Krasnokamensk, Zabaykalsky Krai

Krasnokamensk (Russian: Краснокаменск, IPA: [krəsnɐˈkamʲɪnsk]) is a town and the administrative center of Krasnokamensky District in Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located near the Sino-Russian border, 535 kilometers (332 mi) southeast of Chita, the administrative center of the krai. It is best known as the site for Russia's largest uranium mine. Population: 55,666 (2010 Census);[2] 55,920 (2002 Census);[9] 66,872 (1989 Census).[10]

Krasnokamensk
Краснокаменск
A street in Krasnokamensk
A street in Krasnokamensk
Flag of Krasnokamensk
Coat of arms of Krasnokamensk
Location of Krasnokamensk
Krasnokamensk is located in Russia
Krasnokamensk
Krasnokamensk
Location of Krasnokamensk
Krasnokamensk is located in Zabaykalsky Krai
Krasnokamensk
Krasnokamensk
Krasnokamensk (Zabaykalsky Krai)
Coordinates: 50°06′N 118°02′E / 50.100°N 118.033°E / 50.100; 118.033Coordinates: 50°06′N 118°02′E / 50.100°N 118.033°E / 50.100; 118.033
CountryRussia
Federal subjectZabaykalsky Krai[1]
Administrative districtKrasnokamensky District[1]
Founded1968
Town status since1969
Elevation
640 m (2,100 ft)
Population
 • Total55,666
 • Estimate 
(2018)[3]
52,299 (−6%)
 • Rank295th in 2010
 • Capital ofKrasnokamensky District[1]
 • Municipal districtKrasnokamensky Municipal District[4]
 • Urban settlementKrasnokamensk Urban Settlement[4]
 • Capital ofKrasnokamensky Municipal District[5], Krasnokamensk Urban Settlement[6]
Time zoneUTC+9 (MSK+6 Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
674670, 674673, 674674, 674676, 674677, 674684
Dialing code(s)+7 30245
OKTMO ID76621101001
Websiteкрасно-каменск.рф

EtymologyEdit

The name translates roughly as town on red stone, with the reference to the color red reflecting both the actual rock formations in the area, as well as its political symbolism in the Soviet era.

HistoryEdit

It was founded in 1968, in conjunction with the commencement of mining of the Streltsovskoye uranium deposits, which had been discovered near the present site of the city in 1963.[citation needed] The settlement grew quickly and was granted town status in 1969.[citation needed]

From October 2005 until December 2006, Mikhail Khodorkovsky was jailed in Krasnokamensk on his conviction for tax evasion and fraud.[11]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Krasnokamensk serves as the administrative center of Krasnokamensky District, to which it is directly subordinated.[1] As a municipal division, the town of Krasnokamensk, together with one rural locality (the settlement of Oktyabrsky), is incorporated within Krasnokamensky Municipal District as Krasnokamensk Urban Settlement.[4]

EconomyEdit

The town is best known for its uranium mine – Priargunsky mine – the largest in Russia, located 10–20 km[12] from Krasnokamensk. Priargunsky represents one of the largest uranium reserves in Russia having estimated reserves of 71.9 million tonnes of ore grading 0.16% uranium.[13]

The full name of the complex is the Priargunsky Mining-Chemical Production Association (PPGHO), which consists of a uranium mines, processing mills and tailings as well as a lignite mine and power plant along with a manganese casting plant and mill.[12]

In 1995, 5 million pounds of uranium were produced.[14] In 1996, it was reported that over the previous 17 years, 10 km of stream bed had been contaminated with radiation levels of 170 microroentgen/hr, 10 times the world-wide average.[14] In 1998 it was reported that the area produced 2,470 tonnes of uranium contained in ore and that over the lifetime of the mine, more than 100,000 tonnes had been mined.[15] In 1998 and 2002 it was reported that this location was the only active uranium production location in Russia during the previous decades.[12] In 2001, it was reported the area was once the world's largest uranium mining and processing center and in 2001 it was the world's fifth largest.[16] In 2001, it was reported that the uranium deposit could be depleted by 2026.[16] In 2006, the area produced 2900 tonnes of uranium, which made it the fourth largest producer with 7% of the total world production.[17][18]

Molybdenum is also mined in the town's vicinity, with associated chemical plants producing sulfuric acid and lubricants.[citation needed]

PollutionEdit

According to the Blacksmith Institute, Krasnokamensk has generated fifty to seventy-five million tons of tailings, making it the largest waste stream at a uranium production site in the world. A Baley community survey documents hundreds of homes with radiation levels as much as 10–20 times the permissible levels. About 500–1000 homes or more suffer from radiation exposures far above international standards.[19]

In recent years, the dangerously high levels of radioactivity led to evacuation and resettlement of residents living near the tailing dumps.

TransportEdit

A branch railway has connected the town to Russia's rail network since 1972. Krasnokamensk is served by the Krasnokamensk Airport.

ClimateEdit

Despite its relatively southerly latitude in Siberia, Krasnokamensk has a monsoon influenced subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwc), bordering very closely on a humid continental climate (Dwb). The summers are short but very warm whereas winters are severely cold. Precipitation is heavily concentrated in the warmest months.

Climate data for Krasnokamensk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −20.4
(−4.7)
−15.5
(4.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
8.0
(46.4)
17.6
(63.7)
24.1
(75.4)
26.0
(78.8)
23.3
(73.9)
16.4
(61.5)
6.7
(44.1)
−7.4
(18.7)
−17.8
(0.0)
4.7
(40.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.8
(−16.2)
−23.1
(−9.6)
−12.6
(9.3)
1.0
(33.8)
9.9
(49.8)
16.7
(62.1)
19.8
(67.6)
17.1
(62.8)
9.6
(49.3)
0.0
(32.0)
−13.8
(7.2)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−2.2
(28.1)
Average low °C (°F) −33.1
(−27.6)
−30.6
(−23.1)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−6.0
(21.2)
2.2
(36.0)
9.4
(48.9)
13.6
(56.5)
10.9
(51.6)
2.8
(37.0)
−6.7
(19.9)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−9.0
(15.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
4
(0.2)
12
(0.5)
21
(0.8)
56
(2.2)
107
(4.2)
80
(3.1)
39
(1.5)
8
(0.3)
4
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
340
(13.4)
Source: [20]

Sister cityEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai
  2. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Law #317-ZZK
  5. ^ Law #316-ZZK
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Федеральное агентство по технологическому регулированию и метрологии. №ОК 033-2013 1 января 2014 г. «Общероссийский классификатор территорий муниципальных образований. Код 76 621 101». (Federal State Statistics Service. Federal Agency on Technological Regulation and Metrology. #OK 033-2013 January 1, 2014 Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations. Code 76 621 101. ).
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Where is Khodorkovsky? – Report from the Westdeutschen Rundfunk (German)
  12. ^ a b c Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.; Chernigov, V.G.; Ovseichuk, V.A. (2002). Uranium production and environmental restoration at the Priargunsky Centre, Russian Federation (Report). International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  13. ^ "Russia's nuclear fuel cycle". world-nuclear.org. 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  14. ^ a b Robinson, Paul (Winter 1996–97). "The Uranium Mines of Siberia". Earth Island Journal. Vol. 12, no. 1. pp. 8–9. JSTOR 43882800. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  15. ^ OECD/NEA (2000). Uranium 1999: Resources, Production and Demand (Report). Paris: OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/9789264189898-en.
  16. ^ a b Kaiser, Robert G. (August 8, 2001). "A Uranium Mine's Mother Lode of Reality". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  17. ^ Kok, Kenneth D., ed. (2009). Nuclear Engineering Handbook. CRC Press. p. 259. ISBN 9781420053913. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  18. ^ Belton, Catherine (January 12, 2006), "For Russia, dependence on 'a man-made disaster'", The New York Times, retrieved December 19, 2020
  19. ^ http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org Blacksmith Institute Website
  20. ^ https://en.climate-data.org/location/46066/. Retrieved December 15, 2016. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

SourcesEdit

  • Министерство территориального развития Забайкальского края. 1 января 2014 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Забайкальского края», в ред. Распоряжения №209-р от 10 июня 2014 г.. (Ministry of the Territorial Development of Zabaykalsky Krai. January 1, 2014 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Directive #209-r of June 10, 2014. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №317-ЗЗК от 18 декабря 2009 г. «О границах сельских и городских поселений Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №1070-ЗЗК от 31 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Забайкальского края "О границах сельских и городских поселений Забайкальского края"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Забайкальский рабочий", №239–242, 21 декабря 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Zabaykalsky Krai. Law #317-ZZK of December 18, 2009 On the Borders of the Rural and Urban Settlements of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Law #1070-ZZK of October 31, 2014 On Amending the Law of Zabaykalsky Krai "On the Borders of the Rural and Urban Settlements of Zabaykalsky Krai". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №316-ЗЗК от 18 декабря 2009 г. «О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №770-ЗЗК от 26 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Забайкальского края "О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Забайкальский рабочий", №239–242, 21 декабря 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Zabaykalsky Krai. Law #316-ZZK of December 18, 2009 On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Law #770-ZZK of December 26, 2012 On Amending the Law of Zabaykalsky Krai "On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).

External linksEdit