Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture

Kizilsu[3][4][5] (also as Kezilesu;[5][6] Chinese: 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州; pinyin: Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu) is an autonomous prefecture of Kyrgyz people in the west of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, bordering with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The prefecture has an area of 69,112 km2 (26,684 sq mi) and its capital is Artux.

Kizilsu Prefecture

قىزىلسۇ ئوبلاستى
克孜勒苏州

Kezilesu, Kizil Su,
K’o-tzu-le-su, K’o-tzu-lo-su
Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture, also
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture[1]
克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州
قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى
Yurt of the Kirghiz in Kizilsu
Yurt of the Kirghiz in Kizilsu
Kizilsu Prefecture (red) in Xinjiang (orange)
Kizilsu Prefecture (red) in Xinjiang (orange)
CountryPeople's Republic of China
RegionXinjiang
Elevation1,150-7,000+ m (3,800-23,000+ ft)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
ISO 3166 codeCN-XJ-30
Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese克孜勒蘇柯爾克孜自治州
Simplified Chinese克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese克州
Uyghur name
Uyghurقىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى
Kyrgyz name
Kyrgyzقىزىلسۇۇ قىرعىز اپتونوم وبلاسى
Кызылсуу Кыргыз аптоном обласы
Qızılsuu Qırğız aptonom oblası

EtymologyEdit

Kizilsu, also spelled Kizil Su, means “red water” (克孜勒苏河) in the Kyrgyz language,[7] similar to the name of Kyzyl-Suu, Kyrgyzstan. Kizilsu is transliterated into Chinese characters as '克孜勒苏', which is read in Mandarin Chinese as Kezilesu (pinyin-derived) and K'o-tzu-le-su[8] / K'o-tzu-lo-su (Wade-Giles derived).

The name Kizilsu is similar to that of the nearby Zhetysu region which means "seven rivers".[9] The name of Aksu Prefecture and of Aksu Prefecture's Onsu County (Wensu), which means "ten water" in Uyghur and other Turkic languages, all these names consist of a descriptor followed by 'su' (river; water).[10]

Other nearby places with the word 'kizil' (red) in their names include Kiziloy, Kizil Caves, and Kizilto.

HistoryEdit

On July 14, 1954, Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Region was established. In February 1955, the region was changed to a prefecture as Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture.[11][2]

In 1955, Barin, Jamaterek and Ujme were transferred from Yengisar County to Akto County and Bulungkol was transferred to Akto County from Tashkurgan County in modern Kashgar Prefecture.[12]

In April 1990, the Baren Township riot occurred in Barin Township, Akto County.

In 2018, a policy of voluntary mass sterilization of the farming population in Kizilsu Prefecture was promoted. In 2019, birth rates in Kizilsu Prefecture declined. The prefecture received 1.33 million RMB for birth prevention measures and free surgeries. In 2020, the population growth rate of Kizilsu Prefecture was planned to be significantly reduced.[13]

SubdivisionsEdit

 
Map including the westernmost point of China (DMA, 1982)

Kizilsu directly controls 1 county-level city and 3 counties.

 
(Note: This map does not reflect changes to the China–Tajikistan border.)
# Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Kyrgyz (Arabic script) Kyrgyz (Cyrillic script) Kyrgyz Latin transcription Population (2010 Census) Area (km2) Density (km2)
1 Artux 阿图什市 Ātúshí Shì ئاتۇش شەھىرى Atush Shehiri ارتىش شاارى Артыш шаары Artış şaarı 240,368 15,698 15.31
2 Akto County 阿克陶县 Ākètáo Xiàn ئاقتو ناھىيىسى Aqto Nahiyisi ﺍﻗﺘﻮﻭ وودانى Актоо ооданы Aqtoo oodanı 199,065 24,555 8.10
3 Akqi County 阿合奇县 Āhéqí Xiàn ئاقچى ناھىيىسى Aqchi Nahiyisi اقچئي وودانى Акчий ооданы Aqçiy oodanı 38,876 11,545 3.36
4 Wuqia County[14] 乌恰县 Wūqià Xiàn ئۇلۇغچات ناھىيىسى Ulughchat Nahiyisi ۇلۇۇچات وودانى Улуучат ооданы Uluuçat oodanı 47,261 19,118 2.47

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2000 census, Kizilsu has 439,688 inhabitants with a population density of 6.36 inhabitants per km2. As of 2013, 27% of the inhabitants of the prefecture were Kyrgyz.[4]

Population by ethnicity
Nationality 2000[15] 2010[16]
Population % Population %
Uyghur 281,306 63.98% 339,926 64.68%
Kyrgyz 124,533 28.32% 143,582 27.32%
Han 28,197 6.41% 35,629 6.78%
Tajiks 4,662 1.06% 5,547 1.06%
Hui 432 0.10% 447 0.08%
Kazakhs 88 0.02%
Tibetan 51 0.01%
Tujia 49 0.01%
Uzbek 44 0.01%
Mongol 40 0.01%
Manchu 33 0.01%
Others 558 0.13% 134 0.03%
Total 439,688 100% 525,570 100%

HeadEdit

First secretaryEdit

GovernorEdit

Notable personsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Kirgiz ethnic minority". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 3 September 2020. The Kirgiz ethnic minority, with a population of 143,500, finds 80 per cent of its inhabitants in the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in the southwestern part of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
  2. ^ a b 夏征农; 陈至立, eds. (September 2009). 辞海:第六版彩图本 [Cihai (Sixth Edition in Color)] (in Chinese). 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 1246. ISBN 9787532628599.
  3. ^ "Kirgiz ethnic group". State Council Information Office. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2020. The Kirgiz ethnic minority, with a population of 160,823, finds 80 percent of its inhabitants in the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in the southwestern part of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
  4. ^ a b "Central Officials Visit Kizilsu Region ahead of Xinjiang Autonomy Anniversary". China Central Television Video News Agency. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2020 – via YouTube. Top Chinese political adviser Yu Zhengsheng visited China's westernmost Kizilsu region on Monday, as China prepares to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
    Bordering Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, Kizilsu is the only Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture in the country. Some 27 percent of the local population was Kyrgyz in 2013, local government figures show.
  5. ^ a b "Addition of Certain Entities to the Entity List". Federal Register. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2020. Kezilesu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture Public Security Bureau, including one alias (Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture Public Security Bureau);
  6. ^ Eset Sulaiman, Paul Eckert (11 September 2017). "China Runs Region-wide Re-education Camps in Xinjiang for Uyghurs And Other Muslims". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Eset Sulaiman. Retrieved 21 September 2020. The officer from Ujme Township in Aktu (Aketao in Chinese) County, Kizilsu (Kezilesu) prefecture,
  7. ^ Ole Olufsen (1904). Through the Unknown Pamirs. William Heinemann. p. 5 – via Internet Archive. The Kizilsu Surkhab (Kizilsu being Turkish for Red Water, and Surkhab the Persian for Red Water) has its source near the psas of Ton Murum in Transalai, and, with it broad fertile valley, forms the boundary between the Alai mountains and Transalai, the most northerly range of Pamir.
  8. ^ "PINYIN CONVERSION SPECIFICATIONS" (PDF). Library of Congress. 12 October 2001. p. 10. Retrieved 7 September 2020. 4.3.1.2 If the second of the newly joined syllables begins with the letters a, e or o, precede that letter with an apostrophe; examples:
    K’o-tzu-le-su K’o-erh-k’o-tzu tzu chih chou == Kezilesu Ke’erkezi Zizhizhou
  9. ^ Madeleine Reeves, ed. (2012). "Movement, Power and Place in Central Asia and Beyond: Contested Trajectories". p. 134. ISBN 978-0-415-50353-2. Jeti Suu{...}Seven Waters
  10. ^ "Archived copy" 温宿县人民政府 领导致词 (in Chinese). Wensu (Onsu) County People's Government. 2019-03-22. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2019. 温宿,维吾尔语意为“十股水”CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州历史沿革 [Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2020. 1949年,新疆和平解放,境内阿合奇县辖于新疆省阿克苏专区,阿图什、乌恰等县辖于喀什专区。1954年7月,以柯尔克孜族为自治民族的克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州成立。至此,克孜勒苏才形成一个统一的地区级行政建置。
  12. ^ Xie Yuzhong 解玉忠 (2003). 地名中的新疆 (in Chinese). Ürümqi: 新疆人民出版社. pp. 191–93. ISBN 7-228-08004-1.
  13. ^ Adrian Zenz (21 July 2020). "Sterilizations, IUDs, and Coercive Birth Prevention: The CCP's Campaign to Suppress Uyghur Birth Rates in Xinjiang". China Brief. Retrieved 7 September 2020 – via Jamestown Foundation.
  14. ^ The official spelling according to 中国地名录. Beijing: SinoMaps Press (中国地图出版社). 1997. ISBN 7-5031-1718-4.
  15. ^ 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料. Publishing House of Minority Nationalities. 2003. ISBN 7-105-05425-5.
  16. ^ Stanley W. Toops (August 2012). Susan M. Walcott; Corey Johnson (eds.). Eurasian Corridors of Interconnection: From the South China to the Caspian Sea. Routledge. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-1135078751.
  17. ^ a b Eset Sulaiman, Roseanne Gerin (12 April 2017). "Authorities Urge Kyrgyz Herdsmen to Spy on Uyghurs in China's Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Mamatjan Juma. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  18. ^ "Yueerguli Jiapaer 约尔古丽·加帕尔". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 39°43′N 76°10′E / 39.71°N 76.17°E / 39.71; 76.17