Kingdom of Kapisa
The Kingdom of Kapisa was a state located in Kapisa, in what is now Afghanistan during the late 1st millennium CE. The name Kapisa appears to be a Sanskritized form of a name for the area in prehistory. (Following its conquest in 329 BCE by Alexander the Great, the area was officially renamed Alexandria on the Caucasus.) The kingdom stretched from the Hindu Kush in the north to Bamiyan and Kandahar in the south and west, out as far as Jalalabad District in the east. Between the 7th and 9th centuries, the kingdom was ruled by the Turk Shahi house.
In a 7th-century Chinese chronicle, the Book of Sui, the Kingdom of Kapisa appears to be known as the Kingdom of Cao. In around 600 AD, the Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang made a pilgrimage to Kapisi, and described there the cultivation of rice and wheat, and a king of the Suli tribe. In his chronicle, he relates that in Kapisi were over 6,000 monks of a heretical sect of the Mahayana school of Buddhism.
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