In Classical Latin, the gerundive is distinct in form and function from the gerund and the present active participle. In Late Latin, the differences were largely lost, resulting in a form derived from the gerund or gerundive but functioning more like a participle. The adjectival gerundive form survives in the formation of progressive aspect forms in Italian, Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese. In French the adjectival gerundive and participle forms merged completely, and the term gérondif is used for adverbial use of -ant forms.
There is no true equivalent to the gerundive in English; the closest translation is a passive to-infinitive non-finite clause such as books to be read. That reflects the most common use of the Latin gerundive, to combine a transitive verb (such as read) and its object (such as books), usually with a sense of obligation. Another translation is the recent development of the must- prefix as in a must-read book.
The Latin gerundive is a form of the verb. It is composed of
- the infectum stem (the stem used to form Present and Imperfect tense forms)
- a vowel appropriate to the verb class or conjugation of the verb
- the suffix -nd-
- an adjectival Inflectional ending
|laud-||-a-||-nd-||-us, -a, -um||First conjugation||laudandus, -a, -um||'concerned with the act of praising'||homo laudandus est— 'the man is to be praised'|
|mon-||-e-||-nd-||-us, -a, -um||Second conjugation||monendus, -a, -um||'concerned with the act of warning'||mulier monenda est — 'the woman is to be warned'|
|leg-||-e-||-nd-||-us, -a, -um||Third conjugation||legendus, -a, -um||'concerned with the act of reading'||volumen legendum est — 'the volume is to be read'|
|capi-||-e-||-nd-||-us, -a, -um||Third conjugation||capiendus, -a, -um||'concerned with the act of taking'||castra capienda sunt — 'the camp is to be taken'|
|audi-||-e-||-nd-||-us, -a, -um||Fourth conjugation||audiendus, -a, -um||'concerned with the act of hearing'||voces audiendae sunt — 'the voices are to be heard'|
Meaning and useEdit
In principle, the gerundive could express a wide range of meaning relationships: 'capable of, 'prone to', 'ripe for' (killing, dying, rising, rolling etc). Some gerundives have much the same meaning as present participles: secundus 'following; oriendus 'arising, descended from'; volvendus 'rolling'. Originally it could express active or passive meaning, and therefore could be used with verbs in intransitive as well as transitive use. However, the great majority of gerundive forms were used with passive meaning of transitive verbs.
In principle, the gerundive could be used as either a predicative or attributive adjective. However, attributive use was rare, largely confined to verbs expressing approval or disapproval. The predicative use invited a secondary meaning of obligation (a meaning not shared with the gerund). Thus
|ATTRIBUTIVE||agnus caedundus||'a lamb ready for slaughtering'|
|PREDICATIVE||agnus est caedundus||'The lamb is for slaughter', 'The lamb is to be slaughtered', 'The lamb must be slaughtered'|
This sense of obligation with passive meaning is by far the most common use of the gerundive. Thus it has been equated with a future passive participle.
A neuter form without a noun may function as an impersonal expression, for example: addendum 'something to be added'; referendum 'something to be referred back'. These are not gerund forms; the -um form of the gerund is used only after prepositions. The plural forms without nouns such as agenda 'things to be done' are also adjectival gerundives; the gerund has no plural form.
Gerundive expressions widely quoted or adopted in EnglishEdit
- Cato the Elder, a Roman senator, frequently ended his speeches with the statement Ceterum censeo Carthaginem delendam esse ("I also think Carthage to be [something] that must be destroyed", i.e. "Besides which, I think Carthage must be destroyed").
- Mutatis mutandis "changing [only] those things which need to be changed" or more simply "[only] the necessary changes having been made".
- A gerundive appears in the phrase quod erat demonstrandum ("which was to be demonstrated"), whose abbreviated form Q.E.D. is often used after the final conclusion of a proof.
- The motto Nil desperandum 'Nothing is to be despaired at' i.e. 'Never despair'. Based on this the cod Latin Nil illegitimis carborundum 'Don't let the bastards grind you down'.
- The name Amanda is the feminine gerundive of amare ("to love"), and thus means roughly "[she who is] to be loved", "worthy of being loved", "worthy of love", or simply "lovable". Similarly with the name Miranda; mirari means "to admire", so the name means "[she who is] to be admired", "worthy of admiration", or "admirable".
- A number of English words come from Latin gerundives. For example, addendum comes from the gerundive of addere ("to add"), and so means something that must be added; referendum comes from the gerundive of referre ("to bring back" [to the people]); agenda comes from the neuter plural of agendus, the gerundive of agere "to do", and so means things that must be done; reverend comes from the gerundive reverendus, and refers to a person who should be revered; propaganda comes from a New Latin phrase containing a feminine form of propagandus, the gerundive of propagare ("to propagate"), so that propaganda was originally something that should be propagated; legend in Latin is legenda, which originally meant things you should read, ( from legere "to read") but became a (fem. sing.) word in its own right in medieval times; a dividend is something to be divided [among shareholders].
In Late Latin, the distinction between gerundive and future participle was sometimes lost. Thus, gerundive moriendi is found for morituri 'about to die'. Conversely, future particles recepturus and scripturus are found for recipientus and scriptures. More regularly, the gerundive came to be used as a future passive participle. Eventually the gerundive in the nominative case came to substitute for the present participle.
In some important Romance languages that developed from Late Latin, the Classical present participle forms with -nt- suffix became confused with the Classical gerundive forms with -nd-.
- In Italian, the -d- form (cantando, 'singing' etc) took on the participle function and was termed gerundio by grammarians. The -nt- forms survived and was reanalysed as nouns (e.g. cantante 'singer') or adjectives (sorridente 'smiling'). They were also used with participle function in very formal register.
The term is occasionally used in descriptions of English grammar, to denote the present participle used adjectivally or adverbially e.g. 'take a running jump'. That form, ending in -ing, is identical to that of the English gerund, but it is generally called a gerund when it is used as a noun, not as an adjective or adverb e.g. 'the running of the deer'.
In Old Irish, a form known in the literature as the verbal of necessity is used as the predicate of the copula in the function of the Latin gerundive, e.g. inna hí atá adamraigthi "the things that are to be admired".
The term gerundive may be used in grammars and dictionaries of Pali, for example the Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary of 1921-25. It is referred to by some other writers as the participle of necessity, the potential participle or the future passive participle. It is used with the same meaning as the Latin gerundive.
In the east African Semitic language Tigrinya, gerundive is used to denote a particular finite verb form, not a verbal adjective or adverb. Generally, it denotes completed action that is still relevant. A verb in the gerundive can be used alone or serially with another gerundive verb. In the latter case, it may sometimes be translated with an adverbial clause: bitri hidju kheydu (literally, "a-stick he-took-hold-of he-began-walking") means "while holding a stick, he is walking", i.e. "he is carrying a stick". See Tigrinya verbs.
- Posner, Rebecca. 1996, The Romance Languages. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-28139-3 p. 175.
- Referendums and the Gerundive, Mark Forsyth.
- Palmer, L.R. , 1954, The Latin Language, London. Faber and Faber. pp 320-322.
- Palmer 1954. p 17
- Vintent, Nigel in Harris, Martin and Nigel Vincent, eds. The Romance Languages. 1988, London., Rutledge. p 294
- The KISS Approach to Grammar in the Curriculum
- Rudolf Thurneysen (1946, reprinted 1980), A Grammar of Old Irish (translated by D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, p. 443.
- Whitley Stokes and John Strachan (eds.) (1901, reprinted 1987), Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, vol. I, p. 217, Ml. 64c3.
- Pali Text Society Pali-English Dictionary, edited by T W Rhys Davids and William Stede, 1921-25