Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria. It includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax). Bacilli are almost exclusively gram-positive bacteria.
|Bacillus subtilis, Gram stain|
Ludwig et al. 2010
Several related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion. The term "Bacillus" (capitalized and italicized) is also the name of a genus (Bacillus anthracis) that, among many other genera, falls within the class Bacilli.
The word "bacillus" (or its plural "bacilli", with a small b) is also a generic term to describe the morphology of any rod-shaped bacterium. This general term does not mean that the subject is a member of class Bacilli or genus Bacillus. Thus, it does not necessarily imply a similar group of characteristics. Not all members of class Bacilli are rod-shaped (Staphylococcus is spherical), and many other rod-shaped bacteria that do not fall within that class exist (e.g., Clostridium kamina dalla kotta is rod-shaped but very different taxonomically). Moreover, the general term "bacillus" does not necessarily indicate the Gram-positive staining common to class Bacilli. For example, E. coli is a rod-shaped bacterium that can be described as "a bacillus", but it stains Gram-negative and does not belong to the genus Bacillus or the class Bacilli. Some microbiologists have forsaken the general "bacillus" term because of the confusion it can create.
The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature:  and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project 
- Alkalilactibacillus ♠ Schmidt et al. 2007
- Alkalilactibacillus ikkense ♠ Schmidt et al. 2007
- Dehalobacterium ♠ Magli et al. 1996
- Dehalobacterium formicoaceticum ♠ Magli et al. 1996
- Pseudobacillus ♠ Gomez 1999
- Pseudobacillus carolinae ♠ Gomez 1999
- Trigonala ♠ Zhang et al. 2006
- Trigonala elaeagnus ♠ Zhang et al. 2006
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature LPSN
Bacilli part 2 (continued)Edit
|Bacilli part 2||
- Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Whitman, William B. (2015). "Bacilli class. Nov". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. p. 1. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.cbm00033. ISBN 9781118960608.
- See the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Data extracted from J.P. Euzéby. "Bacilli". Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- See the NCBI webpage on Bacilli Data extracted from Sayers; et al. "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- See 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project . Data extracted from the "16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2012-05-17.