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Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria. It includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax). All Bacilli are gram-positive bacteria.[1]

Bacilli
Bacillus subtilis Gram.jpg
Bacillus subtilis, Gram staine
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Ludwig et al. 2010
Orders

Contents

AmbiguityEdit

Several related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion. The term "Bacillus" (capitalized and italicized) is also the name of a genus (Bacillus anthracis) that, among many other genera, falls within the class Bacilli.

The word "bacillus" (or its plural "bacilli", with a small b) is also a generic term to describe the morphology of any rod-shaped bacterium. This general term does not mean that the subject is a member of class Bacilli or genus Bacillus. Thus, it does not necessarily imply a similar group of characteristics. Not all members of class Bacilli are rod-shaped (Staphylococcus is spherical), and many other rod-shaped bacteria that do not fall within that class exist (e.g., Clostridium kamina dalla kotta is rod-shaped but very different taxonomically). Moreover, the general term "bacillus" does not necessarily indicate the Gram-positive staining common to class Bacilli. For example, E. coli is a rod-shaped bacterium that can be described as "a bacillus", but it stains Gram-negative and does not belong to the genus Bacillus or the class Bacilli. Some microbiologists have forsaken the general "bacillus" term because of the confusion it can create.

PhylogenyEdit

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature:[2] [3] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project [4]

Bacilli

Alicyclobacillaceae [incl. Bacillus tusciae & Tumebacillus permanentifrigoris]





Calditerricola



Thermoactinomycetaceae






Bacillus schlegelii



Thermicanus aegyptius {Bacillales Family X. Incertae Sedis}





Caldalkalibacillus




Microanaerobacter





Bacillus species group 14



Paenibacillaceae 1





Bacillaceae 4 [incl. Pullulanibacillus naganoensis, Sinobaca qinghaiensis & Tuberibacillus calidus]




Vulcanibacillus




Bacillus species group 13




Bacillus species group 12 [incl. Anaerobacillus]




Bacillus species group 11




Bacillus species group 10





Bacillus taeanensis



Bacillaceae 3





Bacillus species group 9




Bacillus species group 8


Bacilli part 2

(continued)

















Unclassified Bacillales

Notes:
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature LPSN

Bacilli part 2 (continued)Edit

Bacilli part 2


Bacillus species group 7




Bacillus species group 6





Bacillus species group 5 [incl. Aeribacillus pallidus]




Bacillus coagulans



Sporolactobacillaceae







Bacillus aeolius



Bacillaceae 2





Bacillus smithii




Bacillus badius




Exiguobacterium {Bacillales Family XII. Incertae Sedis}



Paenibacillaceae 2











Bacillus species group 4 [incl. Falsibacillus pallidus]





Bacillus species group 3



Bacillus





Bacillus species group 2





Bacillus species group 1




Jeotgalibacillus




Listeriaceae



Planococcaceae [incl. Acetobacter pasteurianus ascendens, Lysinibacillus, Psychrobacillus, Viridibacillus & various Bacillus sp.]







Bacillus coahuilensis




Staphylococcaceae





Gemella {Bacillales Family XI. Incertae Sedis}


Aphragmobacteria

Turicibacter sanguinis




Haloplasma contractile




Erysipelotrichaceae [incl. Anaerorhabdus furcosa, Sharpea azabuensis, Streptococcus pleomorphus and various Clostridium, Eubacterium & Lactobacillus sp.]



Mollicutes







Lactobacillales










ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Whitman, William B. (2015). "Bacilli class. Nov". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. p. 1. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.cbm00033. ISBN 9781118960608. 
  2. ^ See the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Data extracted from J.P. Euzéby. "Bacilli". Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  3. ^ See the NCBI webpage on Bacilli Data extracted from Sayers; et al. "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  4. ^ See 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project [1]. Data extracted from the "16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2012-05-17.