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Lactobacillus crispatus is a common, rod-shaped species of genus Lactobacillus and is a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)[1] producing beneficial micro biota species located in both the vagina, through vaginal discharge, and the vertebrate gastrointestinal.[2] The strain CTV-05 is used as a probiotic that can be used by premenopausal and postmenopausal women[3] that experience recurrent urinary tract infections. It is being evaluated specifically for the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis,[4] which is characterized by the absence of lactobacillus flora, also known as Lactobacillus acidophilus; which plays a large role in protecting the host from infection.[5]

Lactobacillus crispatus
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lactobacillus
Species: L. crispatus
Binomial name
Lactobacillus crispatus

Contents

TaxonomyEdit

It is a species in the phylum Firmicutes, in the class Bacilli, in the order Lactobacillales, in the family Lactobacillaceae and the genus Lactobaccillus.[6] It is one of one hundred twenty two other species identified within the genus.

GenomeEdit

The genome of Lactobacillus crispatus strain ST1 consists of about 2,043,161 nucleotides[6] and encodes 2,024 proteins,[6] 76 RNA genes [6] and has a circular chromosomal shape.[6] ST1 was originally isolated from chicken. Other strains isolated from human vaginas encode between 1,839 (EM-LC1) and 2,699 proteins (strain FB077-07).[7]

EcologyEdit

The strain of Lactobacillus crispastus was originally isolated from a pouch in chickens gullet[6] and is considered to be one of the strongest H2O2-producing lactobacilli. Like many other Lactobacillus species, it can be severely altered by changes to the immune system, hormone levels and from the use of antimicrobials. Lactobacillus crispatus is a normal inhabitant of the lower reproductive tract in healthy women.[8][9]

Probiotic useEdit

CTV-05 gelatin suppository capsules[4] are inserted into the vagina as a probiotic that can help maintain healthy flora. Studies have shown that L. crispastus CTV-05 effectively colonized the vagina and helped prevent and treat recurrent bacterial vaginosis and other genital infections. Scientists have stated that evidence from clinical trials proves that these probiotics will safely and effectively treat bacterial vaginosis if used alone or alongside an antibiotic treatment if an infection had already arisen.[3]

Condom use has showed increased colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina because it protects against both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Antonio, MA; Hillier, SL (2003). "DNA Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus Strain CTV-05 by Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR Analysis in a Pilot Study of Vaginal Colonization". J. Clin. Microbiol. 41 (5): 1881–7. doi:10.1128/jcm.41.5.1881-1887.2003. PMC 154705 . PMID 12734221. 
  2. ^ Teija Ojala. "Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus ST1". 
  3. ^ a b "Medscape: Medscape Access". 
  4. ^ a b http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/199/10/1506.full.pdf
  5. ^ Alejandra Vásquez. "Vaginal Lactobacillus Flora of Healthy Swedish Women". 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "KEGG GENOME: Lactobacillus crispatus". 
  7. ^ France, Michael T.; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Forney, Larry J. (2016-12-15). "Genomic Comparisons of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners Reveal Potential Ecological Drivers of Community Composition in the Vagina". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 82 (24): 7063–7073. doi:10.1128/AEM.02385-16. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 5118917 . PMID 27694231. 
  8. ^ Nardis, C.; Mastromarino, P.; Mosca, L. (September 2013). "Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases". Annali di Igiene. 25 (5): 443–56. doi:10.7416/ai.2013.1946. PMID 24048183. 
  9. ^ Bennett, John (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9781455748013; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh 
  10. ^ Ma, Liyan; Lv, Zhi; Su, Jianrong; Wang, Jianjie; Yan, Donghui; Wei, Jingjuan; Pei, Shuang (2013-07-23). "Consistent Condom Use Increases the Colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the Vagina". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e70716. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070716. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3720897 . PMID 23894682. 

External linksEdit