Murder of George Floyd

  (Redirected from Killing of George Floyd)

On May 25, 2020, George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man, was murdered in the U.S. city of Minneapolis by Derek Chauvin, a 44-year-old white police officer.[12] Floyd had been arrested on suspicion of using a counterfeit $20 bill.[13] Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck for over nine minutes while Floyd was handcuffed and lying face-down in a street.[14][15][16] Two other police officers, J. Alexander Kueng and Thomas Lane, assisted Chauvin in restraining Floyd. Lane had also pointed a gun at Floyd's head prior to Floyd being put in handcuffs.[17] A fourth police officer, Tou Thao, prevented bystanders from intervening.[18]

Murder of George Floyd
Police officer Derek Chauvin stares into the camera as he kneels on the neck of George Floyd, who is lying on his stomach on the street
Frame from witness video, showing Derek Chauvin murdering George Floyd by kneeling on his neck
LocationMinneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
Coordinates44°56′04″N 93°15′45″W / 44.93433°N 93.26244°W / 44.93433; -93.26244Coordinates: 44°56′04″N 93°15′45″W / 44.93433°N 93.26244°W / 44.93433; -93.26244
DateMay 25, 2020; 2 years ago (2020-05-25)
c. 8:01–9:25 pm CDT (UTC−5)
Attack type
Murder by suffocation, police brutality
VictimGeorge Perry Floyd Jr., aged 46
Perpetrators
VerdictFederal charges:
Chauvin:
Pleaded guilty
Lane, Kueng, Thao:
Guilty on all counts
State charges:
Chauvin:
Guilty on all counts
Lane:
Pleaded guilty
ConvictionsFederal convictions:
Chauvin, Kueng, Lane, Thao:
Deprivation of rights under color of law resulting in death
Kueng, Thao:
Willfully failing to intervene to stop use of unreasonable force[1]
State convictions:
Chauvin:
Second-degree murder,
third-degree murder, and
second-degree manslaughter[2][3][4]
Lane:
Aiding and abetting second-degree manslaughter[a][5]
Trial
  • MN v. Chauvin 27-CR-20-12646
  • MN v. Thao 27-CR-20-12949
  • MN v. Kueng 27-CR-20-12953
SentenceFederal sentences:
Chauvin:
21 years in prison[6][7]
Kueng:
3 years in prison[8]
Lane:
2+12 years in prison[9]
Thao:
3+12 years in prison[10]
State sentences:
Chauvin:
22+12 years in prison
Lane:
3 years in prison[11]
LitigationCivil lawsuit resulting in a $27 million settlement
ChargesKueng and Thao:
State charges:
Aiding and abetting second-degree murder, aiding and abetting second-degree manslaughter

Prior to being placed on the ground, Floyd had exhibited signs of anxiety, complaining about having claustrophobia, and being unable to breathe.[19] After being restrained, he became more distressed, still complaining of breathing difficulties, of the knee on his neck, and of fear of imminent death.[14] After several minutes, Floyd stopped speaking.[14] For the last few minutes, he lay motionless and Officer Kueng found no pulse when urged to check.[20][21] Despite this, Chauvin ignored pleas from bystanders to lift his knee from Floyd's neck.[22]

The following day, after videos made by witnesses and security cameras became public, all four officers were fired.[23] Two autopsies, and one autopsy review, found Floyd's death to be a homicide.[24][25] On March 12, 2021, Minneapolis agreed to pay $27 million to settle a wrongful death lawsuit brought by Floyd's family. On April 20, Chauvin was convicted of unintentional second-degree murder, third-degree murder, and second-degree manslaughter,[4][26] and sentenced to 22.5 years in prison on June 25.[27] All four officers faced federal civil rights charges.[28] In December 2021, Chauvin pled guilty to federal charges of violating Floyd's civil rights by using unreasonable force and ignoring his serious medical distress.[29][30] The other three officers were also later convicted of violating Floyd's civil rights.[31] Lane pleaded guilty in May 2022 to a state charge for aiding and abetting second-degree manslaughter.[32] Kueng and Thao are scheduled to be tried on state charges of aiding and abetting second-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter on October 24, 2022.[33][34]

Floyd's murder led to worldwide protests against police brutality, police racism, and lack of police accountability.[35][36]

People involved

George Floyd

George Perry Floyd Jr. was a 46-year-old black American born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, and raised in the Third Ward[37] of Houston, Texas.[38][39][40] In 2014, he moved to the Minneapolis, Minnesota, area.[41] He resided in the nearby suburb of St. Louis Park, and was a frequent customer at the Cup Foods convenience store in Powderhorn Park, Minneapolis.[42]

Derek Chauvin

At the time of Floyd's murder, Derek Michael Chauvin, a white American,[43] was a 44-year-old police officer in the Minneapolis Police Department. He had served in the department since 2001.[44][45] Chauvin and Floyd sometimes worked overlapping shifts as security guards for a local nightclub, but the club's former owner was unsure of the extent of their acquaintance.[46][47]

Tou Thao

Tou Thao, a Hmong-American,[48] was aged 34 at the time of Floyd's murder and started as a part-time community service officer in 2008. He graduated from the police academy in 2009. After a two-year layoff, he resumed police work in 2012.[44][49] Six complaints had been filed against Thao, none resulting in disciplinary action. In 2014, a man claimed Thao handcuffed him without cause, threw him to the ground, and punched, kicked, and kneed him; the man's teeth were broken and he was hospitalized.[44][50] The resulting lawsuit was settled for $25,000.[44] Thao kept bystanders away and has been found guilty of violating Floyd's civil rights.[51]

J. Alexander Kueng and Thomas Lane

James Alexander Kueng, then 26, and Thomas Kiernan Lane, then 37,[52][53][54] were licensed as law enforcement officers in August 2019.[53][55] They had trained together.[56] Chauvin was the superior officer responsible for the majority of Kueng's field training.[56] On May 3, 2020, video of an arrest incident in Minneapolis showed Chauvin, Kueng, Lane, and another officer roughly detaining a man on the ground as bystanders pleaded for the officers to show mercy. Kueng and Lane were with Chauvin as the day was part of their field training. The man, whom they detained wrongfully, said he had trouble breathing, and the incident was later said to be similar to the arrest of George Floyd on May 25, 2020.[57][58] Kueng and Lane were in their first week as Minneapolis police officers when Floyd was murdered.[59][52] Lane's application to join the police department had portions covering his prior criminal history redacted, including convictions for obstructing legal process and damaging property when he was 18.[60] Kueng and Lane helped Chauvin to hold Floyd down; both were found guilty of violating Floyd's civil rights.[51]

Arrest and murder

Initial events

 
The intersection of Chicago Avenue and E. 38th Street on May 30, where Floyd was murdered just left of the awning

On the evening of May 25, 2020, sometime before 8:00 pm, Floyd purchased cigarettes at Cup Foods, a grocery store at the intersection of East 38th Street and Chicago Avenue in the Powderhorn Park neighborhood of Minneapolis. A store employee believed Floyd had paid with a counterfeit $20 bill.[61][62] Employees of the store approached Floyd while he was in his vehicle[61]: 1:25 [62]: 1:33 [63] and demanded that Floyd return the cigarettes; he refused.[62]: 1:43 [14] A store employee called the police to report that Floyd had passed "fake bills", was "awfully drunk", and "not in control of himself".[61]: 1:33 [62]: 1:51  The store owner said later that most patrons who pay in counterfeit bills do not realise they are fake, and that the store called the police to "make sure there is no crime being committed".[64] The interaction between Floyd and the employees was recorded by the restaurant's security camera.[61]: 0:49 [62]: 1:24 [65][b]

External video
  Raw police bodycam footage beginning at approximately 8:09 p.m. on YouTube (1 hr 5 mins)

At 8:08, Kueng and Lane arrived, briefly entering Cup Foods before crossing the street to Floyd's SUV,[61]: 1:41 [62]: 2:00  parked in front of a Dragon Wok Minneapolis restaurant. Lane tapped his flashlight on the window, startling Floyd.[66][67] He asked Floyd to show his hands, and tapped again when he did not obey. Floyd apologized as he opened the car door. Lane instructed him three more times to show his hands. Seconds after the door opened, he drew his gun and ordered Floyd to show his hands.[66] When Floyd complied, Lane holstered his weapon.[14][68] Someone parked behind Floyd's SUV began recording a video at 8:10.[61]: 1:56 [62]: 2:28  They briefly struggled,[61]: 2:10  and Lane pulled Floyd from the SUV and handcuffed him.[62]: 2:20  Two other people who were riding in the car with Floyd, including 45-year-old Shawanda Hill, were interrogated. At 8:12, Kueng sat Floyd on the sidewalk against the wall in front of the restaurant.[61]: 2:22 [62]: 2:33 

Lane asked Floyd if he was "on something right now", and Floyd replied "No, nothing". Kueng told Floyd he was acting "real erratic" and Floyd said that he was scared. Kueng asked Floyd about foam around his mouth, to which Floyd responded that he had been "hooping"[c] earlier.[70][75][73] Floyd then said he was calming down, and remarked, "I'm feeling better now."[76]

At 8:13,[61]: 2:30  Kueng and Lane told Floyd he was under arrest and walked him to their police car across the street.[16] The officers then leaned him against the car's door.[61]: 2:42 [62]: 3:00  Floyd told the officers that he was not resisting, but that he was recovering from COVID-19, that he was claustrophobic and had anxiety, and that he did not want to sit in the car.[15][16][62]: 3:10 [19] While Kueng and Lane attempted to put him in the car, Floyd begged them not to, repeatedly saying "I can't breathe" and offering to lie on the ground instead.[16][19][77] A Minneapolis Park Police officer arrived and guarded Floyd's vehicle (across the street by the restaurant) and the two people who had been in it with Floyd.[61]: 2:53 [78]

At 8:17, Chauvin and Thao arrived in a third police car joining Kueng and Lane[61]: 3:32 [62]: 3:27  with Chauvin assuming command.[15] He asked if Floyd was going to jail, and Kueng replied that he was arrested for forgery.[70] Floyd said "I can't fucking breathe" twice.[75] Around 8:18, security footage from Cup Foods shows Kueng struggling with Floyd for at least a minute in the driver side backseat while Thao watches.[61]: 3:54 [62]: 3:49  According to The New York Times, at 8:19, Chauvin pulled Floyd across the backseat from the driver side to the passenger side.[62]: 3:56  Then, according to NPR, Floyd exited the vehicle while being pulled out by police[19] and falling to the pavement.[14]

Chauvin kneels on Floyd's neck

External video
  Witness video showing Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck on YouTube (10 min 8 s)

While Floyd lay on his chest with his cheek to the ground, Chauvin knelt on his neck.[19] Floyd stopped moving around 8:20, though he was still conscious.[61]: 4:10  Multiple witnesses began to film the encounter, and their videos were circulated widely on the internet.[14][62]: 4:06  At 8:20, a witness across the street began recording video showing Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck, Kueng applying pressure to Floyd's torso, and Lane applying pressure to Floyd's legs, while Thao stood nearby.[61]: 4:13 [62]: 4:11 [14] This witness stopped filming when one of the officers ordered him to leave.[62]: 4:35  Also at 8:20, a second person, standing near the entrance of Cup Foods, began recording the incident.[61]: 4:26 [62]: 5:08 [38] Floyd can be heard repeatedly saying "I can't breathe", "Please", and "Mama";[14][61]: 4:44 [62]: 4:28  Lane then asked for an ambulance for Floyd, "for one bleeding from the mouth".[75] Floyd repeated at least 16 times that he could not breathe.[62]: 5:46  At one point a witness said: "You got him down. Let him breathe."[79] After Floyd said, "I'm about to die", Chauvin told him to "relax".[80] An officer asked Floyd, "What do you want?"; Floyd answered, "Please, the knee in my neck, I can't breathe."[80]

At approximately 8:22, the officers called for an ambulance on a non-emergency basis, escalating the call to emergency status a minute later.[61]: 4:50 [62]: 4:42  Chauvin continued to kneel on Floyd's neck.[62]: 5:15  A passerby yelled to Floyd, "Well, get up, get in the car, man", and Floyd, still handcuffed and face down on the pavement, responded, "I can't", while Chauvin's knee remained on his neck.[62]: 5:26  Floyd said, "My stomach hurts, my neck hurts, everything hurts", requested water,[81] and begged, "Don't kill me."[82] One witness pointed out that Floyd was bleeding from the nose.[83] Another told the officers that Floyd was "not even resisting arrest right now".[38] Thao countered that Floyd was "talking, he's fine"; a witness replied that Floyd "ain't fine ... Get him off the ground ... You could have put him in the car by now. He's not resisting arrest or nothing. You're enjoying it. Look at you. Your body language explains it."[83][84] As Floyd continued to cry for help, Thao said to witnesses: "This is why you don't do drugs, kids."[85]

By 8:25, Floyd appeared unconscious, and bystanders confronted the officers about Floyd's condition. Chauvin pulled out mace to keep bystanders away as Thao moved between them and Chauvin.[86][87] Bystanders repeatedly yelled that Floyd was "not responsive right now" and urged the officers to check his pulse.[61]: 5:22 [62]: 6:53 [14] Kueng checked Floyd's wrist but found no pulse;[14] the officers did not attempt to provide Floyd with medical assistance while he was on the ground.[62]: 6:46  According to the criminal complaint against Chauvin, Lane asked Chauvin twice if they should move Floyd onto his side,[88] and Chauvin said no.[62]: 7:02 

Medical response and death

At 8:27, a Hennepin County ambulance arrived.[61]: 5:56 [62]: 7:11  Shortly thereafter, a young relative of the owner of Cup Foods attempted to intervene, but was pushed back by Thao.[61]: 6:03  Emergency medical technicians checked Floyd's pulse.[62]: 7:17  Chauvin kept his knee on Floyd's neck for almost a minute after the ambulance arrived, despite Floyd being silent and motionless.[62]: 7:21 

Around 8:29, Floyd was lifted by paramedics onto a stretcher,[89] then loaded into an ambulance.[62]: 7:43 [14] Lane boarded the ambulance and checked Floyd's pulse at his neck, and a medic instructed him to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.[90] A medical device was placed on Floyd's chest to provide mechanical chest compressions,[90] and the ambulance departed for Hennepin County Medical Center.[61]: 6:35 [62]: 7:43 [14]

En route, the ambulance requested assistance from the Minneapolis Fire Department.[61]: 6:35 [62]: 7:43 [14] At 8:32, firefighters arrived at Cup Foods;[61]: 6:56 [62]: 7:56  according to their report, the police officers gave no clear information regarding Floyd's condition or whereabouts, which delayed their ability to find the ambulance.[62]: 7:56 [91] Meanwhile, the ambulance reported that Floyd was entering cardiac arrest and again requested assistance, asking firefighters to meet them at the corner of 36th Street and Park Avenue. Five minutes later, the fire department reached the ambulance;[62]: 8:10  two fire department medics who boarded the ambulance found Floyd unresponsive and pulseless.[61]: 6:56 

Floyd was pronounced dead at 9:25 at the Hennepin County Medical Center emergency room.[61]: 7:12 [62]: 8:28 [14][92]

Investigations and criminal charges

Minneapolis police response

Early on May 26, the Minneapolis Police Department issued a statement which said nothing about Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck:[93][94][95] "After Floyd got out of his car, he physically resisted officers. Officers were able to get the suspect into handcuffs and noted he appeared to be suffering medical distress."[96] Hours later, witness and security camera video circulating on the Internet showed Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck.[97] The department updated its statement[98] by stating that new information had "been made available" and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was joining the investigation.[96] The four officers were briefly placed on paid administrative leave[23] before being fired later that day.[99]

Autopsies

Two sets of autopsy results publicized on June 1, 2020, determined that Floyd's death was a homicide.[100][101] The conclusions, one by a local government official and one by doctors working for Floyd's family, differed over whether there were contributing factors, and whether the agreed cause, restraint and neck compression, was combined with subdual or asphyxiation.[101]

Andrew Baker, a pathologist and the chief medical examiner for Hennepin County since 2004, performed an autopsy examination at 9:25 a.m. on May 26.[102][103] Prosecutors filing charges against Chauvin summarized portions of preliminary findings in court documents that were released publicly on May 29.[104] His final autopsy findings,[105][102] issued June 1,[106] found that Floyd's heart stopped while he was being restrained and that his death was a homicide caused by "cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint, and neck compression".[107]

Fentanyl intoxication and recent methamphetamine use may have increased the likelihood of death.[108][109] Other significant conditions were arteriosclerotic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease, including an enlarged heart, one artery 90% blocked, and two others 75% narrowed.[110][105][111] The report states that on April 3 Floyd had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, but does not list it as a fatal or other significant condition.[112][113]

Attorneys for Floyd's family announced on May 29 that they would commission a second autopsy.[114] It was carried out on May 31 by Michael Baden, a pathologist and former New York City chief medical examiner, and by Allecia Wilson, a pathologist and director of autopsy and forensic services at the University of Michigan Medical School.[115][116] They announced their results on June 1, a few hours before Baker's final findings were issued.[117] From the evidence available to them, which did not include a toxicology report or unspecified bodily samples, they found that Floyd's death was a homicide caused by asphyxia due to neck and back compression.[118][115][110] Also, Floyd had no underlying medical problem that contributed to his death.[119] They said that neck compression affected blood flow to the brain,[110] that ability to speak does not imply ability to breathe,[119] and that Floyd apparently died at the scene.[117]

It was revealed in August 2020 that the United States Department of Justice had the Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner review the state's official autopsy results, with the review agreeing with the Hennepin County Medical Examiner's findings, including that the death was a homicide. The Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner added that the police "subdual and restraint had elements of positional and mechanical asphyxiation".[25][120][121][122]

Federal investigation

On May 26, the FBI announced it was reviewing the incident at the request of the Minneapolis Police Department.[123][124] On May 28, the United States Department of Justice released a joint statement with the FBI, saying that their investigation into Floyd's murder was "a top priority" and outlining the investigation's next steps: a "comprehensive investigation will compile all available information and thoroughly evaluate evidence and information obtained from witnesses ... If it is determined that there has been a violation of federal law, criminal charges will be sought".[55][125][126]

Failed plea bargain

On May 28, state and federal prosecutors held a press conference at a regional FBI office in Brooklyn Center, a Minneapolis suburb, in what was anticipated to be a major development to the case against the officers who were at the scene of Floyd's murder.[127] Hennepin County Attorney Michael O. Freeman, the local official with jurisdiction to bring forth criminal charges for police misconduct, said his office needed more time to investigate.[128] In explaining the anticipation of the media briefing and its two-hour delayed start, U.S. Attorney Erica MacDonald said, "I thought we would have another development to talk to you about, but we don't." On June 9, it was revealed that state and federal prosecutors had discussed a plea deal with Chauvin that would have included state murder charges and federal civil rights charges,[127] but the deal fell apart when United States Attorney General William Barr rejected it.[129] Chauvin believed his prospects of winning at trial could be poor, and was willing to plead guilty to third-degree murder for a ten-year prison sentence. As he would have gone to federal prison, the federal government was involved. Barr worried that protestors might view the agreement as too lenient and prefer a full investigation.[129]

State criminal charges

On May 29, Chauvin was charged with third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter, and was held at Oak Park Heights state prison. According to the criminal complaint, police are trained that the neck restraint that he applied "with a subject in prone position is inherently dangerous".[130] He was the first officer in Minnesota to be charged in the death of a black civilian.[131][132] On June 3, the charge against Chauvin was upgraded to second-degree murder, and the three other officers were charged with aiding and abetting second-degree murder as well as aiding and abetting second-degree manslaughter.[133][d] The officers were held in jail after the state criminal charges were filed. Ahead of the trials, the four officers were released on bail. Lane was released first on June 10,[135][136] Kueng on June 19,[137] and Thao July 4.[138] Chauvin was released on October 7 after posting a $1 million bond.[139]

State civil rights action

The Minnesota Department of Human Rights opened an investigation into the practices of the Minneapolis Police Department on June 2.[140][141] On June 5, the Minneapolis City Council authorized the mayor to enter a restraining order with the State of Minnesota banning chokeholds and neck restraints, requiring police officers to intervene against other officers' use of excessive force, and requiring authorization from the police chief or other designate before using crowd-control weapons such as chemical agents and rubber bullets.[142][143] On June 8, a Hennepin County Court judge ordered the Minneapolis Police Department to cooperate with a civil rights investigation, and extended the restrictions on the department to require that the chief make discipline decisions in a timely and transparent manner, and that civilian analysts and investigators in the city's Office of Police Conduct Review be given authority to audit body-worn camera footage and to file or amend complaints on behalf of the Minneapolis Civil Rights Department.[144][145][146]

In April 2022, the results of the state investigation into the Minneapolis Police were announced and it was found that the city and the police department engaged in a "pattern or practice of race discrimination" and that the organizational culture of the department had "flawed training and emphasized a paramilitary approach" with a lack of accountability.[147][148]

Federal civil rights charges

In February 2021, the United States Department of Justice empaneled a grand jury in Minneapolis as part of a federal investigation into Chauvin.[149] On May 7, 2021, all four officers were indicted on federal charges of civil rights violations.[150] Chauvin was indicted for violating George Floyd's civil rights, along with a teenager who survived a similar restraint in 2017.[151] The other three officers also face charges for violating Floyd's civil rights. Thao, Lane, and Kueng appeared at a hearing virtually, and each posted $25,000 bond. Chauvin did not appear at this hearing, and remained in jail while awaiting sentencing for his state charges.[151]

Civil litigation and settlement

The family of George Floyd filed a wrongful death lawsuit in federal court in July 2020 against the City of Minneapolis and the four former police officers involved in the murder. The complaint said Floyd's Fourth Amendment rights were violated by "excessive use of unjustified, excessive, illegal, and deadly force." The lawsuit did not specify the amount of monetary damages the family sought.[152]

On March 12, 2021, the City of Minneapolis announced a settlement with Floyd's family for $27 million. It was approved unanimously by the City Council. Family lawyer Ben Crump described it as the "largest pre-trial settlement in a civil rights wrongful death case in U.S. history." The settlement surpassed the previous record for Minneapolis of $20 million, paid in 2019 in the killing of Justine Damond. The city allocated $500,000 "for the benefit of the community around 38th and Chicago", the street intersection where Floyd was murdered.[153]

Trials and plea agreements

Criminal trial of Chauvin

External video
  Pioneer Press Live Stream of Derek Chauvin trial on YouTube (1 hr 44 min 58 s)

Chauvin's trial commenced in Minneapolis on March 8, 2021, in Hennepin County District Court.[154] Opening statements occurred on March 29, 2021, and closing arguments on April 19, 2021.

On April 20, 2021, the jury found Chauvin guilty of all charges, including second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder, and second-degree manslaughter.[155][156] He was the first white Minnesota police officer to be convicted of murdering a black person. It was only the second time an officer has been convicted of murder in Minnesota, the first being the third-degree murder conviction of Somali-American officer Mohamed Noor in the shooting of Justine Damond, a white woman.[157] Following Chauvin's conviction, Judge Cahill revoked his bail and Chauvin was taken back into police custody due to flight risks and the dangers of publicity that this case has brought.[158][159]

Chauvin was given a sentence of 22.5 years in custody.[155] On May 12, 2021, Judge Cahill allowed for the prosecution to seek a greater prison sentence than the 12.5-year state guideline after finding that Chauvin treated Floyd "with particular cruelty."[160][161] Chauvin filed an appeal on April 27, 2022.[162]

Federal civil rights proceedings

The federal civil rights trial was initially scheduled to include all four officers—Chauvin, Kueng, Lane, and Thao—and begin in January 2022 with U.S. District Judge Paul Magnuson presiding. The four officers were charged federally with abusing their positions as police officers, depriving Floyd of his constitutional rights to be "free from the use of unreasonable force", and failing to give medical aid. All four officers pled not guilty to the charges at a September 14, 2021, arraignment hearing. Chauvin faced an additional federal charge for a 2017 arrest incident of a 14-year old in Minneapolis that he initially pled not guilty to.[28][163][164] In late 2020, prior to the trial, lawyers for Thao, Lane, and Kueng had sought to sever their case from Chauvin's. In a hearing on November 29, 2021, Magnuson ruled that all four officers would stand trial together.[163]

Chauvin's guilty plea

Chauvin requested a hearing in December 2021 to offer a revised plea to the federal charges, a legal move that did not apply to the other three officers.[165] He pled guilty on December 15, 2021, to the federal charges of violating the rights of Floyd and for the charge related to the 2017 incident.[29] Chauvin admitted to willfully violating Floyd's constitutional right to be free from unreasonable seizure, including the right to be free from unreasonable force by a police officer.[29] Chauvin also admitted to willfully violating Floyd's constitutional right not to be deprived of liberty without due process of law, including the right to be free from a police officer's deliberate indifference to Floyd's serious medical needs.[30] On July 7, 2022, Judge Magnuson sentenced Chauvin to 21 years, with roughly 17 incarcerated and 5 under supervised release, that will be served concurrently with his state criminal sentence.[166]

Trial of Kueng, Lane, and Thao

 
Security fencing at the Warren E. Burger Federal Building in Saint Paul, Minnesota, January 23, 2022

The federal civil rights trial of Kueng, Lane, and Thao was held at at a courtroom in the Warren E. Burger Federal Building in Saint Paul, Minnesota.[163][167] Jury selection began on January 20, 2022,[168] and opening statements were given by both sides on January 24.[169][170] The 12-person jury seated for the trial was drawn from across Minnesota. The racial makeup of the jury was described by The New York Times as appearing to be all-white, a contrast to the more racially diverse jury during Chauvin's criminal trial.[171]

The prosecution's first witness, Katie Blackwell, testified for three days about the department's training and policies regarding use of force.[172] During her testimony, Blackwell stated that the officers should have moved Floyd onto his side to prevent him having a cardiac arrest. Andrew Baker, who performed Floyd's autopsy, also took the stand to repeat his testimony from Chauvin's trial.[173]

The court postponed trial proceedings until February 7, after Lane tested positive for COVID-19.[174][175] On February 7, Officer Nicole Mackenzie testified that Kueng and Lane were in a medical training course that she instructed, and that her course included lessons in first aid.[176] Dr. David Systrom, a pulmonologist, testified that Floyd's chances of survival could have "doubled or tripled" if the officers performed CPR on him.[177]

On February 14, use-of-force expert Tim Longo testified that Chauvin was acting outside of department protocol and the other officers should have intervened to save Floyd,[178] although Lane's defense questioned this view.[179] Testimony was also heard from Darnella Frazier, who filmed the initial arrest and Floyd's subsequent murder. The prosecution rested with this testimony.[179]

On February 15, Tou Thao took the stand to testify in his own defense.[180] Thao claimed that he was not aware that Floyd was suffering medical problems until he was taken into the ambulance, and that the technique of kneeling on a detainee's neck was "not uncommon", although he denied having ever done so.[181] He admitted that neither Chauvin nor any other officers had administered CPR to Floyd, but claimed he took this to indicate Floyd was breathing.[182] Thao also stated that his main role at the scene was "crowd control" rather than to assess Floyd's condition.[183][182]

On February 22, closing arguments were heard. Prosecutor Manda Sertich stated that Kueng, Lane, and Thao "chose to do nothing" while Floyd was dying. Defense attorneys stated that the former officers were inexperienced, improperly trained, and that they did not willfully violate Floyd's civil rights.[184]

After deliberating for 13 hours over two days, the jury on February 24 found the former officers guilty on all counts they faced at trial. All three officers were convicted of willfully violating Floyd's constitutional rights by not providing medical care when he lost a pulse. Kueng and Thao were also found guilty of failing to intervene to stop Chauvin from using unreasonable force. After finding them guilty, the jury concluded that the cause of Floyd's death was Chauvin's restraint, which permitted the judge to consider a lengthier sentence than the recommended three to four years in prison.[185][186] The three officers remained free on bond while they awaited a sentencing hearing.[171][187]

In July 2022, Judge Magnuson sentenced Lane to 2.5 years in prison,[9] Kueng to three years in prison,[188] and Thao to 3.5 years in prison.[188]

Criminal proceedings for Kueng, Lane, and Thao

The state criminal trial of Kueng, Lane, and Thao was delayed several times to allow the federal civil rights case to proceed first.[189] In a ruling on April 26, 2022, Judge Peter Cahill, who also presided over Chauvin's trial, ordered that the proceedings of the trial would not be livestreamed.[190]

Lane's guilty plea; Kueng and Thao reject plea deal

On May 18, 2022, Lane pleaded guilty in Hennepin County court to the charge of aiding and abetting manslaughter related to the murder of George Floyd. The charge against Lane for aiding and abetting second-degree murder was dismissed. Lane agreed to a three-year sentence, with two years in prison, to be served concurrently with his civil rights federal conviction, though the federal sentencing for Lane was not formalized until a July 21, 2022 court hearing.[9][11][32]

At a pre-trial hearing on June 21, 2022, Judge Cahill rejected a motion by attorneys for Kueng and Thao for a change in venue, and the judge set a trial start date in Hennepin County for October 24, 2022.[33][191] The state offered Kueng and Thao a plea deal. In exchange for pleading guilty to the state charge of aiding and abetting manslaughter, the state would drop the abetting second-degree murder charge and the pair would received a three-year prison sentence to be served consecutively with their federal sentence, but they rejected it at a court hearing on August 15, 2022.[192]

Trial of Kueng and Thao

The trial of Kueng and Thao is scheduled to begin on October 24, 2022.[33][191]

Reaction

Protests

 
A protest march in Minneapolis, May 26, 2020

Floyd's murder resulted in a global protest movement against historic racism and police brutality. In the United States, protests of racial injustice in mid 2020 were the largest since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, and gave way to widespread civil unrest.[193] Protests began locally on May 26 in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area before quickly, within a few days, spreading nationwide and in over 60 countries internationally supporting Black Lives Matter. Over 2,000 cities in the United States had seen demonstrations as of June 13.[194][195] While the majority of protests were peaceful,[196] demonstrations in some cities descended into riots and looting,[197][198] with more being marked by street skirmishes and significant police brutality, notably against peaceful protesters and reporters.[199][200] At least 200 cities in the U.S. had imposed curfews by June 3, while more than 30 states and Washington, D.C, activated over 62,000 National Guard personnel due to the mass unrest.[201][202][203]

The protests were initially peaceful, but later there was vandalism of stores. At the 3rd Precinct police station in Minneapolis, windows were broken, a fence was pulled down, and the front entrance was broken into, causing police officers to fire less than lethal rounds at the crowd from the building's roof. After staff evacuated the building, it was set on fire.[204][205][206][207] A six-story, 200-unit apartment building under construction was also burned.[204] Police in riot gear used tear gas, flash grenades, rubber bullets and smoke bombs, and some protesters threw rocks at the police.[208][209] The media highlighted the apparent differences in aggression between the police response to these protests versus the more restrained response to the 2020 United States anti-lockdown protests featuring gun-wielding white protesters.[209][210] This sentiment also spread on social media by groups such as Black Lives Matter.[211][non-primary source needed][212]

While peaceful protests continued, others again became violent after sundown, with the pattern repeating for several days.[213][54] More than 1,500 businesses were vandalized or destroyed in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area,[214] including 67 destroyed by fire.[215]

Following the rioting, a nighttime curfew in Minneapolis–Saint Paul and Dakota County was established on May 29. 500 Minnesota National Guard soldiers were later dispatched to the area to enforce the curfew,[216] but to little effect, with about 1,000 protesters being able to march peacefully on Interstate 35 well into curfew.[217]

 
A memorial vigil at Yates High School, from which Floyd graduated, in Houston, Texas

Mass protests demanding justice for George Floyd, in some cases also to demonstrate against issues with police brutality in their own countries, took place in over 2,000 cities in the United States and around the world,[218] By May 30, 12 U.S. states called up the National Guard,[219] and at least 12 major cities imposed curfews that weekend.[220] By June 14, protests had extended into a third week after Floyd's murder in many cities, accompanied by calls to reform and defund police departments throughout the United States.[195]

Memorials

 
A makeshift memorial outside the store where Floyd was murdered
 
Along Floyd's funeral procession route in Pearland, Texas, on June 9

The area near the location where Floyd was murdered became a makeshift memorial throughout May 26, with many placards paying tribute to him and referencing the Black Lives Matter movement.[221] As the day progressed, more people came to demonstrate against Floyd's murder. Hundreds of people,[222][223][208][224] then marched to the 3rd Precinct of the Minneapolis Police.[208] Participants used posters and slogans with phrases such as "Justice for George", "I can't breathe", and "Black Lives Matter".[225] On September 18, the Minneapolis City Council approved designating the section of Chicago Avenue between 37th and 39th Streets as George Perry Floyd Jr. Place, with a marker at the intersection with 38th Street where the incident took place. The intersection has been closed and occupied by demonstrators who said they won't leave until their demands regarding anti-racism and property tax are met.[226]

A public memorial, with Al Sharpton delivering the eulogy, was held June 4 at North Central University in Minneapolis.[227] A public viewing and a family memorial was held in Raeford, North Carolina on June 6, near Floyd's hometown.[228] Floyd's family held a public memorial in Houston on June 8, and a private service on June 9. The family said professional boxer Floyd Mayweather paid for the services.[229][230] Floyd's body was on public view on June 8 in his hometown of Houston. Former Vice President and the 2020 presumptive and eventual Democratic nominee, Joe Biden, met with the Floyd family privately and gave a video message at the funeral. Floyd is buried next to his mother in Pearland, Texas.[231][232][233]

The length of time that Chauvin was originally reported to have had his knee on Floyd's neck, 8:46, was widely commemorated as a "moment of silence" to honor Floyd.[234][235] It was also used in chants, protest signs, and messages,[236] as were the words "I can't breathe".[237]

Other reactions

A variety of people and organizations reacted to Floyd's murder. Numerous statues and monuments honoring persons or events associated with slavery and racism were vandalized, removed, or destroyed during the protests in the U.S. and elsewhere.

Aftermath

Darnella Frazier, the 17-year-old who filmed Floyd's restraint on her cell phone, received the 2020 PEN/Benenson Courage Award from PEN America.[238][239] The award was presented to her at an awards ceremony in December 2020 by film director Spike Lee.[238] PEN America CEO Suzanne Nossel said that Frazier's act sparked a "bold movement demanding an end to systemic anti-black racism and violence at the hands of police."[240][241] In June 2021, Frazier also received a special citation from the Pulitzer Prize committee in 2021 for her video.[242] The staff of the Star Tribune received the prize for Breaking News Reporting for their coverage of protests.[243]

Chokeholds and other neck restraints were banned or restricted by at least 17 state legislatures in the year after Floyd's murder.[244]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Lane was originally charged with aiding and abetting both second-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter, but the first charge was dropped after a plea deal.
  2. ^ Footage begins at 7:50 pm[61]: 0:55  The timestamp on the video is 24 minutes ahead of actual time, according to the restaurant's owner.[61]: 1:03 [62]: 1:29 
  3. ^ The Washington Post, the Star Tribune, and the Associated Press suggest "hooping" is a reference to basketball.[69][70][71] The Los Angeles Times, The Sunday Times, and USA Today suggest "hooping" is a reference to drug use.[72][73][74]
  4. ^ According to Mitchell Hamline law professor Ted Sampsell-Jones, Chauvin was charged with second-degree felony murder, not second-degree intentional murder, which is possible because Minnesota is one of two jurisdictions that rejects the merger doctrine and allows the use of assault as a predicate felony.[134] Though a charge of second-degree intentional murder could have exposed Chauvin under state sentencing guidelines to the possibility of a presumptive sentence as long as 306 months, second-degree felony murder carries the same presumptive sentence as the previous charge of third-degree murder: 180 months.[134] Another issue with invoking the felony murder doctrine is that Minnesota law allows the trial court judge to make the requisite finding that the predicate felony posed a "special danger to human life", which may conflict with federal case law requiring every fact essential to a criminal sentence to be submitted to the jury at trial.[134]

References

  1. ^ "Three Former Minneapolis Police Officers Convicted of Federal Civil Rights Violations for Death of George Floyd". February 24, 2022.
  2. ^ McCaskill, Nolan D.; Forgey, Quint. "Derek Chauvin convicted of murdering George Floyd". Politico. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  3. ^ Xiong, Chao; Walsh, Paul; Olson, Rochelle. "Derek Chauvin convicted of murder, manslaughter in death of George Floyd". Minneapolis Star Tribune. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  4. ^ a b Forliti, Amy. "What were charges against Chauvin in Floyd death?". ABC News. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  5. ^ Osborne, Mark; Hutchinson, Bill (May 18, 2022). "Former police officer Thomas Lane pleads guilty to manslaughter in killing of George Floyd". Yahoo! News.
  6. ^ "Chauvin Gets 21 years for Violating Floyd's Civil Rights".
  7. ^ "A federal judge accepts Derek Chauvin's plea deal and will sentence him to 20 to 25 years". CNN. May 4, 2022.
  8. ^ "Ex-cops Kueng, Thao sentenced for violating Floyd's rights". Associated Press. July 27, 2022.
  9. ^ a b c Montemayor, Stephen (July 21, 2022). "Ex-officer Thomas Lane sentenced to 2 1/2 years in prison for violating George Floyd's civil rights". Star Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  10. ^ "Ex-cops Kueng, Thao sentenced for violating Floyd's rights". Associated Press. July 27, 2022.
  11. ^ a b Olson, Rochelle (May 18, 2022). "Ex-MPD officer Thomas Lane pleads guilty to manslaughter charge for role in George Floyd's murder". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  12. ^ McGreal, Chris (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin found guilty of George Floyd's murder". The Guardian. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  13. ^ Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Wright, Will (April 19, 2021). "Little has been said about the $20 bill that brought officers to the scene". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2022. Nearly a year after Mr. Floyd’s death, it remains unclear where the bill came from and whether Mr. Floyd committed the crime that brought police officers to the scene.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "George Floyd: What happened in the final moments of his life". BBC News. May 30, 2020. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c Barker, Kim; Eligon, John; Jr, Richard A. Oppel; Furber, Matt (June 4, 2020). "Officers Charged in George Floyd's Death Not Likely to Present United Front". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  16. ^ a b c d Haworth, Jon; Torres, Ella; Pereira, Ivan (June 3, 2020). "Floyd died of cardiopulmonary arrest, tested positive for COVID-19, autopsy shows". ABC News. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  17. ^ "New police footage shows first complete view of George Floyd's death". YouTube.
  18. ^ Chappell, Bill (June 3, 2020). "Chauvin And 3 Former Officers Face New Charges Over George Floyd's Death". NPR. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d e Collins, Jon (July 15, 2020). "Police Bodycam Video Shows George Floyd's Distress During Fatal Arrest". NPR. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
  20. ^ Thorbecke, Catherine (May 29, 2020). "Derek Chauvin had his knee on George Floyd's neck for nearly 9 minutes, complaint says". ABC News. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  21. ^ Higgins, Tucker; Mangan, Dan (June 3, 2020). "3 more cops charged in George Floyd death, other officer's murder charge upgraded". CNBC. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  22. ^ Spocchia, Gino (June 15, 2020). "George Floyd: New footage shows officer ignoring onlooker's calls not to let him die". The Independent. Archived from the original on October 23, 2021. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  23. ^ a b Kaul, Greta (June 1, 2020). "Seven days in Minneapolis: a timeline of what we know about the death of George Floyd and its aftermath". MinnPost. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  24. ^ "Hennepin County Medical Examiner declares George Floyd death homicide". FOX 9. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020. The updated report states that on May 25, George Floyd experienced a cardiopulmonary arrest while being restrained by law enforcement officer(s).
  25. ^ a b "Court filings: Medical examiner thought George Floyd had 'fatal level' of fentanyl in system". FOX 9. August 25, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  26. ^ Arango, Tim; Dewan, Shaila; Eligon, John; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin is found guilty of murdering George Floyd". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  27. ^ "Ex-police officer Derek Chauvin sentenced to over 22 years in jail for George Floyd murder". The Straits Times (Singapore). June 26, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  28. ^ a b Mannix, Andy (November 29, 2021). "Former Minneapolis officers should be tried together in federal case, says magistrate judge". Star Tribune. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  29. ^ a b c Forliti, Amy (December 15, 2021). "Chauvin pleads guilty to federal charges in Floyd's death". Associated Press. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
  30. ^ a b Hutchinson, Bill (December 16, 2021). "Derek Chauvin pleads guilty to federal charges of violating George Floyd's civil rights". ABC News. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  31. ^ Silva, Daniella (February 24, 2022). "3 officers found guilty on federal charges in George Floyd's killing". NBC News.
  32. ^ a b Hauser, Christine (May 18, 2022). "Former Minneapolis Officer Pleads Guilty in George Floyd Case". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  33. ^ a b c Olson, Rochelle (June 21, 2021). "Judge agrees to move trial of two former Minneapolis officers to October in George Floyd's death". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  34. ^ "Judge resets trial to Oct. 24 for 2 ex-cops in Floyd killing". AP NEWS. June 21, 2022. Retrieved August 1, 2022.
  35. ^ "Protests across the globe after George Floyd's death". CNN. June 6, 2020. Archived from the original on September 17, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  36. ^ "George Floyd death: Violence erupts on sixth day of protests". BBC News. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  37. ^ Richmond, Todd (May 28, 2020). "Who was George Floyd? Unemployed due to coronavirus, he'd moved to Minneapolis for a fresh start". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  38. ^ a b c Murphy, Esme (May 26, 2020). "'I Can't Breathe!': Video Of Fatal Arrest Shows Minneapolis Officer Kneeling On George Floyd's Neck For Several Minutes". WCCO-TV. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020. While lying facedown on the road, Floyd repeatedly groans and says he can't breathe.
  39. ^ Gill, Julian (May 27, 2020). "In Houston, friends and family mourn 'gentle giant' George Floyd amid calls for murder charges for cops". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  40. ^ Deng, Boer (May 31, 2020). "An athlete, friend and father – who was George Floyd?". BBC News. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  41. ^ Toone, Stephanie (May 29, 2020). "Floyd's brother tearfully asked for justice and peace following the 46-year-old bouncer's death Thursday". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  42. ^ Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Healy, Jack (June 15, 2020). "Cup Foods, a Minneapolis Corner Store Forever Tied to the Death of George Floyd". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  43. ^ Condon, Bernard; Richmond, Todd (June 7, 2020). "Minneapolis requires cops to stop unreasonable force, but officers in George Floyd's arrest didn't intervene". ABC7news.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  44. ^ a b c d Mannix, Andy (May 26, 2020). "What we know about Derek Chauvin and Tou Thao, two of the officers caught on tape in the death of George Floyd". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  45. ^ Evelyn, Kenya (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd killing: two officers involved previously reviewed for use of force". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  46. ^ Lastra, Ana; Rasmussen, Eric (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd, fired officer overlapped security shifts at south Minneapolis club". ABC 5 Eyewitness News. Minneapolis, MN. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020 – via KSTP.com.
  47. ^ "The Latest: Attorneys seek outside probe of Floyd's death". Associated Press. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  48. ^ Yam, Kimmy (June 1, 2020). "Officer who stood by as George Floyd died highlights complex Asian American, black relations". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  49. ^ Condon, Bernard; Richmond, Todd; Sisak, Michael R. (June 3, 2020). "What to know about 4 officers charged in George Floyd's death". ABC7 Los Angeles. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  50. ^ Kim, Catherine (May 31, 2020). "What we know about the officers involved in George Floyd's death". Vox.com. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  51. ^ a b "Ex-police officers guilty in George Floyd death". BBC News. February 24, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
  52. ^ a b "George Floyd: What we know about the officers charged over his death". BBC News. June 8, 2020. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  53. ^ a b Bjorhus, Jennifer (May 30, 2020). "Derek Chauvin in custody; other officers lay low". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  54. ^ a b Bailey, Holly; Shammas, Brittany; Bellware, Kim (May 28, 2020). "Chaotic scene in Minneapolis after second night of protests over death of George Floyd". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  55. ^ a b Ailworth, Erin; Gurman, Sadie; Kesling, Ben (May 29, 2020). "Minneapolis Police Station Set on Fire as George Floyd Protests Intensify". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  56. ^ a b Xiong, Chao (September 13, 2020). "Former officer's failure to stop the deadly restraint of George Floyd leaves friends perplexed". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  57. ^ Mannix, Andy (February 2, 2021). "Video: Weeks before pinning George Floyd, three of the same officers roughly detained the wrong man". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  58. ^ Vancleave, Mark (February 2, 2021). "Video: Officers involved in George Floyd's death used similar methods before". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  59. ^ Madani, Doha (June 4, 2020). "Ex-Minneapolis cop told other officers 'you shouldn't do this' during George Floyd's arrest, lawyer says". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  60. ^ Orecchio-Egresitz, Haven (June 5, 2020). "One of the officers charged in George Floyd's killing was hired despite having a criminal record and slew of traffic violations". Insider Inc.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Bennett, Dalton; Lee, Joyce; Cahlan, Sarah (May 30, 2020). "The death of George Floyd: What video and other records show about his final minutes". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020. (video @ YouTube Archived June 2, 2020, at the Wayback Machine)
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Hill, Evan; Tiefenthäler, Ainara; Triebert, Christiaan; Jordan, Drew; Willis, Haley; Stein, Robin (May 31, 2020). "8 Minutes and 46 Seconds: How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020. (video @ YouTube Archived June 1, 2020, at the Wayback Machine)
  63. ^ Alexander, Harriet (June 3, 2020). "What happened on the night of George Floyd's arrest and death?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  64. ^ Chapman, Reg (May 28, 2020). "Owner Of Cup Foods, Where Police First Encountered George Floyd, Calls For Justice". WCCO CBS Minnesota. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  65. ^ New Security Video Shows Events Leading Up To George Floyd's Arrest. NBC News. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  66. ^ a b Willis, Haley; Hill, Evan; Stein, Robin; Triebert, Christiaan; Laffin, Ben; Jordan, Drew (August 11, 2020). "New Footage Shows Delayed Medical Response to George Floyd". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 15, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  67. ^ "GRAPHIC: Court releases body cam footage from George Floyd arrest". NBC29.com. CNN. August 11, 2020. Archived from the original on October 4, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  68. ^ "The last 30 minutes of George Floyd's life". BBC News. July 16, 2020. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  69. ^ Bailey, Holly (July 15, 2020). "New police video reveals George Floyd's desperate pleas before his death". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 28, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  70. ^ a b c Olson, Rochelle (July 9, 2020). "Body camera transcripts: George Floyd repeatedly begged police not to kill him". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  71. ^ Forliti, Amy (July 9, 2020). "Officer to Floyd: 'It takes ... a lot of oxygen to talk'". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  72. ^ Read, Richard (August 20, 2020). "Attorney for Minneapolis police officer says he'll argue George Floyd died of an overdose and a heart condition". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 28, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  73. ^ a b Glancy, Josh (August 9, 2020). "George Floyd: murder conviction is far from certain, warn legal experts". The Sunday Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2020 – via The Times online.
  74. ^ Turley, Jonathan (March 17, 2021). "George Floyd death: If Derek Chauvin is acquitted, the three other cases could collapse". USA Today. Archived from the original on March 20, 2021. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  75. ^ a b c "Read the transcript of J. Alexander Kueng's body camera footage during George Floyd call". Star Tribune. July 16, 2020. Archived from the original on July 22, 2020. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  76. ^ Uren, Adam (July 8, 2020). "Bodycam transcript reveals what was said between ex-officers, George Floyd". BRING ME THE NEWS. Archived from the original on February 9, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  77. ^ Collins, Jon (July 15, 2020). "George Floyd killing: Police bodycam video details fatal arrest". MPR News. Archived from the original on August 5, 2020. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  78. ^ George Floyd: Minneapolis police release bodycam footage near in-custody death. ABC 7. May 28, 2020. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  79. ^ Nawaz, Amna (May 26, 2020). "What we know about George Floyd's death in Minneapolis police custody". PBS Newshour. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  80. ^ a b Weill, Kelly; Gustavo, Solomon (May 27, 2020). "'I Can't Breathe': Minneapolis Erupts in Protest After Black Man Dies in Police Custody". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  81. ^ Ockerman, Emma (May 27, 2020). "A Cop Kneeled on a Black Man's Neck Until He Said He Couldn't Breathe. He Died at the Hospital". Vice. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  82. ^ "Four Minnesota police officers fired after death of unarmed black man". BBC News. May 27, 2020. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  83. ^ a b Dakss, Brian (May 26, 2020). "Video shows Minneapolis cop with knee on neck of motionless, moaning man who later died". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  84. ^ Culver, Jordan (May 27, 2020). "What we know about the death of George Floyd: 4 Minneapolis police officers fired after 'horrifying' video hits social media". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  85. ^ Booker, Brakkton (August 14, 2020). "Body Camera Video Of George Floyd And Police Offers New Details Of Deadly Encounter". NPR. Archived from the original on December 17, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  86. ^ Davis, Zuri (May 26, 2020). "Minnesota Man Dies After Video Shows Cop Pressing Knee to His Neck for Nearly 8 Minutes". Reason. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  87. ^ Smith, Rohan (June 2, 2020). "Two of four officers involved in George Floyd's death have fled Minneapolis in fear for their safety". news.com.au. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  88. ^ "Complaint – State of Minnesota v. Derek Michael Chauvin" (PDF). Minnesota District Court, Fourth Judicial District. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 30, 2020. File No. 27-CR-20-12646
  89. ^ "Before his deadly encounter with police, George Floyd had begun a new life in Minnesota". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. May 28, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020. The video ends with paramedics lifting a limp Floyd onto a stretcher and placing him in an ambulance.
  90. ^ a b Xiong, Chao; Sawyer, Liz (July 16, 2020). "Bodycam video shows officer pulled gun on George Floyd early on". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  91. ^ Incident report, # 20-0018197 (PDF). Minneapolis Fire Department (Report). May 25, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  92. ^ Sawyer, Liz (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd Showed No Signs of Life from Time EMS Arrived, Fire Department Report Says". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  93. ^ Mannix, Andy (June 3, 2020). "Minneapolis police cite 'fluid' situation for troubling misinformation released after George Floyd death". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  94. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Eligon, John (May 29, 2020). "Bystander Videos of George Floyd and Others Are Policing the Police". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  95. ^ Hutchens, Gareth (June 7, 2020). "Black Lives Matter protesters have unwittingly recorded the single largest outbreak of police brutality in US history". ABC Online. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  96. ^ a b Hauser, Christine; Taylor, Derrick Bryson; Vigdor, Neil (May 26, 2020). "'I Can't Breathe': 4 Minneapolis Officers Fired After Black Man Dies in Custody". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  97. ^ *Horton, Alex (June 6, 2020). "Videos reveal violence that was contradicted by police accounts". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 21, 2020. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  98. ^ Elder, John (May 26, 2020). "Investigative Update on Critical Incident". Minneapolis Police. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  99. ^ Shammas, Brittany (May 26, 2020). "Four Minneapolis officers are fired after video shows one kneeling on neck of black man who later died". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  100. ^ Woodward, Samantha (March 8, 2021). "A timeline of events leading up to the State v. Chauvin trial". The Minnesota Daily. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  101. ^ a b Taylor, Derrick Bryson (January 6, 2021). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  102. ^ a b "Autopsy Report, George Floyd, Deceased". Hennepin County Medical Examiner. June 1, 2020. ME No.: 20–3700. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020.
  103. ^ Chanen, David (June 11, 2020). "Hennepin County Board reappoints Dr. Andrew Baker as chief medical examiner". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  104. ^ Stanley, Greg (June 19, 2020). "George Floyd's autopsy puts Hennepin County Medical Examiner Andrew Baker in the hot seat". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on February 11, 2021. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  105. ^ a b "Press Release Report: Floyd George Perry" (PDF) (Press release). Hennepin County Medical Examiner. June 1, 2020. Case No: 2020–3700. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2020.
  106. ^ Brooks, Brad (June 2, 2020). "State, independent autopsies agree on homicide in George Floyd case, but clash on underlying cause". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  107. ^ "George Floyd death homicide, official post-mortem declares". BBC News. June 2, 2020. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  108. ^ Furber, Matt; Arango, Tim; Eligon, John (September 11, 2020). "Police Veteran Charged in George Floyd Killing Had Used Neck Restraints Before". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  109. ^ Keefe, Brendan (March 31, 2021). "Evidence details fentanyl levels in Floyd's body". Kare 11. His blood was drawn immediately after death at Hennepin County Medical Center. The official autopsy report shows a concentration of 11 nanograms per milliliter.
  110. ^ a b c Ockerman, Emma (June 2, 2020). "Independent Autopsy Says George Floyd's Death Was a 'Homicide' Due to Asphyxiation". Vice. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  111. ^ Bernstein, Lenny; Bailey, Holly (March 10, 2021). "At the heart of Derek Chauvin's trial is this question: What killed George Floyd?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on March 27, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  112. ^ Neumann, Scott (June 4, 2020). "Medical Examiner's Autopsy Reveals George Floyd Had Positive Test For Coronavirus". NPR. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  113. ^ "Full George Floyd Autopsy Report Released, Says He Tested Positive For COVID-19". WCCO. June 3, 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  114. ^ Carrega, Christina (May 29, 2020). "Independent autopsy requested for George Floyd". ABC News. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  115. ^ a b Pereira, Ivan (June 1, 2020). "Independent autopsy finds George Floyd died of asphyxia". ABC News. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  116. ^ Gors, Michele (June 1, 2020). "Family autopsy: Floyd asphyxiated by sustained pressure". KTTC. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  117. ^ a b Lorenzo, Reyes; Hughes, Trevor; Emmert, Mark (June 1, 2020). "Medical examiner and family-commissioned autopsy agree: George Floyd's death was a homicide". USA Today. Archived from the original on March 4, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  118. ^ Robles, Frances (June 2, 2020). "How Did George Floyd Die? Here's What We Know". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  119. ^ a b Ensor, Josie (June 1, 2020). "Independent autopsy reveals George Floyd died from 'asphyxiation' as lawyers call for first-degree murder charges". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  120. ^ Karnowski, Steve (August 26, 2020). "Prosecutors depict ex-officer as complicit in Floyd's death". Associated Press. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  121. ^ Raguse, Lou (August 26, 2020). "New court docs say George Floyd had "fatal level" of fentanyl in his system". KARE11. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  122. ^ Abdollah, Tami (March 7, 2021). "'Reckless disregard for human life' or 'tragic accident'? Derek Chauvin goes on trial, charged with murder of George Floyd". USA Today. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  123. ^ Hauser, Christine (May 26, 2020). "F.B.I. to Investigate Arrest of Black Man Who Died After Being Pinned by Officer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  124. ^ Evelyn, Kenya (May 27, 2020). "FBI investigates death of black man after footage shows officer kneeling on his neck". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  125. ^ Dwyer, Colin; Romo, Vanessa; Campbell, Barbara; Nuyen, Suzanne (May 28, 2020). "Investigation into George Floyd's Death A 'Top Priority' For Justice Department". NPR. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  126. ^ "Joint Statement Of United States Attorney Erica MacDonald And FBI Special Agent in Charge Rainer Drolshagen". justice.gov (Press release). May 28, 2020. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  127. ^ a b Lyden, Tom (June 9, 2020). "Ex-Minneapolis police officer Chauvin was in talks to plead guilty before arrest". FOX 9. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
  128. ^ Stockman, Farah (July 4, 2020). "'They have lost control': How Minneapolis leaders failed to stop their city from burning". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 14, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  129. ^ a b Arango, Tim (February 10, 2021). "The Killing of George Floyd Tore Minneapolis Apart. Now Comes the Trial". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 10, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  130. ^ "Former MPD Officer Derek Chauvin In Custody, Charged With Murder In George Floyd's Death". CBS Minnesota. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  131. ^ Kim, Catherine (May 31, 2020). "What we know about the officers involved in George Floyd's death". Vox.com. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
  132. ^ Xiong, Chao; Walsh, Paul (May 30, 2020). "Ex-police officer Derek Chauvin charged with murder, manslaughter in George Floyd death". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
  133. ^ "George Floyd Death: All Four Ex-Officers Involved Now Charged, In Custody". CBS Minnesota. June 3, 2020. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  134. ^ a b c Sampsell-Jones, Ted (June 4, 2020). "Explaining the New Second Degree Murder Charge Against Derek Chauvin". The Dispatch. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  135. ^ "Thomas Lane, Ex-Officer Charged In George Floyd's Death, Leaves Jail After Posting Bond". CBS Minnesota. June 10, 2020. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  136. ^ "Attorney for ex-Minneapolis officer involved in George Floyd's death says client is 'not a violent person'". CNN. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  137. ^ Skluzacek, Josh (June 19, 2020). "Another former MPD officer charged in Floyd's death released from jail on bond". KSTP. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  138. ^ Xiong, Chao (July 4, 2020). "Third fired Minneapolis police officer charged in Floyd death is out of jail". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  139. ^ Chappell, Bill (October 7, 2020). "Former Minneapolis Police Officer Derek Chauvin Is Released On $1 Million Bond". National Public Radio. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  140. ^ Karnowski, Steve; Forlit, Amy (June 2, 2020). "Minneapolis police face civil rights probe over Floyd death". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  141. ^ "Civil Rights Investigation into Minneapolis Police Department". Community Newsroom, Minnesota Department of Human Rights. June 3, 2020. Archived from the original on September 7, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  142. ^ Monserud, Andy (June 5, 2020). "Minneapolis Bans Police Chokeholds in First Step of Reforms". Courthouse News Service. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  143. ^ "Minneapolis to ban police chokeholds in wake of Floyd death". Minnesota Public Radio News. Associated Press. June 5, 2020. Archived from the original on September 7, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  144. ^ Villarreal, Daniel (June 9, 2020). "County Court Bans Minneapolis Police From Using Chokeholds". Newsweek. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  145. ^ "MPD to adopt 6 immediate changes after court order". FOX 9. June 8, 2020. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  146. ^ "Court Orders Minneapolis Police Department to Make Immediate Changes". Minnesota Department of Human Rights. June 8, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  147. ^ Ray Sanchez and Omar Jimenez (April 28, 2022). "State probe after George Floyd's killing finds a decade of 'discriminatory, race-based policing' in Minneapolis". CNN. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  148. ^ KSTP, Kirsten Swanson (April 28, 2022). "State report finds Minneapolis Police Department surveilled Black leaders, organizations like Minneapolis NAACP". KSTP.com Eyewitness News. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  149. ^ Arango, Tim; Benner, Katie (February 23, 2021). "With New Grand Jury, Justice Department Revives Investigation Into Death of George Floyd". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  150. ^ "Four Former Minneapolis Police Officers Indicted on Federal Civil Rights Charges for Death of George Floyd; Derek Chauvin Also Charged in Separate Indictment for Violating Civil Rights of a Juvenile". United States Department of Justice. May 7, 2021. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  151. ^ a b Wagner, Meg; Macaya, Melissa (May 7, 2021). "Federal grand jury indicts 4 ex-officers in George Floyd's death". CNN. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  152. ^ Treisman, Rachel; Dwyer, Colin (July 15, 2020). "George Floyd's Family Files Civil Lawsuit Against Minneapolis And Police, Lawyers Say". NPR. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  153. ^ Navratil, Liz; Rao, Maya (March 12, 2021). "Minneapolis to pay record $27 million to settle lawsuit with George Floyd's family". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on March 12, 2021. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  154. ^ Walsh, Paul (March 9, 2021). "First juror is chosen for Derek Chauvin's murder trial as appellate issues loom". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  155. ^ a b Hayes, Mike; Macaya, Melissa; Wagner, Meg; Rocha, Veronica (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin trial verdict: Live updates". CNN. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  156. ^ Forliti, Amy (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin found guilty in death of George Floyd". CTV News. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  157. ^ Haavik, Emily (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin found guilty of murder, manslaughter in death of George Floyd". KARE11.com. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  158. ^ "Derek Chauvin handcuffed after judge revokes bail following guilty verdict". Fox 9 News. April 20, 2021. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  159. ^ Folley, Aris (April 20, 2021). "Chauvin taken into custody, bail revoked after jury finds him guilty of all charges in trial". The Hill. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  160. ^ Walsh, Paul (May 12, 2021). "Judge's ruling echoes prosecution's points, setting stage for Chauvin getting longer sentence". Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  161. ^ Arando, Tim (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin faces three charges. Here's how his sentencing could unfold". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  162. ^ Chappell, Bill (April 27, 2022). "Derek Chauvin appeals his conviction for George Floyd's murder". NPR. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  163. ^ a b c Galioto, Katie (December 4, 2021). "St. Paul to host federal civil rights trial for ex-Minneapolis cops in Floyd's death". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  164. ^ Yancey-Bragg, N'dea (September 14, 2021). "Former Minneapolis police officers plead not guilty to violating George Floyd's civil rights". USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
  165. ^ Mannix, Andy (December 13, 2021). "Derek Chauvin to change plea in federal civil rights case". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
  166. ^ Montemayor S, Stephen (July 7, 2022). "Derek Chauvin sentenced to more than 20 years in federal civil rights case". Star Tribune. Retrieved July 7, 2022. Senior U.S. District Judge Paul Magnuson sentenced the former Minneapolis police officer to 245 months, to be served concurrently with his 22-1/2-year state prison sentence for Floyd's murder. He will also serve five years of supervised release when he leaves custody in roughly 17 years.
  167. ^ "Fence erected around St. Paul federal courthouse ahead of former Minneapolis officers' trial". KSTP-TV. January 4, 2022. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  168. ^ "3 other cops in George Floyd death to stand trial this month". Star Tribune. January 6, 2022. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  169. ^ Bailey, Holly (January 24, 2022). "Opening statements begin in federal trial over George Floyd's killing". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  170. ^ Allen, Jonathan (January 24, 2022). "Three Minneapolis ex-police officers were indifferent to George Floyd's pleas, jury told". Reuters.
  171. ^ a b Arango, Tim; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Senter, Jay (February 24, 2022). "3 Former Officers Are Convicted of Violating George Floyd's Civil Rights". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  172. ^ "Minneapolis police trainer takes stand for third day in trial over Floyd killing". Courthouse News Service. January 31, 2022.
  173. ^ Olson, Rob (February 1, 2022). "MPD federal trial: Testimony from police trainer enters 3rd day". FOX 9.
  174. ^ Olson, Rochelle; Mannix, Andy (February 2, 2022). "Trial of ex-Minneapolis cops postponed by COVID diagnosis". Star Tribune.
  175. ^ "Trial of 3 ex-cops in Floyd killing to resume after COVID pause". MPR News. February 7, 2022.
  176. ^ Karnowski, Steve (February 8, 2022). "Police medical trainer faults officers in Floyd's killing". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  177. ^ Karnowski, Steve; Webber, Tammy (February 7, 2022). "Lung expert: Officers could have saved George Floyd's life". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
  178. ^ Pagones, Stephanie (February 14, 2022). "George Floyd death: Minneapolis police officers' conduct 'inconsistent' with department policy, expert says". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022.
  179. ^ a b Sandberg, Diane; Fischer, Samantha (February 14, 2022). "Prosecution rests after testimony from Darnella Frazier in federal trial of former Minneapolis officers". KARE.
  180. ^ "Tou Thao Testifies In His Own Defense". CBS Minnesota. February 15, 2022. Archived from the original on February 16, 2022.
  181. ^ Niemeyer, Kenneth (February 15, 2022). "Ex-cop Tou Thao testifies that he wasn't aware that George Floyd was having significant medical problems". Insider.
  182. ^ a b Karnowski, Steve; Webber, Tammy (February 15, 2022). "Officer says he assumed fellow cops were caring for Floyd". Associated Press.
  183. ^ "Ex-Cop Tou Thao Testifies in Federal Trial – Charged with Violating George Floyd's Civil Rights – He "had no idea" Floyd Was In Medical Distress". Emily Cottontop. February 17, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
  184. ^ Karnowski, Steve; et al. (February 23, 2022). "Prosecutor: 3 cops in Floyd killing 'chose to do nothing'". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 24, 2022. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  185. ^ Olsen, Rochelle; Mannix, Andy (February 24, 2022). "Ex-Minneapolis officers guilty on all civil rights charges related to George Floyd's death". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  186. ^ Hutchinson, Bill; et al. (February 24, 2022). "Federal jury convicts former cops involved in George Floyd's death". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 24, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  187. ^ Olson, Rochelle; Mannix, Andy (February 25, 2022). "After guilty verdict for ex-Minneapolis officers, prison sentences, state trial's fate hangs in balance". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  188. ^ a b Montemayor, Stephen (July 27, 2022). "Kueng sentenced to 3 years, Thao 3½ years for violating George Floyd's civil rights". Star Tribune. Retrieved July 27, 2022.
  189. ^ Xiong, Chao (May 13, 2021). "State trial postponed to March 2022 for ex-officers charged with aiding and abetting murder in George Floyd death". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  190. ^ "Judge orders no livestream of trial of 3 former Minneapolis police officers". Minnesota Public Radio. April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  191. ^ a b Walsh, Paul (June 6, 2022). "State trial for fired Minneapolis police officers Tou Thao, J. Alexander Kueng delayed until January". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  192. ^ Mannix, Andy (August 15, 2022). "Thao, Kueng reject plea deal offered by state prosecutors in George Floyd killing". Star Tribune. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  193. ^ Silverstein, Jason (June 4, 2021). "The global impact of George Floyd: How Black Lives Matter protests shaped movements around the world". CBS News. Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  194. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Cai, Weiyi; Gianordoli, Gabriel; McCarthy, Morrigan; Patel, Jugal K. (June 13, 2020). "How Black Lives Matter Reached Every Corner of America". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  195. ^ a b Luscombe, Richard; Ho, Vivian (June 7, 2020). "George Floyd protests enter third week as push for change sweeps America". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  196. ^ Lovett, Ian (June 4, 2020). "1992 Los Angeles Riots: How the George Floyd Protests Are Different". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  197. ^ Betz, Bradford (May 31, 2020). "George Floyd unrest: Riots, fires, violence escalate in several major cities". Fox News. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  198. ^ "Widespread unrest as curfews defied across US". BBC News. May 31, 2020. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  199. ^ Kindy, Kimberly; Jacobs, Shayna; Farenthold, David (June 5, 2020). "In protests against police brutality, videos capture more alleged police brutality". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  200. ^ Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 8, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  201. ^ Norwood, Candice (June 9, 2020). "'Optics matter.' National Guard deployments amid unrest have a long and controversial history". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  202. ^ Warren, Katy; Hadden, Joey (June 4, 2020). "How all 50 states are responding to the George Floyd protests, from imposing curfews to calling in the National Guard". Business Insider. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  203. ^ Sternlicht, Alexandra. "Over 4,400 Arrests, 62,000 National Guard Troops Deployed: George Floyd Protests By The Numbers". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  204. ^ a b Woltman, Nick (May 29, 2020). "Minneapolis police precinct abandoned, torched; on Twitter, Trump threatens 'thugs'". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  205. ^ Lee, ArLuther (June 6, 2020). "Police deny link to mysterious Umbrella Man, who broke windows". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  206. ^ Adams, Biba (May 29, 2020). "Masked white man vandalizing Minneapolis AutoZone raises suspicion". The Grio. Entertainment Studios. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  207. ^ Porterfield, Carlie (May 30, 2020). "Who Is 'Umbrella Man'? Mystery Vandal At Minneapolis Riot Spurs Conspiracy Theories". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  208. ^ a b c Wagner, Jeff (May 26, 2020). "Hundreds Of Protesters March in Minneapolis After George Floyd's Deadly Encounter With Police". WCCO. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  209. ^ a b "How US police responded differently to protesters demanding justice for George Floyd and anti-lockdown rallies". SBS News. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  210. ^ Zhou, Li; Amaria, Kainaz (May 27, 2020). "These photos capture the stark contrast in police response to the George Floyd protests and the anti-lockdown protests". Vox. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  211. ^ "Black Lives Matter on Twitter "Biden is currently sending more military equipment to our neighborhoods than Trump did. You read that right. Our communities are being terrorized at a greater rate than they had been under Trump." / Twitter". Retrieved April 21, 2021 – via Twitter.
  212. ^ Naughtie, Andrew (May 29, 2020). "George Floyd death: Tweet showing difference between Michigan and Minneapolis protests goes viral". The Independent. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  213. ^ "Minneapolis Mayor Jacob Frey Addresses City In The Middle Of Night Of Violence". CBS Minnesota. May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  214. ^ "Local businesses damaged by unrest await state aid". www.msn.com. Retrieved December 19, 2021.
  215. ^ Penrod, Josh; Sinner, C.J. (May 31, 2020). "Businesses damaged in Minneapolis, St. Paul after riots". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  216. ^ "Over 500 National Guard soldiers activated to amid protests regarding George Floyd's death; Frey declares state of emergency in Minneapolis". KSTP. May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  217. ^ Almasy, Steve; Andone, Dakin; Karimi, Faith; Sidner, Sara (May 30, 2020). "Unrest mounts across multiple US cities over the death of George Floyd". CNN. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  218. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Cai, Weiyi; Gianordoli, Gabriel; McCarthy, Morrigan; Patel, Jugal K. (June 13, 2020). "How Black Lives Matter Reached Every Corner of America". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  219. ^ "National Guard Called up in 11 States to Handle Protests". Voice of America. May 31, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  220. ^ Kesslen, Ben (May 31, 2020). "Curfews go into effect in cities around the country". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 31, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  221. ^ "In pictures: Protesting the death of George Floyd". CNN. May 27, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  222. ^ "Demonstrators gather around Minneapolis to protest death of George Floyd". KSTP. May 26, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  223. ^ Aguilera, Jasmine; Bates, Josiah (May 27, 2020). "Family and Friends Mourn Minneapolis Police Killing Victim George Floyd". Time. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  224. ^ "Hundreds fill streets in protest of George Floyd's death". Fox 5 San Diego. May 27, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  225. ^ "In pictures: Protesting the death of George Floyd". CNN. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  226. ^ Navratil, Liz (September 19, 2020). "Minneapolis to name stretch of Chicago Avenue for George Floyd". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on October 27, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  227. ^ Yeung, Jessie; George, Steve; Macaya, Melissa; Wagner, Meg; Hayes, Mike; Diaz, Daniella (June 2, 2020). "George Floyd will be remembered at Minneapolis memorial Thursday". CNN. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  228. ^ Burke, Minyvonne (June 6, 2020). "Don't let George Floyd's death 'be in vain,' speakers say at N. Carolina memorial service". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  229. ^ Lemos, Gregory (June 2, 2020). "Floyd family says public memorial service will be held in Houston on Monday". CNN. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  230. ^ Folley, Aris (June 1, 2020). "Floyd Mayweather to cover the costs for George Floyd's funeral, rep says". The Hill. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  231. ^ "Floyd's casket arrives at Houston church for public viewing". Associated Press. June 8, 2020. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  232. ^ Croft, Jay. "Mourners visit George Floyd's casket in Houston to pay respects". CNN. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  233. ^ "George Floyd's Body Returns To Houston For Memorial Service, Funeral". June 7, 2020. Archived from the original on June 7, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  234. ^ Cummings, William; Ledyard King; Christal Hayes (June 8, 2020). "Democrats unveil sweeping police reform bill, honor George Floyd with 8 minutes, 46 seconds of silence". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  235. ^ DeCambre, Mark (June 9, 2020). "New York Stock Exchange observe 8 minutes and 46 seconds of silence in honor of George Floyd's memory". Market Watch. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  236. ^ "8:46: A Number Becomes a Potent Symbol of Police Brutality". The New York Times. Associated Press. June 4, 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  237. ^ Long, Colleen; Hajeela, Deepti (May 29, 2020). "'I Can't Breathe': A Rallying Cry For Protests". WBUR. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  238. ^ a b Walsh, Paul (December 10, 2020). "Minneapolis teen receives prestigious award for recording George Floyd video". Star Tribune. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
  239. ^ "PEN America to Honor Darnella Frazier, Young Woman Who Documented George Floyd's Murder". PEN America. October 27, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
  240. ^ "Adolescente que filmou últimos momentos de George Floyd será premiada por coragem". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  241. ^ "Teen Who Filmed George Floyd's Fatal Arrest To Receive 2020 PEN/Benenson Courage Award". WCCO-TV. October 27, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
  242. ^ www.pulitzer.org (For courageously recording the murder of George Floyd, a video that spurred protests against police brutality around the world, highlighting the crucial role of citizens in journalists' quest for truth and justice.)
  243. ^ Staff (June 11, 2021). "Star Tribune wins Pulitzer for George Floyd reporting; Darnella Frazier also cited". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  244. ^ Eagly, Ingrid V.; Schwartz, Joanna C. (2022). "Lexipol's Fight Against Police Reform". Indiana Law Journal. 97 (1). SSRN 3869120.

Further reading

External links