Kreis Dirschau

Kreis Dirschau was a Prussian district which existed with varying borders from 1772 to 1818 and from 1887 to 1920. In 1920, following World War I the district was ceded by the German Empire partly to Poland and partly to the Free City of Danzig in accordance Treaty of Versailles. From 1939 to 1945 the district in occupied Poland was re-established as part of the wartime Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. Today the former district is in the Polish Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Districts of West Prussia

HistoryEdit

Kreis Dirschau from 1772 to 1818Edit

 
Kreis Dirschau from 1772 to 1818
 
Kreis Dirschau from 1887 to 1920

West Prussia became part of the Kingdom of Prussia through the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and was initially divided into six large districts, including the Dirschau district.[1] The northern part of Pomerelia with the towns of Dirschau, Neustadt, Putzig and Stolzenberg were part of the Dirschau district.[2]

The Prussian provincial authorities ordinance of April 30, 1815 and its implementing provisions made the area part of Regierungsbezirk Danzig in the province of West Prussia. With a comprehensive district reform, new smaller districts were formed on April 1, 1818. The area of the old Dirschau district was incorporated into the newly formed Karthaus, Danzig, Neustadt and Stargard districts.

Kreis Dirschau from 1887 to 1920Edit

The continuous growth of the population prompted a district reform in West Prussia. In October 1887, the new Dirschau district was created, consisting of parts of the Danzig district and the Preußisch Stargard district. The seat of the district office and the only town in the district was Dirschau (today Tczew). The district had a German majority and a significant Polish minority.[3]

Due to the provisions of the Versailles Treaty, the Dirschau district was ceded by the German Reich on January 10, 1920. The largest part of the district with the city of Dirschau was transferred to Poland and continued as Powiat Tczewski. Several parishes in the north of the district were ceded to the Free City of Danzig and were incorporated into the Danziger Höhe district.

The communities in the Marienwerder district, which were transferred to Poland in 1920, were largely incorporated into the Powiat Tczewski on April 1, 1932. They had previously formed the Polish Powiat Gniewski from 1924, based in Gniew.

Kreis Dirschau in Occupied Poland (1939-1945)Edit

After the German Invasion of Poland and the subsequent annexation of the district area in violation of international law, the district was re-established as part of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia from 1939 to 1945.

 
Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia

In the spring of 1945 the Red Army occupied the district, which was then restored to Poland. In the following years, most of the German inhabitants were expelled.

DemographicsEdit

Ethnolinguistic structure in Kreis Dirschau [3]
Year Population German Polish / Bilingual / Other
1905 40,856 25,466 62.3% 15,390 37.7%
1910 42,723 27,865 65.2% 14,858 34.8%

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Haxthausen, August von (1839). Die landliche verfassung in den einzelnen provinzen der preussischen monarchie ... (in German). Gebrüder Bornträger.
  2. ^ Goldbeck, Johann Friedrich (1789). Volständige Topographie des Königreichs Preussen (in German). Auf eigene Kosten und in eignem Verlage.
  3. ^ a b Belzyt, Leszek (1998). Sprachliche Minderheiten im preussischen Staat: 1815 - 1914 ; die preußische Sprachenstatistik in Bearbeitung und Kommentar. Marburg: Herder-Inst. ISBN 978-3-87969-267-5.