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The Kingdom of Kapisa was a state located in Kapisa, in what is now Afghanistan during the late 1st millennium CE. The name Kapisa appears to be a Sanskritized form of a name for the area in prehistory.[1] (Following its conquest in 329 BCE by Alexander the Great, the area was officially renamed Alexandria on the Caucasus.) The kingdom stretched from the Hindu Kush in the north to Bamiyan and Kandahar in the south and west, out as far as Jalalabad District in the east.[2] Between the 7th and 9th centuries, the kingdom was ruled by the Turk Shahi house.[3]

In a 7th-century Chinese chronicle, the Book of Sui, the Kingdom of Kapisa appears to be known as the Kingdom of Cao.[4] In around 600 AD, the Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang made a pilgrimage to Kapisi, and described there the cultivation of rice and wheat, and a king of the Suli tribe. In his chronicle, he relates that in Kapisi were over 6,000 monks of a heretical sect of the Mahayana school of Buddhism.[5]

At one point, Bagram was the capital of the kingdom, though in the 7th century, the center of power of Kapisa shifted to Kabul.[6]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Dr S. Chattopadhyaya 1974: 58; India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 71, Dr V. S. Aggarwala; Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1979, p. 86, Dr Uma Prasad Thapliyal.
  2. ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan, Volumes 4-6. Asiatic Society of Pakistan, 1959.[1]
  3. ^ Buddha Prakash . Glimpses of ancient Panjab. Sita Ram Kohli memorial lectures. Punjabi University, Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, 1966 [2]
  4. ^ Gandhāran Buddhism: archaeology, art, texts. Asian religions and society series. Pia Brancaccio, Kurt A. Behrendt. UBC Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7748-1080-7, ISBN 978-0-7748-1080-7 [3]
  5. ^ Dust in the wind: retracing Dharma Master Xuanzang's Western pilgrimage. Rhythms Monthly, 2006. ISBN 986-81419-8-2, ISBN 978-986-81419-8-8 [4]
  6. ^ Giovanni Verardi, Elio Paparatti. Buddhist caves of Jāghūrī and Qarabāgh-e Ghaznī, Afghanistan. Volume 2 of Reports and. IsIAO, 2004. ISBN 88-85320-22-8, ISBN 978-88-85320-22-2 [5]