The Kh-22 (Russian: Х-22; AS-4 'Kitchen') is a large, long-range anti-ship missile developed by MKB Raduga in the Soviet Union. It was designed for use against aircraft carriers and carrier battle groups, with either a conventional or nuclear warhead. Kh-32 is the upgraded conventional/nuclear variant of Kh-22 and was accepted to service in 2016, it features an improved rocket motor and a new seeker head.

Kh-22
(NATO reporting name: AS-4 'Kitchen')
Raduga Kh-22, side view.JPG
Kh-22 at museum
TypeAir-to-surface missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
Used byRussia
Production history
DesignerMKB Raduga
Unit cost$1 million[1]
Produced1962
Specifications
Mass5,820 kg (12,800 lb)
Length11.65 m (38.2 ft)
Diameter92 cm (36 in)
Warhead1,000 kg (2,205 lb) RDX
or 350–1,000 kt (1.5–4.2 PJ) thermonuclear weapon

EngineR-201 Liquid-fuel rocket
Wingspan300 cm (120 in)
PropellantTonka-250 and IRFNA
Operational
range
600 km (320 nmi) (Kh-22M/MA)[2]
Flight ceiling10–14 km (33,000–46,000 ft) or 27 km (89,000 ft)
Maximum speed Mach 4.6 (5,600 km/h; 3,500 mph)[3]
Guidance
system
Inertial guidance followed by terminal active radar homing
Launch
platform
Tu-22M, Тu-22К, Тu-95К22

DevelopmentEdit

After analyzing World War II naval battles and encounters in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Soviet military thinkers concluded that the era of large seaborne battles was over, and that stand-off attacks would be the way to neutralize and incapacitate large battle groups without having to field a similar force against them. Substituting cruise missiles for air attacks, Soviet Air Forces and Soviet Naval Aviation commanders set about to convert their heavy bombers to raketonosets, or missile carriers, which could be launched against approaching enemy fleets from coastal or island airfields. The Kh-22 (Complex 22) weapon was developed by the Raduga design bureau and used to arm the Tupolev Tu-22M.

DesignEdit

The Kh-22 uses a Tumansky liquid-fuel rocket engine, fueled with TG-02 (Tonka-250) and IRFNA (inhibited red fuming nitric acid), giving it a maximum speed of Mach 4.6 and a range of up to 600 km (320 nmi). It can be launched in either high-altitude or low-altitude mode. In high-altitude mode, it climbs to an altitude of 27,000 m (89,000 ft) and makes a high-speed dive into the target, with a terminal speed of about Mach 4.6. In low-altitude mode, it climbs to 12,000 m (39,000 ft) and makes a shallow dive at about Mach 3.5, The missile is guided by a gyroscope-stabilized autopilot in conjunction with a radio altimeter.

Soviet tests revealed that when a shaped charge warhead weighing 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) was used in the missile, the resulting hole measured 5 m (16 ft) in diameter, 19.6 m2 (210 sq ft) in area, and was 12 m (40 ft) deep.[4][5][6][7][8][9][page needed]

By August 2016, Russia was finalizing the trials of the Kh-32 cruise missile, a derivative of the Kh-22. Designed for use by the Tu-22M3 bomber, the missile is designed to climb to 40 km (130,000 ft) to the stratosphere after launch, transition to level flight, then perform a steep dive to the target. The cruise missile version is also designed to target enemy ships, as well as radars, and "radio-contrast targets" like bridges, military bases, electric power plants, and others. The Kh-32 has an inertial navigation system and radar homing head, making it independent of GPS/GLONASS navigation satellites. Presumably, it has a range of 1,000 km (620 mi; 540 nmi) and a speed of at least 5,000 km/h (3,100 mph; Mach 4.1).[10] Apparently the missile entered service in the same year.[citation needed] Thirty-two Kh-22 missiles will be modernized to the Kh-32 level in 2018–2020.[11]

Operational historyEdit

 
Kh-22 under a Tu-22M3

The first combat-ready missiles entered service in 1962.

The missiles were used by Soviet and then Russian Air Forces on the Тu-22K ('Blinder-B') and Tu-95К22 ('Bear-G') strategic bombers. Current main launch platform is the Tupolev Tu-22M3 ('Backfire') long-range strategic bomber.[12][13]

The first combat use of the missile was reported during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. On 11 May 2022, a video emerged on internet showing a Russian Air Force Tu-22M3 strategic bomber launching a pair of two Kh-22 or Kh-32 missiles at targets somewhere in Ukraine.[14]

UK MoD stated that Russia is possibly using anti-ship missiles, like the Kh-22, against ground targets. Such missiles “are highly inaccurate and therefore can cause severe collateral damage and casualties”.[15]

On 9 May 2022, 13 Kh-22 missiles were reportedly fired by the Russian Air Force: seven at Fontanka, a coastal village about 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Odesa, where at least one smashed into the Riviera shopping mall around 10:35 PM (after curfew), killing one, and six at targets in the Donetsk Oblast.[16]

Between 12 May and 25 June 2022, at least 10 other Russian Kh-22 strikes in Ukraine, involving at least 44 missiles in total, were reported in the media.[16]

On 27 June 2022, two Kh-22 or Kh-32 missiles, launched by Russian Tupolev Tu-22M3 bombers, were reportedly used in the Kremenchuk shopping mall attack, killing at least 21 people and injuring at least 59.[17][16] [4] One missile smashed directly into the mall while the other fell about 450 meters away, into the edge of the Kredmash Road Machinery Plant, which primarily manufactures asphalt and concrete mixers, where it injured two of the 100 employees present.[16] Both missiles might have been aimed at the same target since such distance is within the limited accuracy of Kh-22 missiles (according to the international security analyst Sebastien Roblin, ″only half of the shots land within 600 meters of the aiming point″).[16]

In the night between 30 June and 1 July 2022, three Kh-22 missiles were fired from Tu-22M3s into a 9-storey apartment building and a recreational center in Serhiivka, a Ukrainian settlement on the Black sea coast about 70 km (43 mi) south-west of Odessa. A whole section of the apartment building was destroyed. At least 21 people were killed in both strikes, including a 12 year-old boy, and more than 39 wounded, including six children.[18][19][20] Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said of the attack: "Today, the Russian army launched another brutal missile attack. A Russian missile was a supersonic anti-ship cruise missile, by the way. It hit an ordinary residential building in the Odesa region, in the village of Serhiivka. Such Kh-22 missiles were created to hit aircraft carriers and other large warships, but the Russian army used them against an ordinary nine-story building with ordinary civilians."[21]

On 14 September 2022, it was reported at least seven Kh-22 missiles were launched at various hydraulic structures in Kryvyi Rih, including a nearby dam. This caused that the water level of the Inhulets river increased by 2–3 metres (6 ft 7 in – 9 ft 10 in), or even 5–6 metres (16–20 ft). Previously, the Inhulets became too shallow, allowing the Ukrainian army to build pontoon bridges during its southern counteroffensive.[22] However, Ukrainian MoD claimed Kh-101 missiles were used during the missile strike.[23]

VariantsEdit

Two initial versions were built, the Kh-22 with a large conventional warhead and the Kh-22N with a 350–1000-kiloton nuclear warhead.[24] In the mid-1970s this was supplemented by the Kh-22P, an anti-radiation missile for the destruction of radar installations. In the 1970s the Kh-22 was upgraded to Kh-22M and Kh-22MA standard, with new attack profiles, somewhat longer range, and a datalink allowing mid-course updates.

  • Kh-22M/MA — upgraded variants with Mach 3.3 speed and 600 km (370 mi) range. Weighs 5,780 kg (12,740 lb), contains 960 kg (2,120 lb) of RDX.[25][26]
  • Kh-32 — a radically upgraded conventional/nuclear variant of Kh-22 with Mach 5 speed and 1,000 km (620 mi) range.[10] It features an improved rocket motor and a new seeker head. Currently produced for the Tu-22M3 launch platform.[27][28] Warhead weight has been reduced to 500 kg (1,100 lb) to improve range.[29]
 
Kh-22 under a Tu-22M3

OperatorsEdit

  Russia

Former operatorsEdit

  Soviet Union
  Ukraine
  • 423 scrapped after Ukrainian Tu-22M fleet's decommission.[30]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Landa, Volodymyr; Gnenny, Konstantin. "Over the weekend, Russia launched missiles worth about $200 million over Ukraine., Росія за вихідні випустила по Україні ракет вартістю близько $200 млн" (in Ukrainian). Forbes. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  2. ^ ausairpower (6 August 2009), Anti Shipping Missile Survey, ausairpower, p. 1
  3. ^ Scribd, Anti Shipping Missile Survey, Scribd, p. 37
  4. ^ a b Precision Guided Munitions in the Region, Technical Report APA-TR-2007-0109, 2004 - 2012 Carlo Kopp, ausairpower.net
  5. ^ КРЫЛАТАЯ РАКЕТА Х-22Н "Буря", Д-2Н, AS-4 Kitchen, Образцы вооружений Военно - морского флота, vs.milrf.ru
  6. ^ "Вооружения ВМФ Крылатая ракета Х-22Н". Vs.milrf.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Крылатая ракета Х-22 (комплекс К-22) | Ракетная техника". Rbase.new-factoria.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Противокорабельная крылатая ракета воздушного базирования Х-22 "Буря"" (in Russian). Defendingrussia.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  9. ^ "Tupolev Tu-22 'Blinder', Tu-22M 'Backfire': Russia's long range supersonic bombers" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b Next Gen Kh-32 ant-ship cruise missile tests drawing to a close in Russia - Navyrecognition.com, 24 August 2016
  11. ^ "Russian MoD to upgrade 32 Kh-22 long-range anti-ship missiles". Navyrecognition.com. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  12. ^ Rosoboronexport Air Force Department and Media & PR Service, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS export catalogue (PDF), Rosoboronexport State Corporation, p. 122, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2007
  13. ^ China's Military Faces the Future, James R. Lilley, David L. Shambaugh, illustrated, M.E. Sharpe, 1999, ISBN 0765605066, ISBN 9780765605061
  14. ^ "We May Have Our First Sight Of A Russian Bomber Launching Missiles At Ukraine". thedrive.com. 11 May 2022.
  15. ^ KEYTON, David; LEICESTER, John. "Ukraine: Russia said to be using more deadly weapons in war". www. abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  16. ^ a b c d e Sebastien Roblin (29 June 2022). "Why Russia Is Using Old Kh-22 Aircraft Carrier-Killer Missiles to Hit Ukraine". 19FortyFive. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  17. ^ "Российская ракета попала в торговый центр в Кременчуге. Погибли 20 человек, десятки раненых" [A Russian rocket hit a shopping mall in Kremenchug. 20 people died, dozens injured]. www.bbc.com (in Russian).
  18. ^ "В Одесской области из-за ракетного удара погибли 18 человек" [18 people have died in Odessa Oblast after missile strike]. Meduza. 1 July 2022.
  19. ^ Medina, Eduardo; Kim, Victoria (1 July 2022). "Missile Strikes on Ukraine Kill at Least 21 Near Odesa". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  20. ^ Williams, Sophie; Lukov, Yaroslav (1 July 2022). "Ukraine war: Russian missile strikes kill 21 in Odesa region - emergency service". BBC. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  21. ^ "Russians fired at Serhiivka missile designed to destroy aircraft carriers - Zelensky". ukrinform. 2 July 2022. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  22. ^ "Water level of Ukraine's river Inhulets rises after Russia strikes hydraulic structures of Kryvyi Rih". Novaya Gazeta. 14 September 2022.
  23. ^ "Russian missile strike damaged hydraulic structures in Kryvyi Rih". mil.in.ua. 14 September 2022.
  24. ^ В Полтаве готовятся к утилизации последнего бомбардировщика , 26 Jan 2006, aviaport.ru
  25. ^ Air Power Australia (27 January 2014). "Soviet/Russian Cruise Missiles". Ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014.
  26. ^ Burdin, Sergey (17 November 2005). Tupolev TU-22 - Sergey Burdin - Google Książki. ISBN 9781844152414. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  27. ^ "ОАО «Корпорация Тактическое Ракетное Вооружение»". www.eng.ktrv.ru. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  28. ^ "ДМЗ им. Н.П. Федорова: важное звено обороноспособности страны".
  29. ^ "New Russian cruise missiles to hit targets from 130,000 feet". UPI.com. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  30. ^ "В Полтаве готовятся к утилизации последнего бомбардировщика". www.aviaport.ru (in Russian). 26 January 2006.

ReferencesEdit

  • Gordon, Yefim (2004). Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-188-1.
  • Healey, John K. (January–February 2004). "Retired Warriors: 'Cold War' Bomber Legacy". Air Enthusiast. No. 109. pp. 75–79. ISSN 0143-5450.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Raduga Kh-22 at Wikimedia Commons