Karl Berngardovich Radek (31 October 1885 – 19 May 1939) was a Marxist active in the Polish and German social democratic movements before World War I and an international Communist leader in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution.
Karl Sobelsohn (Radek) smoking a pipe in 1936
October 31, 1885
|Died||May 19, 1939 (aged 53)|
|Other names||Karl Berngardovich Radek|
|Citizenship||Russian Empire, Soviet Union|
|Occupation||Revolutionary, writer, journalist, publicist, politician, theorist|
|Organization||Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
|Known for||Marxist revolutionary|
|Political party||Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), Communist Party of Germany (KPD), Comintern, Communist Workers' Party of Germany, Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
|Movement||Social democracy, communism, Bolshevik|
|Spouse(s)||Rosa Mavrikievna Radek, Larisa Mikhailovna Reisner|
|Children||Sofia Karlovna Radek|
Radek was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Lvov in Ukraine), as Karol Sobelsohn, to a Jewish Litvak family; his father, Bernhard, worked in the post office and died whilst Karl was young.:2 He took the name Radek from a favourite character, Andrzej Radek, in Syzyfowe prace ('The Labors of Sisyphus', 1897) by Stefan Żeromski.:5
Radek joined the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL) in 1904 and participated in the 1905 Revolution in Warsaw, where he had responsibility for the party's newspaper Czerwony Sztandar.:635
Germany and "the Radek Affair"Edit
In 1907, after his arrest in Poland and his escape from custody, Radek moved to Leipzig in Germany and joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), working on the Party's Leipziger Volkszeitung.:36 He re-located to Bremen, where he worked for Bremer Bürgerzeitung, in 1911, and was one of several who attacked Karl Kautsky's analysis of imperialism in Die Neue Zeit in May 1912.:36-27
In September 1910, Radek was accused by members of the Polish Socialist Party of stealing books, clothes and money from party comrades, as part of an anti-semitic campaign against the SDKPiL. On this occasion, he was vigorously defended by the SDKPiL leaders, Rosa Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches. The following year, however, the SDKPiL changed course, partly because of a personality clash between Jogiches and Vladimir Lenin, during which younger members of the party, led by Yakov Hanecki, and including Radek, had sided with Lenin. Wanting to make an example of Radek, Jogiches revived the charges of theft, and convened a party commission in December 1911 to investigate. He dissolved the commission in July 1912, after it had failed to come to any conclusion, and in August pushed a decision through the party court expelling Radek. In their written finding, they broke his alias, making it — he claimed —dangerous for him to stay in Russian occupied Poland.:584-586
In 1912 August Thalheimer invited Radek to go to Göppingen (near Stuttgart) to temporarily replace him in control of the local SPD party newspaper Freie Volkszeitung, which had financial difficulties. Radek accused the local party leadership in Württemberg of assisting the revisionists to strangle the newspaper due to the paper's hostility to them.:470-1 The 1913 SPD Congress noted Radek's expulsion and then went on to decide in principle that no-one who had been expelled from a sister-party could join another party within the Second International and retrospectively applied this rule to Radek. Within the SPD Anton Pannekoek and Karl Liebknecht opposed this move, as did others in the International such as Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin, some of whom participated in the "Paris Commission" set up by the International.:891
World War I and the Russian RevolutionEdit
After the outbreak of World War I Radek moved to Switzerland where he worked as a liaison between Lenin and the Bremen Left, with which he had close links from his time in Germany, introducing him to Paul Levi at this time.:87 He took part in the Zimmerwald Conference in 1915, siding with the left.:892
During World War One, Radek engaged in polemics with Vladimir Lenin over the subject of the Irish Easter Rising of 1916; while Lenin was strongly enthusiastic about the Rising, seeing it as a blow to English imperialism, Radek disagreed. Basing his view on Theodore Rothstein (a Jewish emigre from the Russian Empire, living in London), he claimed that, what he called the "Sinn Féin movement" was petit-bourgeois and that the backbone of earlier rebellions in Ireland, the peasant farmer, had been placated at the start of the century by England. In his article The End of a Song, Radek claimed efforts to restore the Irish language to official status were flawed because it was "medieval". Leon Trotsky held a view halfway between Radek and Lenin.
In 1917 Radek was one of the passengers on the sealed train that carried Lenin and other Russian revolutionaries through Germany after the February Revolution in Russia.:87 However, he was refused entry to Russia:892 and went on to Stockholm and produced the journals Russische Korrespondenz-Pravda and Bote der Russischen Revolution to publish Bolshevik documents and Russian information in German.:87
After the October Revolution, Radek arrived in Petrograd and became Vice-Commissar for Foreign Affairs, taking part in the Brest-Litovsk treaty negotiations, as well as being responsible for the distribution of Bolshevik propaganda amongst German troops and prisoners of war.:893 During the discussions around signing the treaty, Radek was one of the advocates of a revolutionary war.:453
Comintern and the German RevolutionEdit
After being refused recognition as official representative of the Bolshevik regime,:893 Radek and other delegates — Adolph Joffe, Nikolai Bukharin, Christian Rakovsky and Ignatov — traveled to the German Congress of Soviets. After they were turned back at the border, Radek alone crossed the German border illegally in December 1918, arriving in Berlin on 19 or 20 December,:467 where he participated in the discussions and conferences leading to the foundation of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). Radek was arrested after the Spartacist uprising on 12 February 1919 and held in Moabit prison until his release in January 1920. While he was in Moabit, the attitude of the German authorities towards the Bolsheviks changed. The idea of creating an alliance of nations that had suffered from the Versailles treaty — principally Germany, Russia and Turkey — gained currency in Berlin, as a result of which Radek was allowed to receive a stream of visitors in his prison cell, including Walter Rathenau, Arthur Holitscher, Enver Pasha, and Ruth Fischer.
On his return to Russia Radek became the Secretary of the Comintern, taking the main responsibility for German issues. He was removed from this position after he supported the KPD in opposing inviting representatives of the Communist Workers' Party of Germany to attend the 2nd Congress of the Comintern, pitting him against the Comintern's executive and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.:893-4 It was Radek who took up the slogan of Stuttgart communists of fighting for a United Front with other working class organisations, that later formed the basis for the strategy developed by the Comintern.
In mid-1923, Radek made his controversial speech 'Leo Schlageter: The Wanderer into the Void' at an open session of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (ECCI).:120 In the speech he praised the actions of the German Freikorps officer and Nazi collaborator Leo Schlageter who had been shot whilst engaging in sabotage against French troops occupying the Ruhr area; in doing so Radek sought to explain the reasons why men like Schlageter were drawn towards the far right, and attempted to channel national grievances away from chauvinism and towards the support of the working movement and the Communists.:122
At subsequent congresses of the Russian Communist Party and meetings of the ECCI, Radek and Brandler were made the scapegoats for the defeat of the revolution by Zinoviev, with Radek being removed from the ECCI at the Fifth Congress of the Comintern.:128-132
Radek was part of the Left Opposition from 1923, writing his article 'Leon Trotsky: Organizer of Victory' shortly after Lenin's stroke in January of that year.:127 Later in the year at the Thirteenth Party Congress Radek was removed from the Central Committee.:130
In the summer of 1925, Radek was appointed Provost of the newly established Sun Yat-Sen University:135 in Moscow, where he collected information for the opposition from students about the situation in China and cautiously began to challenge the official Comintern policy.:139-140 However, the terminal illness of Radek's lover, Larisa Reisner, saw Radek lose his inhibitions and he began publicly criticising Stalin, in particular debating Stalin's doctrine of Socialism in One Country at the Communist Academy.:140 Radek was sacked from his post at Sun Yat-Sen University in May 1927.:147
Radek was expelled from the Party in 1927 after helping to organise an independent demonstration on the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution with Grigory Zinoviev in Leningrad.:611In early 1928, when prominent oppositionists were deported to various remote locations within the Soviet Union, Radek was sent to Tobolsk and a few months later moved on to Tomsk.:150
Capitulation to Stalin and Show TrialsEdit
On 10 July 1929, Radek, alongside other oppositionists Ivar Smilga and Yevgeni Preobrazhensky, signed a document capitulating to Stalin,:157 with Radek being held in particular disdain by oppositionist circles for his betrayal of Yakov Blumkin, who had been carrying a secret letter from Trotsky, in exile in Turkey, to Radek.:115 However, he was re-admitted in 1930 and was one of the few former oppositionists to retain a prominent place within the party, heading the International Information Bureau of the Russian Communist Party Central Committee:114 as well as giving the address on foreign literature at the First Soviet Writer's Conference in 1934.:160 In that speech, he denounced Marcel Proust and James Joyce. He said that "in the pages of Proust, the old world, like a mangy dog no longer capable of any action whatever, lies basking in the sun and endlessly licks its sores" and compared Joyce's Ulysses to "a heap of dung, crawling with worms, photographed by a cinema apparatus through a microscope." He helped to write the 1936 Soviet Constitution but, during the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was accused of treason and confessed, after two and a half months of interrogation,:115 at the Trial of the Seventeen in 1937, the so-called Second Moscow Trial. He was sentenced to 10 years of penal labor.
He was reportedly killed in a labor camp in a fight with another inmate. Radek has been credited with originating a number of political jokes about Joseph Stalin.:185 He was exonerated by the Soviet government in 1988.
- "The Unity of the Working Class" (1909)
- "Marxism and the Problems of War" (1914)
- "The End of a Song" (1916)
- "The Development of Socialism from Science to Action" (1918)
- "Karl Liebknecht – At the Martyr’s Graveside" (1919)
- "Anti-Parliamentarism" (1920)
- Proletarian Dictatorship and Terrorism. Forgotten Books. 2012 .
- "The Labour Movement, Shop Committees and the Third International" (1920)
- "The Polish Question and the International" (1920)
- "England and the East" (1920)
- "Bertrand Russell’s Sentimental Journey" (1921)
- "Is the Russian Revolution a Bourgeois Revolution?" (1921)
- "The Downfall of Levi" (1921)
- "On the Trade Unions", Second Congress of the Communist International, response to the discussion (1921)
- "Outlines of World Politics" (1921)
- Richardson, Al, ed. (1995) . "The Paths of the Russian Revolution". In Defence of the Russian Revolution: A Selection of Bolshevik Writings, 1917–1923. Porcupine Press. pp. 35–75. ISBN 978-1899438020.
- "Foundation of the Two and a Half International" (1922)
- "Eve of Fusion of the Second and Two-and-a-Half International (1922)
- "From the Hague to Essen" (1922)
- "The Greek Revolution" (1922)
- "The Winding-Up of the Versailles Treaty", report to the IV. Congress of the Comintern (1922)
- "Leon Trotsky, Organizer of Victory" (1923)
- "Ruhr and Hamburg" (1923)
- "Lenin" (1923)
- "The International Outlook" (1923)
- "Leo Schlageter: The Wanderer into the Void" ("The Schlageter Speech") (1923)
- "Fascism and Communism" (1924)
- "Through Germany in the Sealed Coach" (1924)
- "November: A Page of Recollections". Soviet Studies. III: 411–430. 1951–52 . Retrieved 1 May 2019.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
- "A Letter to Klara Zetkin" (1926)
- "Larisa Reisner" (1927)
- "Appeal for Trotsky" (1928)
- "Capitalist Slavery vs. Socialist Organisation of Labour" (1931)
- "Greetings to Romain Rolland" (1931)
- "The Birth of the First International" (1934)
- "Fifteen Years of the Communist International" (pamphlet) (1934)
- "Contemporary World Literature and the Tasks of Proletarian Art", speech at the Soviet Writers Congress (1934)
- "Felix Dzerzhinski (1935)
- LLC, General Books (2010). Polish Revolutionaries: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Karl Radek, Rosa Luxemburg, Yakov Ganetsky, Wilfrid Michael Voynich, Julian Marchlewski. General Books LLC. ISBN 9781155386140.
- Lerner, Warren Lerner (1970). The Last Internationalist. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804707220.
- Broué, Pierre (1988). "The Bolshevik-Leninist Faction". Revolutionary History. 9 (4): 137–160.
- Nettl, John Peter (1969). Rosa Luxemburg. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192810403.
- Trotsky, Leon (1970) [1st pub.: 1929]. My Life: An Attempt at an Autobiography. Pathfinder. ISBN 9780873481441.
- Carr, E. H. 'Introduction' In Radek, November (1926)
- Schüddekopf, Otto-Ernst (1962). "Karl Radek in Berlin : ein Kapitel deutsch-russischer Beziehungen im Jahre 1919" [Karl Radek: a chapter in German-Russian relations in 1919] (PDF). Archiv für Sozialgeschichte (in German). Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- Fischer, Ruth (2006) . Stalin and German Communism: A Study in the Origins of the State Party. Social Science Classics. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0878558223.
- Broué, Pierre (1972). "Spartacism, Bolshevism and Ultra-Leftism in the Face of the Problems of the Proletarian Revolution in Germany (1918-1923)". Revolutionary History. 9 (4): 108–118.
- Broué, Pierre (2006) [1st pub.: 1975]. The German Revolution, 1917-1923. Historical Materialism. Haymarket Books. ISBN 978-1931859325.
- Trotsky, Leon (1981) . The Challenge of the Left Opposition. Mehring Books. ISBN 0-87348-616-1.
- Rogovin, Vadim Zakharovich (1998). 1937: Stalin's Year of Terror. Mehring Books. ISBN 978-0929087771.
- McSmith, Andy (2015). Fear and the Muse Kept Watch. New York: The New Press. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-1-59558-056-6.
- "In spite of his [Radek's] confession and reinstatement, he was bitterly critical of the government, and was credited with inventing most of the anti-government jokes then circulating in Moscow." Poretsky, Elisabeth (1969). Our Own People. University of Michigan Press.