised
Pres. subj. laudandus sim I may be needing to be praised
Imp. subj. laudandus essem I should be needing to be praised
Perf. subj. laudandus fuerim I may have been needing to be praised
Plup. subj. laudandus fuissem I should have been needing to be praised
Pres. inf. laudandus esse To be needing to be praised
Perf. inf. laudandus fuisse To have been needing to be praised

PeculiaritiesEdit

Deponent and semi-deponent verbsEdit

Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect of ordinary passives is formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine. Some examples coming from all conjugations are:

1st conjugation: mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum – to admire, wonder
2nd conjugation: polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum – to promise, offer
3rd conjugation: loquor, loquī, locūtus sum – to speak, say
4th conjugation: mentior, mentīrī, mentītus sum – to tell a lie

Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerund, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive. They cannot be used in the passive themselves (except the gerundive), and their analogues with "active" form do not in fact exist: one cannot directly translate "The word is said" with any form of loquī, and there are no forms like loquō, loquis, loquit, etc.

Semi-deponent verbs form their imperfective aspect tenses in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect tenses are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus, semi-deponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle. An example:

audeō, audēre, ausus sum – to dare, venture

Unlike the proper passive of active verbs, which is always intransitive, some deponent verbs are transitive, which means that they can take an object. For example:

hostes sequitur. – he follows the enemy.

Note: In the Romance languages, which lack deponent or passive verb forms, the Classical Latin deponent verbs either disappeared (being replaced with non-deponent verbs of a similar meaning) or changed to a non-deponent form. For example, in Spanish and Italian, mīrārī changed to mirar(e) by changing all the verb forms to the previously nonexistent "active form", and audeō changed to osar(e) by taking the participle ausus and making an -ar(e) verb out of it (note that au went to o).

Defective verbsEdit

Defective verbs are verbs that are conjugated in only some instances.

  • Some verbs are conjugated only in the perfective aspect's tenses, yet have the imperfective aspect's tenses' meanings. As such, the perfect becomes the present, the pluperfect becomes the imperfect, and the future perfect becomes the future. Therefore, the defective verb ōdī means, "I hate." These defective verbs' principal parts are given in vocabulary with the indicative perfect in the first person and the perfect active infinitive. Some examples are:
ōdī, ōdisse (future participle ōsūrus) – to hate
meminī, meminisse (imperative mementō, mementōte) – to remember
coepī, coeptum, coepisse – to have begun
  • A few verbs, the meanings of which usually have to do with speech, appear only in certain occurrences.
Cedo (plur. cette), which means "Hand it over" is only in the imperative mood, and only is used in the second person.

The following are conjugated irregularly:

Aio Edit

Conjugation of aiō
Indicative
present
Indicative
imperfect
Subjunctive
present
Imperative
present
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
First person aiō aiēbam aiēbāmus
Second person ais aiēbās aiēbātis aiās ai
Third person ait aiunt aiēbat aiēbant aiat aiant
Present Active Participle:aiēns, aientis

Inquam Edit

Conjugation of inquam
Present indicative Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Imperfect
indicative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular
First person inquam inquimus inquiī
Second person inquis inquitis inquiēs inquistī
Third person inquit inquiunt inquiet inquit inquiēbat

For Edit

Conjugation of for
Present
indicative
Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Pluperfect
indicative
Present
imperative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular Singular Plural
First person for fābor fātus sum fātus eram
Second person fāre fāminī
Third person fātur fantur fābitur
Present Active Participlefāns, fantis
Present Active Infinitivefārī (variant: fārier)
Supine – (acc.) fātum, (abl.) fātū
Gerund – (gen.) fandī, (dat. and abl.) fandō, no accusative
Gerundivefandus, –a, –um

The Romance languages lost many of these verbs, but others (such as ōdī) survived but became regular fully conjugated verbs (in Italian, odiare).

Impersonal verbsEdit

Impersonal verbs are those lacking a person. In English impersonal verbs are usually used with the neuter pronoun "it" (as in "It seems," or "it is raining"). Latin uses the third person singular. These verbs lack a fourth principal part. A few examples are:

pluit, pluere, plūvit/pluit – to rain (it rains)
ningit, ningere, ninxit – to snow (it snows)
oportet, oportēre, oportuit – to be proper (it is proper, one should/ought to)
licet, licēre, licuit – to be permitted [to] (it is allowed [to])

Irregular future active participlesEdit

The future active participle is normally formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –ūrus. However, some deviations occur.

Present
active
infinitive
Supine Future
active
participle
Meaning
iuvāre iūtum iuvātūrus going to help
lavāre/lavere lavātum (but PPP lautus) lavātūrus going to wash
parere partum paritūrus going to produce
ruere rutum ruitūrus going to fall
secāre sectum secātūrus going to cut
fruī frūctum/fruitum fruitūrus going to enjoy
nāscī nātum nātūrus/nascitūrus going to be born
morī mortuum moritūrus going to die
orīrī ortum oritūrus going to rise

Alternative verb formsEdit

Several verb forms may occur in alternative forms (in some authors these forms are fairly common, if not more common than the canonical ones):

  • The ending –ris in the passive voice may be –re as in:
laudābārislaudābāre
  • The ending –ērunt in the perfect may be –ēre (primarily in poetry) as in:
laudāvēruntlaudāvēre
  • The ending –ī in the passive infinitive may be –ier as in:
laudārīlaudārier, dicīdicier

Syncopated verb formsEdit

Like in most Romance languages, syncopated forms and contractions are present in Latin. They may occur in the following instances:

  • Perfect stems that end in a –v may be contracted when inflected.
laudāvisselaudāsse
laudāvistīlaudāstī
laudāverantlaudārant
laudāvissetlaudāsset
  • The compounds of nōscere (to learn) and movēre (to move, dislodge) can also be contracted.
nōvistīnōstī
nōvistisnōstis
commōveramcommōram
commōverāscommōrās

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Bennett, Charles Edwin (1918). New Latin Grammar.
  • Gildersleeve, B.L. & Gonzalez Lodge (1895). Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar. 3rd Edition. (Macmillan)
  • J.B. Greenough; G.L. Kittredge; A.A. Howard; Benj. L. D'Ooge, eds. (1903). Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and College. Ginn and Company.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster online dictionary "Conjugation".
  2. ^ Donatus [Ars Maior], 10.16.
  3. ^ Priscian, Liber octauus de uerbo (Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum)
  4. ^ Daniel J. Taylor "Latin declensions and conjugations: from Varro to Priscian" Historie Épistémologie Langage 13.2 (1991), p. 85–93.
  5. ^ e.g. Gildersleeve and Lodge, 3rd edition (1895), §120.
  6. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  7. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  8. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  9. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §163.
  10. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 91.
  11. ^ C.J. Fordyce (1961), Catullus, note on Catullus 5.10.
  12. ^ Wackernagel (2009) Lectures on Syntax, p. 305, note 7.
  13. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 90.
  14. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §164.
  15. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 114.
  16. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  17. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 105.
  18. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 114.
  19. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge Latin Grammar (1985), §166.
  20. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 90.
  21. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 66–68.
  22. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 68.
  23. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 68.
  24. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 68.
  25. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 121.
  26. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 115–6.
  27. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 116.
  28. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 116, 90.
  29. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 117–8.
  30. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 118.
  31. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 119.
  32. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 118–119.
  33. ^ Cicero, Sull. 21.
  34. ^ Quintilian, 5.12.3.
  35. ^ Eitrem, S. (2006). Latinsk grammatikk (3 ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. p. 111.
  36. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.

External linksEdit