Kuadam (also known as Kua or more popularly Kapadapuram) was the capital of the ancient Pandian kingdom of the Meen'Koodal epoch (the second Sangam academy). The grand old poet and sage Nakkeerar and the Iraiyanaar porul'urai mentions that Kuadam was the capital from c.5400 BCE to c.1750 BCE (about 3650 years).

Kuadam
Kuadam is located in India
Kuadam
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
LocationTirunelveli, India
Coordinates8°28′48″N 78°06′58″E / 8.48°N 78.116°E / 8.48; 78.116

According to historians, Kuadam was very close to Tiruchendur. Abraham Pandithar says that Greeks in those days named it as Periplus port.[1]

Around 1750 BCE, the last great deluge flooded Kuadam and the remaining part of the Kumari kaandam forever (similar to the Biblical record of "the flood" sometime between 3402 BC and 2462 BC).

Kuadam was to the north of the ancient Paqruli river about 700 kaadham south of the Kumari river delta.

Cataclysms mid-2000 BCE and similaritiesEdit

Another ancient city lost to cataclysm in mid-2nd millennium BCE is Kapata modern day Crete.[2] The Bible mentions this city as "Caphtor" or "Capthor" as the country of the Philistines. In the texts of Mari, Kaptara appears "beyond the upper sea".The designation "Keftiu" of Crete by the Egyptians comes mainly from the tomb of Rekmira, Egypt.[3]

According to David McAlpin and his Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam, located in present-day southwestern Iran.[4][5] In the 1990s, Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza have also argued that Proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent,.[6][7][8][9] According to Gareth Alun Owens, Linear A represents the Minoan language, which Owens classifies as a distinct branch of Indo-European potentially related to Greek, Sanskrit, Hittite, Latin, etc.[10]

Further the Puranic dynasties of the South India, including the Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras descended from the Turvashas.[11] Tamil "Pallava" dynasty appear in the Sanskrit Literature Pallas, Pahlavas, Pahnavas, Palhava, Plavas.[12] The Tamil Vanni were one of ancient sea faring traders and it is well known fact that the Pandyas once traded with the Greeks and Romans.[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Concise History of Kayalpatnam - by, Dr. R.S. Abdul Latiff M.A.D.Litt.
  2. ^ Barber, R. L. N. (November 1992). "Congress Thera and the Aegean world. 3. Proceedings of the third International Congress, Santorini, 3–9 September 1989. Ed. D. A. Hardy and A. C. Renfrew, iii Chronology. London: Thera Foundation, 1990. Pp. 242, numerous illus. Price not stated". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 112: 212–213. doi:10.2307/632206. ISSN 0075-4269. JSTOR 632206.
  3. ^ Gastineau, Bob. "The designation of Crete during the Bronze Age". Bronze age towns. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  4. ^ Kumar, Dhavendra (2004), Genetic Disorders of the Indian Subcontinent, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-1215-0, retrieved 25 November 2008, ... The analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and Indians indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). ...[verification needed]
  5. ^ David McAlpin, "Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian", Language vol. 50 no. 1 (1974); David McAlpin: "Elamite and Dravidian, Further Evidence of Relationships", Current Anthropology vol. 16 no. 1 (1975); David McAlpin: "Linguistic prehistory: the Dravidian situation", in Madhav M. Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook: Aryan and Non-Aryan in India, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1979); David McAlpin, "Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its Implications", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol. 71 pt. 3, (1981)[verification needed]
  6. ^ Cavalli-Sforza (1994), pp. 221-222.[verification needed]
  7. ^ Mukherjee, Namita; Nebel, Almut; Oppenheim, Ariella; Majumder, Partha P. (December 2001), "High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India", Journal of Genetics, 80 (3): 125–35, doi:10.1007/BF02717908, PMID 11988631, S2CID 13267463, ... More recently, about 15,000–10,000 years before present (ybp), when agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent region that extends from Israel through northern Syria to western Iran, there was another eastward wave of human migration (Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994; Renfrew 1987), a part of which also appears to have entered India. This wave has been postulated to have brought the Dravidian languages into India (Renfrew 1987). Subsequently, the Indo-European (Aryan) language family was introduced into India about 4,000 ybp ...[verification needed]
  8. ^ Derenko (2013).[verification needed]
  9. ^ Citation error. See inline comment how to fix.[verification needed]
  10. ^ "Unrest Under Yellowstone". Science. 282 (5388): 377f–377. 16 October 1998. doi:10.1126/science.282.5388.377f. S2CID 220099781.
  11. ^ "Proceedings of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 3 (6): lxxxviii–xcviii. July 1836. doi:10.1017/s0035869x00014477. ISSN 0035-869X.
  12. ^ Oppert, Gustav Salomon, 1836-1908. (1988). On the original inhabitants of Bharatavarsa or India : the Dravidians. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120603486. OCLC 29053524.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Lindsay (2006) p. 101