Landelino Lavilla Alsina (6 August 1934 – 13 April 2020) was a Spanish lawyer and politician who served as the minister of justice from 1976 to 1979. He also served as member of parliament and as senator. His most important role was as President of the Congress of Deputies during the coup d'état of 23-F in 1981. Jurist Eduardo García de Enterría called him the "principal architect of the transition to democracy".
|President of the Congress of Deputies|
6 April 1979 – 18 November 1982
|Monarch||Juan Carlos I|
|Prime Minister||Adolfo Suárez|
|Preceded by||Fernando Álvarez de Miranda|
|Succeeded by||Gregorio Peces-Barba|
|Minister of Justice|
5 July 1976 – 6 April 1979
|Preceded by||Antonio Garrigues y Díaz-Cañabate|
|Succeeded by||Íñigo Cavero Lataillade|
|Member of the Congress of Deputies|
6 April 1979 – 18 November 1982
18 November 1982 – 28 July 1983
|Member of the Senate|
15 June 1977 – 6 April 1979
Landelino Lavilla Alsina
6 August 1934
|Died||13 April 2020 (aged 85)|
|Political party||Union of the Democratic Centre|
Early life and educationEdit
Lavilla was born in Lleida on 6 August 1934. He received law degrees from the University of Zaragoza and Complutense University of Madrid.
Career and activitiesEdit
Lavilla was a lawyer by profession. He joined the board of lawyers of the Court of Auditors in 1958 and of the State Council in 1959. He joined the Tácitos, Catholic reformist group, in 1974. He became a senior member of the Christian Democratic Party. The group published articles in the Catholic daily, Ya, beginning by 1972. He was the undersecretary of industry in the last cabinet of Franco from 1974 to 1976.
Minister of JusticeEdit
Lavilla was appointed minister of justice in the first cabinet of Adolfo Suárez on 5 July 1976, replacing Antonio Garrigues y Díaz-Cañabate in the post. Lavilla was part of the Tacito group in the cabinet along with Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, Andrés Reguera, Eduardo Carriles, Enrique de la Mata, Marcelino Oreja and Alfonso Osorio. He retained his post following the democratic elections in June 1977.
He drafted the 1977 Political Reform Act that was approved by the congress in November 1977 and implemented a legal process that paved the way for the legalization of all major political groups, including communists and PSOE.
Lavilla's term ended on 6 April 1979 when Íñigo Cavero was appointed justice minister.
President of the Congress of Deputies and 23-FEdit
Lavilla was appointed senator in 1977 and was in office until 1978. He was elected to the Congress of Deputies in 1979, representing Jaén province.
He served as speaker of the Congress from 1979 to 1982 in the first legislature after the approval of the new constitution. On 23 February 1981, members of the Civil Guard led by Antonio Tejero burst into the chamber in a failed coup d'état. Lavilla faced Tejero saying that "in this chamber, the orders are given by the presidency. This is over. Evict." The colonel obeyed, and the deputies were able to occupy their seats after getting down. During the night of 23–24 February, he offered Tejero the members of the parliament board as hostages and asked that they free the members of the government and the legislators, but Tejero rejected the move.
During Lavilla's term the first investiture debate took place according to the new Constitution; 33 organic laws, 231 ordinary laws and 71 law decrees were approved, and the first failed vote of confidence and a question of confidence were presented.
Before the 1982 general election Lavilla led the Christian Democrat party. He was re-elected in 1982, representing Madrid province, but resigned from the seat in 1983 and was succeeded by Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo in the post.
In 1982 Lavilla also assumed the presidency of the Union of the Democratic Centre. Faced with the crisis of the party derived from the bad electoral result in the general elections, he resigned from the office in February 1983.
Member of the Council of State and later lifeEdit
Lavilla was named a permanent member of the Council of State by a royal decree dated 28 July 1983 at the proposal of Prime Minister, an office which he held until his death in 2020. On 28 December 1995 he was appointed chairman of the Council's first section.
On 8 February 1999 Lavilla took office as a permanent member of the Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation and was its president between 2003 and 2012, being re-elected in 2008.
In addition, he was a member of the advisory committee of FRIDE, a Madrid-based now defunct think tank organization.
Personal life and deathEdit
Lavilla was married to Juana Rubira García Valdecasas, and they had four children. He died on 13 April 2020 at the age of 85 from an undisclosed illness.
- ^ Sin tacha ni reproche. El País, 14 April 2020. (in Spanish)
- ^ a b c d e "Landelino Lavilla Alsina". Who's Who in Spain. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- ^ a b Charles T. Powell (1990). "The 'Tacito' group and the transition to democracy, 1973-1977" (PDF). In F. Lannon; P. Preston (eds.). Elites and power in Twentieth-Century Spain. Essays in Honor of Sir Raymond Carr. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- ^ a b c "Research Team". FRIDE. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- ^ a b c Eamonn J. Rodgers, ed. (1999). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture. London; New York: Routledge. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-415-13187-2.
- ^ a b Paul Preston (1990). The Triumph of Democracy in Spain. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415043144.
- ^ S. D. Eaton (1981). The Forces of Freedom in Spain: 1974 - 1979; A Personal Account. Stanford, CA: Hoover Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-8179-7453-4.
- ^ "Real Decreto 1607/1976, de 7 de julio, por el que que se nombran los Ministros del Gobierno" Boletín Oficial del Estado, 7 July 1976. (in Spanish)
- ^ Maria Cristina Palomares (2002). The quest for survival after Franco: The moderate Francoists' slow journey to the polls (1964-1977) (PhD thesis). London School of Economics. p. 296.
- ^ Paloma Aguilar (1997). "Collective memory of the Spanish civil war: The case of the political amnesty in the Spanish transition to democracy". Democratization. 4 (4): 88–109. doi:10.1080/13510349708403537.
- ^ Real Decreto 548/1979, de 22 de marzo, por el que se dispone el cese en sus funciones del Ministro de Justicia, don Landelino Lavilla Alsina. Boletín Oficial del Estado 22 March 1979 (in Spanish)
- ^ "Lavilla Alsina, Landelino" (in Spanish). Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
- ^ Ramírez Daniel (16 December 2018). "Landelino Lavilla: "De PP, PSOE o Cs, no lo sé... pero seguro que Suárez nunca se habría hecho de Vox"". El Español (in Spanish).
- ^ "Landelino Lavilla ofreció como rehenes a los miembros de la Mesa del Congreso". El País (in Spanish). 13 March 1981.
- ^ Meritxell Batet (13 April 2020). "En memoria del presidente Lavilla". El País (in Spanish).
- ^ R. W. Apple Jr. (13 October 1982). "Spanish socialist a darling of public, if not army". The New York Times. Madrid. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- ^ "Muere Landelino Lavilla, ministro de Justicia con Suárez y presidente del Congreso el 23-F". ABC (in Spanish). 13 April 2020.
- ^ "Lavilla asumió la presidencia consciente de que sería su tumba política". El País (in Spanish). 19 February 1983.
- ^ Joaquina Prades; Fernando Jauregui (19 February 1983). "La crisis de UCD culmina con la decisión de disolverse como partido político". El País (in Spanish).
- ^ Real Decreto 2126/1983, de 28 de julio, por el que se nombra Consejero permanente de Estado a don Landelino Lavilla Alsina. Boletín Oficial del Estado, 28 July 1983. (in Spanish)
- ^ Directorio Archived 6 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Council of State official page. (in Spanish)
- ^ Real Decreto 2213/1995, de 28 de diciembre, por el que se nombra Presidente de la Sección Primera del Consejo de Estado a don Landelino Lavilla Alsina, Consejero permanente de Estado. Boletín Oficial del Estado, 28 December 1995. (in Spanish)
- ^ Excmo. Sr. D. Landelino Lavilla Alsina (Md. nº 6) (in Spanish)
- ^ Landelino Lavilla, reelegido presidente de la Real Academia de Jurisprudencia y Legislación El Notario. (in Spanish)
- ^ "Advisory Committee". FRIDE. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- ^ "Muere Landelino Lavilla, ministro de Justicia con Suárez y presidente del Congreso el 23-F". ABC (in Spanish). 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- ^ "Muere Landelino Lavilla, presidente del Congreso el 23-F y ministro de Justicia de Adolfo Suárez". El Español (in European Spanish). 13 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ^ Real Decreto 2727/1974, de 30 de septiembre, por el que se concede la Gran Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil a don Landelino Lavilla Alsina. Boletín Oficial del Estado, 30 September 1974. (in Spanish)
- ^ Real Decreto 563/1979, de 23 de marzo, por el que se concede la Gran Cruz de la Real y Muy Distinguida Orden de Carlos III a don Landelino Lavilla Alsina. Boletín Oficial del Estado, 23 March 1979. (in Spanish)
- ^ Real Decreto 503/1985, de 10 de abril, por el que se concede la Gran Cruz de la Orden de San Raimundo de Peñafort a don Landelino Lavilla Alsina. Boletín Oficial del Estado, 10 April 1985. (in Spanish)
- ^ Real Decreto 834/2010, de 25 de junio, por el que se concede la Gran Cruz de la Orden de Isabel la Católica a don Landelino Lavilla Alsina. Boletín Oficial del Estado, 25 June 2010. (in Spanish)
- Media related to Landelino Lavilla at Wikimedia Commons