Tobolsk (Russian: Тобо́льск, IPA: [tɐˈbolʲsk]) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is the second-oldest Russian settlement east of the Ural Mountains in Asian Russia, and was the historic capital of the Siberia region. Population: 100,352 (2021 Census);[13] 99,694 (2010 Census);[12] 92,880 (2002 Census);[14] 94,143 (1989 Census).[15]

Tobolsk Kremlin
Tobolsk Kremlin
Flag of Tobolsk
Coat of arms of Tobolsk
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Tobolsk
Tobolsk is located in Russia
Location of Tobolsk
Tobolsk is located in Tyumen Oblast
Tobolsk (Tyumen Oblast)
Coordinates: 58°12′N 68°16′E / 58.200°N 68.267°E / 58.200; 68.267
Federal subjectTyumen Oblast[1]
FoundedJune 14,[citation needed] 1587[3][4]
Town status since1590[4]
 • BodyTown Duma[5]
 • Head[5]Maksim Afanasiev[6]
 • Total221.98 km2 (85.71 sq mi)
90 m (300 ft)
 • Estimate 
 • Rank165th in 2010
 • Subordinated toTown of Tobolsk[1]
 • Capital ofTobolsky District,[1] Town of Tobolsk[1]
 • Urban okrugTobolsk Urban Okrug[8]
 • Capital ofTobolsk Urban Okrug,[8] Tobolsky Municipal District[8]
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[9])
Postal code(s)[10]
626111, 626147, 626148, 626150–626153, 626155–626159
Dialing code(s)+7 3456
OKTMO ID71710000001
Town DayLast Sunday of June[11]

History edit

Conquest of Khanate of Sibir edit

The town was founded on the site of the Tatar town of Bitsik-Tura. In 1580, a group of Yermak Timofeyevich's Cossacks initiated the Russian conquest of Siberia, pushing eastwards on behalf of the Tsardom of Russia. After a year of Tatar attacks, Yermak prepared for the conquest of the Khanate of Sibir and a campaign to take the Khanate's capital city, Qashliq. The Cossacks conquered the city on 26 October 1582, sending Kuchum into retreat. Despite the conquest, Kuchum regrouped his remaining forces and formed a new army, launching a surprise attack on 6 August 1584, killing Yermak. There were a series of battles over Qashliq, and it passed between Tatar and Cossack control, before the city was finally abandoned in 1588. Kuchum was eventually defeated by the Cossacks in 1598 at the Battle of Urmin near the River Ob, ending the Khanate of Sibir. The Russians had established control over the western Siberia region.

Founding of Tobolsk and Imperial Russian era edit

Tobolsk was founded in 1587 by a group of Cossacks under the command of Daniil Grigor'yevich Chulkov [ru] near the ruins of Qashliq. (Years of fighting had left Qashliq almost totally destroyed.[16]) Tobolsk would become the center of the conquest of Siberia.[17] To the north Beryozovo (1593) and Mangazeya (1600-01) were built to bring the Nenets under tribute, while to the east Surgut (1594) and Tara (1594) were established to protect Tobolsk and subdue the ruler of the Tatars. Of these settlements, Mangazeya was the most prominent, and it was used as a base for further exploration eastward.[18]

The new city of Tobolsk, the second Russian town founded in Siberia (after Tyumen), was named after the Tobol River. It was situated at its confluence with the Irtysh River, where the Irtysh turns from flowing westward to flowing northward.[19] Tobolsk grew quickly, based on the importance of the Siberian river routes, and it prospered on trade with China to the east and with Bukhara to the south.

In 1708 Tobolsk was designated as the capital of the newly-established Siberia Governorate; the first school, theater, and newspaper in Siberia were founded here. During the Great Northern War, soldiers of the defeated Swedish army at Battle of Poltava in 1709 were sent in large numbers as prisoners of war to Tobolsk. The Swedes numbered about 25% of the total population and were popular among locals for their contributions to the city. A building of the Tobolsk Kremlin was named the Swedish Chamber in their honor. Many of them were not repatriated until the 1720s, while some of them settled permanently in Tobolsk.

In 1719, Russian authorities began administrative reforms that resulted in Tobolsk's political importance declining as the Siberia Governorate's massive territory was gradually decentralized. New provinces were organized or territory was transferred to other governorates. By 1782 the Siberia Governorate was abolished and its remaining area split into two viceroyalties, with Tobolsk becoming the capital of the Tobolsk Viceroyalty. In 1796, Tobolsk became the capital of Tobolsk Governorate, and remained the seat of the Governor-General of Western Siberia until the seat moved to Omsk in the 1820s or 1830s. Acknowledging the authority of Tobolsk, many Western Siberian towns - including Omsk, Tyumen, and Tomsk - had their original coats of arms display the Tobolsk insignia, which Omsk continues to honor as of 2015. After the Decembrist Revolt in 1825, some of the Decembrists deported to Siberia settled in Tobolsk. In the 1890s the importance of Tobolsk declined further after the Trans-Siberian Railway line between Tyumen and Omsk bypassed the city to the south.

In the early 1900s Tobolsk was noted[citation needed] as the administrative center of home province of Grigori Rasputin, a faith-healer who had great influence with the Romanov Imperial family. The city is located close to his birthplace Pokrovskoye. The town was also famous for confectionery companies run by Karelian immigrants.

View of Tobolsk in 1913

Soviet era edit

In March 1917, the February Revolution forced the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, ending the Russian Empire. In August the new Provisional Government evacuated the imperial family and their retinue to Tobolsk to live in the former house of the Governor-General. With the October Revolution three months later, the Russian Civil War began, and the Bolsheviks quickly came to power in Tobolsk. After troops of the opposing White Army approached the city in the spring of 1918, the Bolsheviks moved the imperial family west to Yekaterinburg. They were executed there in July 1918, together with several of their retainers.

Following the Bolshevik victory and the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, administrative reforms in 1920 resulted in the abolition of Tobolsk Governorate and the end of 218 years of Tobolsk serving as a provincial capital. Instead, the city became the administrative center of its own uyezd (county), Tobolsky District, in the new Tyumen Province. From 1921 to 1922, Tobolsk was a site of massive anti-Bolshevik peasant uprisings across Western Siberia by peasants associated with the Green Army. On November 3, 1923, the city became part of Ural Oblast; on January 7, 1932, it was transferred to Omsk Oblast. From January 17, 1934, the city was part of Obsko-Irtysh Oblast, until it was abolished on December 7 that year and transferred to Omsk Oblast. On August 14, 1944, Tobolsk was transferred to Tyumen Oblast.

A 2004 American book said a 1982 explosion in Tobolsk was caused by CIA sabotage. A former KGB officer said that the explosion was caused by improper installation.[20] On July 10, 1987, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the city of Tobolsk was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honour.

Recent history edit

On November 4, 1996, Tobolsk became an independent city with town status when it was separated from Tobolsky District by the Tyumen Oblast Duma.

In 2013, Tobolsk-Polymer opened the largest polypropylene production facility in Russia as part of an initiative to create a large petrochemical complex in the city. Tobolsk has also become a popular location for tourism in Siberia due to its historical importance, architecture, and natural landscapes. It is an important educational center of the Russian Orthodox Church, and the seat of Tobolsk Diocese, the first Orthodox diocese in Siberia.

Administrative and municipal status edit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tobolsk serves as the administrative center of Tobolsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with one urban-type settlement, incorporated separately as the Town of Tobolsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the Town of Tobolsk is incorporated as Tobolsk Urban Okrug.[8]

Economy edit

The economy of modern Tobolsk centers on a major oil refinery and the petrochemical industry. Some traditional crafts, such as bone-carving, are also preserved. The main factory of the town and Tyumen oblast' is Sibur holding. It is also the biggest employer of the region.[21]

The town is connected with other cities of Tyumen oblast' and other Russian regions by trains, buses [22] and since September, 24 2021 by air.[23]

Climate edit

Tobolsk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) bordering on a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc). Winters are very cold with average temperatures from −21.9 °C (−7.4 °F) to −13.1 °C (8.4 °F) in January, while summers are mild with average July temperatures from +13.4 to +23.9 °C (56.1 to 75.0 °F). Precipitation is moderate and is somewhat higher in summer than at other times of the year.

Climate data for Tobolsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.5
Average high °C (°F) −13.1
Daily mean °C (°F) −17.4
Average low °C (°F) −21.9
Record low °C (°F) −48.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.0
Average rainy days 1 0.2 3 10 13 16 16 20 20 14 4 1 118.2
Average snowy days 22 17 13 6 2 0 0 0 0.4 6 17 22 105.4
Average relative humidity (%) 81 77 72 65 62 66 73 78 79 79 82 81 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 114 177 217 265 288 298 225 156 92 60 42 1,995
Source 1:[24]
Source 2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[25]

Demographics edit

Ethnic composition (2010):[26]:

Main sights edit

Tobolsk is the only town in Siberia and one of the few in Russia which has a standing stone kremlin (Tobolsk Kremlin): an elaborate city-fortress from the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its white walls and towers with an ensemble of churches and palatial buildings spectacularly sited on a high river bank were proclaimed a national historical and architectural treasure in 1870.

The principal monuments in the kremlin are the Cathedral of St. Sophia (1683–1686), a merchant courtyard (1703–1705), an episcopal palace (1773–1775; now a museum of local lore), and the so-called Swedish Chamber, with six baroque halls (1713–1716). The town contains some remarkable baroque and Neoclassical churches from the 18th and 19th centuries. Also noteworthy is a granite monument to Yermak, constructed to a design by Alexander Brullov in 1839. The town's vicinity is rich in ancient kurgans and pagan shrines, some of which date back to the 10th century BCE.

The Governor's Mansion, built in 1790, is a historical monument protected by the Russian federal government. It is built in the architectural style of classicism and one of the first stone buildings built in the city. It is best known as having housed the last Tsar, Nicholas II, and his family after he abdicated the throne they were sent to exile by the Bolsheviks. The family was then moved to Yekaterinburg where they were later slaughtered.

Notable people edit

Twin towns and sister cities edit

Tobolsk is twinned with:

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #53
  2. ^ Article 2 of the Charter of Tobolsk states that the town may have an anthem, providing one is approved by the Town Duma. As of 2015, no anthem has been adopted.
  3. ^ a b Official website of Tobolsk. General Information (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Charter of Tobolsk, Preamble
  5. ^ a b Charter of Tobolsk, Article 20
  6. ^ Official website of Tobolsk Town Administration. Structure of the Administration of the Town of Tobolsk (in Russian)
  7. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d Law #263
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ Charter of Tobolsk, Article 2
  12. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ Lantzeff, George V., and Richard A. Pierce (1973). Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier, to 1750. Montreal: McGill-Queen's U.P.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce (2007). The Conquest of a Continent: Siberia and the Russians. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
  18. ^ Fisher, Raymond Henry (1943). The Russian Fur Trade, 1550-1700. University of California Press.
  19. ^ "Tobolsk city, Russia travel guide". Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  20. ^ "KGB Veteran Denies CIA Caused '82 Blast | News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  21. ^ "Who we are". Retrieved November 13, 2021.
  22. ^ "Визитная карточка города Тобольска". Retrieved November 13, 2021.
  23. ^ "В Тобольске прошло торжественное открытие нового аэропорта". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved November 13, 2021.
  24. ^ "Weather And Climate - Climate Tobolsk" (in Russian). Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  25. ^ "Climate Normals for Tobolsk". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  26. ^ "Итоги::Тюменьстат". Archived from the original on March 7, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2013.

Sources edit

  • Тобольская городская Дума. Решение №61 от 17 июня 2005 г. «Устав города Тобольска (в ред. от 4 апреля 2006 г.)», в ред. Решения №111 от 30 сентября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав города Тобольска». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 76. Опубликован: "Тобольская правда", №117, 30 июля 2005 г. (Tobolsk Town Duma. Resolution #61 of June 17, 2015 Charter of the Town of Tobolsk (rev. of April 4, 2006), as amended by the Resolution #111 of September 30, 2014 On Amending the Charter of the Town of Tobolsk. Effective as of the date specified in Article 76.).
  • Тюменская областная Дума. Закон №53 от 4 ноября 1996 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тюменской области», в ред. Закона №47 от 7 мая 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 14 и 15 Закона Тюменской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тюменской области"». Вступил в силу с момента официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тюменские известия", №220, 12 ноября 1996 г. (Tyumen Oblast Duma. Law #53 of November 4, 1996 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tyumen Oblast, as amended by the Law #47 of May 7, 2015 On Amending Articles 14 and 15 of the Law of Tyumen Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tyumen Oblast". Effective as of the moment of official publication.).
  • Тюменская областная Дума. Закон №263 от 5 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тюменской области и наделении их статусом муниципального района, городского округа и сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №39 от 7 мая 2015 г. «Об упразднении деревни Бурмистрова Балаганского сельского поселения Викуловского муниципального района Тюменской области и внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Тюменской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Тюменская область сегодня", №213 (без приложений), 12 ноября 2004 г. (Tyumen Oblast Duma. Law #263 of November 5, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tyumen Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of a Municipal District, Urban Okrug, and Rural Settlement, as amended by the Law #39 of May 7, 2015 On Abolishing the Village of Burmistrova in Balaganskoye Rural Settlement of Vikulovsky Municipal District of Tyumen Oblast and on Amending Various Laws of Tyumen Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).

Further reading edit

External links edit