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Lactobacillus crispatus

Lactobacillus crispatus is a common, rod-shaped species of genus Lactobacillus and is a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)[1] producing beneficial micro biota species located in both the vagina, through vaginal discharge, and the vertebrate gastrointestinal.[2] The strain CTV-05 is used as a probiotic that can be used by premenopausal and postmenopausal women[3] that experience recurrent urinary tract infections. It is being evaluated specifically for the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis,[4] which is characterized by the absence of lactobacillus flora, also known as Lactobacillus acidophilus; which plays a large role in protecting the host from infection.[5]

Lactobacillus crispatus
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lactobacillus
Species: L. crispatus
Binomial name
Lactobacillus crispatus

Contents

TaxonomyEdit

It is a species in the phylum Firmicutes, in the class Bacilli, in the order Lactobacillales, in the family Lactobacillaceae and the genus Lactobaccillus.[6] It is one of 122 other species identified within the genus.

GenomeEdit

Even within L. crispatus there is substantial genetic variation: strains of L. crispatus have genome sizes ranging from 1.83 to 2.7 Mb, and encode 1,839 (EM-LC1) to 2,688 (FB077-07) proteins.[7]

The genome of Lactobacillus crispatus strain ST1, which colonizes chicken, consists of about 2,043,161 nucleotides[6] and encodes 2,024 proteins,[6] 76 RNA genes[6] and has a circular chromosomal shape.[6]

EcologyEdit

The strain of Lactobacillus crispastus was originally isolated from a pouch in a chicken gullet[6] and is considered to be one of the strongest H2O2-producing lactobacilli. Like many other Lactobacillus species, it can be severely altered by changes to the immune system, hormone levels and from the use of antimicrobials. Lactobacillus crispatus is a normal inhabitant of the lower reproductive tract in healthy women.[8][9]

Probiotic useEdit

CTV-05 gelatin suppository capsules[4] are inserted into the vagina as a probiotic that can help maintain healthy flora. Studies have shown that L. crispastus CTV-05 effectively colonized the vagina and helped prevent and treat recurrent bacterial vaginosis and other genital infections. Scientists have stated that evidence from clinical trials proves that these probiotics will safely and effectively treat bacterial vaginosis if used alone or alongside an antibiotic treatment if an infection had already arisen.[3]

Condom use has showed increased colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina because it protects against both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Antonio MA, Hillier SL (May 2003). "DNA fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus strain CTV-05 by repetitive element sequence-based PCR analysis in a pilot study of vaginal colonization". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 41 (5): 1881–7. doi:10.1128/jcm.41.5.1881-1887.2003. PMC 154705. PMID 12734221.
  2. ^ Ojala T, Kuparinen V, Koskinen JP, Alatalo E, Holm L, Auvinen P, Edelman S, Westerlund-Wikström B, Korhonen TK, Paulin L, Kankainen M (July 2010). "Genome sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus ST1". Journal of Bacteriology. 192 (13): 3547–8. doi:10.1128/JB.00399-10. PMC 2897677. PMID 20435723.
  3. ^ a b Dwyer JP, Dwyer PL (August 2013). "Lactobacillus probiotics may prevent recurrent UTIs in postmenopausal women". Evidence Based Medicine. 18 (4): 141–142. doi:10.1136/eb-2012-100961.
  4. ^ a b Antonio MA, Meyn LA, Murray PJ, Busse B, Hillier SL (May 2009). "Vaginal colonization by probiotic Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 is decreased by sexual activity and endogenous Lactobacilli". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 199 (10): 1506–13. doi:10.1086/598686. PMID 19331578.
  5. ^ Vásquez A, Jakobsson T, Ahrné S, Forsum U, Molin G (August 2002). "Vaginal lactobacillus flora of healthy Swedish women". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 40 (8): 2746–9. doi:10.1128/JCM.40.8.2746-2749.2002. PMC 120688. PMID 12149323.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "KEGG GENOME: Lactobacillus crispatus".
  7. ^ France MT, Mendes-Soares H, Forney LJ (December 2016). "Genomic Comparisons of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners Reveal Potential Ecological Drivers of Community Composition in the Vagina". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 82 (24): 7063–7073. doi:10.1128/AEM.02385-16. PMC 5118917. PMID 27694231.
  8. ^ Nardis C, Mosca L, Mastromarino P (September 2013). "Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases". Annali Di Igiene. 25 (5): 443–56. doi:10.7416/ai.2013.1946. PMID 24048183.
  9. ^ Bennett J (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4557-4801-3.
  10. ^ Ma L, Lv Z, Su J, Wang J, Yan D, Wei J, Pei S (2013-07-23). "Consistent condom use increases the colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina". PLOS One. 8 (7): e70716. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070716. PMC 3720897. PMID 23894682.

External linksEdit