Karl Paul Polanyi (//; Hungarian: Polányi Károly [ˈpolaːɲi ˈkaːroj]; 25 October 1886 – 23 April 1964) was an Austro-Hungarian economic historian, economic anthropologist, economic sociologist, political economist, historical sociologist and social philosopher.
|Born||25 October 1886|
|Died||23 April 1964 (aged 77)|
|Spouse(s)||Ilona Duczynska (1897–1978)|
|Children||Kari Polanyi Levitt|
|Field||Economic sociology, economic history, economic anthropology|
|Historical school of economics|
|Influences||Robert Owen, Bronisław Malinowski, G. D. H. Cole, Richard Tawney, Richard Thurnwald, Karl Marx, Aristotle, Karl Bücher, Ferdinand Tönnies, Adam Smith, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Werner Sombart, Max Weber, György Lukács, Carl Menger|
|Contributions||Embeddedness, Double Movement, fictitious commodities, economistic fallacy, the formalist–substantivist debate (substantivism)|
He is best known for his book The Great Transformation, which argues against self-regulating markets. In the book, he advances the concept of the Double Movement, which refers to the dialectical process of marketization and push for social protection against that marketization. In the book, he argues that market-based societies in modern Europe were not inevitable but historically contingent. Polanyi is remembered best as the originator of substantivism, a cultural version of economics, which emphasizes the way economies are embedded in society and culture. This opinion is counter to mainstream economics but is popular in anthropology, economic history, economic sociology and political science.
Polanyi's approach to the ancient economies has been applied to a variety of cases, such as Pre-Columbian America and ancient Mesopotamia, although its utility to the study of ancient societies in general has been questioned. Polanyi's The Great Transformation became a model for historical sociology. His theories eventually became the foundation for the economic democracy movement. His daughter, Canadian economist Kari Polanyi Levitt (born 1923 in Vienna, Austria) was taught by Friedrich Hayek at the London School of Economics and is Emerita Professor of Economics at McGill University, Montreal.
Polanyi was born into a Jewish family. His younger brother was Michael Polanyi, a philosopher, and his niece was Eva Zeisel, a world-renowned ceramist. He was born in Vienna, at the time the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father, Mihály Pollacsek, was a railway entrepreneur. Mihály never changed the name Pollacsek and is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Budapest. Mihály died in January 1905, which was an emotional shock to Karl, and he commemorated the anniversary of Mihály's death throughout his life. Karl and Michael Polanyi's mother was Cecília Wohl. The name change to Polanyi (not von Polanyi) was made by Karl and his siblings. Polanyi was well educated despite the ups and downs of his father's fortune, and he immersed himself in Budapest's active intellectual and artistic scene.
Polanyi founded the radical and influential Galileo Circle while at the University of Budapest, a club which would have far reaching effects on Hungarian intellectual thought. During this time, he was actively engaged with other notable thinkers, such as György Lukács, Oszkár Jászi, and Karl Mannheim. Polanyi graduated from Budapest University in 1912 with a doctorate in Law. In 1914, he helped found the Hungarian Radical Party and served as its secretary.
Polanyi was a cavalry officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army in World War I, in active service at the Russian Front and hospitalized in Budapest. Polanyi supported the republican government of Mihály Károlyi and its Social Democratic regime. The republic was short-lived, however, and when Béla Kun toppled the Karolyi government to create the Hungarian Soviet Republic Polanyi left for Vienna.
From 1924 to 1933, he was employed as a senior editor of the prestigious Der Österreichische Volkswirt (The Austrian Economist) magazine. It was at this time that he first began criticizing the Austrian School of economists, who he felt created abstract models which lost sight of the organic, interrelated reality of economic processes. Polanyi himself was attracted to Fabianism and the works of G. D. H. Cole. It was also during this period that Polanyi grew interested in Christian socialism.
He married the communist revolutionary Ilona Duczyńska, of Polish-Hungarian background.
Polanyi was asked to resign from Der Oesterreichische Volkswirt because the liberal publisher of the journal could not keep on a prominent socialist after the accession of Hitler to office in January 1933 and the suspension of the Austrian parliament by the rising tide of clerical fascism in Austria. He left for London in 1933, where he earned a living as a journalist and tutor and obtained a position as a lecturer for the Workers' Educational Association in 1936. His lecture notes contained the research for what later became The Great Transformation. However, he would not start writing this work until 1940, when he moved to Vermont to take up a position at Bennington College. The book was published in 1944, to great acclaim. In it, Polanyi described the enclosure process in England and the creation of the contemporary economic system at the beginning of the 19th century.
United States and CanadaEdit
Polanyi joined the staff of Bennington College in 1940, teaching a series of five timely lectures on the "Present Age of Transformation.". The lectures "The Passing of the 19th Century", "The Trend Towards an Integrated Society", "The Breakdown of the International System", "Is America an Exception" and "Marxism and the Inner History of the Russian Revolution" took place during the early stages of World War II. Polanyi participated in Bennington's Humanism Lecture Series (1941) and Bennington College's Lecture Series (1943) where his topic was "Jean Jacques Rousseau: Or Is a Free Society Possible?"
After the war, Polanyi received a teaching position at Columbia University (1947–1953). However, his wife, Ilona Duczyńska (1897–1978), had a background as a former communist, which made gaining an entrance visa in the United States impossible. As a result, they moved to Canada, and Polanyi commuted to New York City. In the early 1950s, Polanyi received a large grant from the Ford Foundation to study the economic systems of ancient empires.
Having described the emergence of the modern economic system, Polanyi now sought to understand how "the economy" emerged as a distinct sphere in the distant past. His seminar at Columbia drew several famous scholars and influenced a generation of teachers, resulting in the 1957 volume Trade and Markets in the Early Empires. Polanyi continued to write in his later years and established a new journal entitled Coexistence. In Canada he lived in Pickering, Ontario, where he died in 1964.
- "Socialist Accounting" (1922)
- The Essence of Fascism (1933–1934); article
- The Great Transformation (1944)
- "Universal Capitalism or Regional Planning?", The London Quarterly of World Affairs, vol. 10 (3) (1945)
- Trade and Markets in the Early Empires (1957, edited and with contributions by others)
- Dahomey and the Slave Trade (1966)
- George Dalton (ed), Primitive, Archaic, and Modern Economics: Essays of Karl Polanyi (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1968); collected essays and selections from his work.
- Harry W. Pearson (ed.), The Livelihood of Man (Academic Press, 1977)
- Karl Polanyi, For a New West: Essays, 1919–1958 (Polity Press, 2014), ISBN 978-0745684444
- Gareth Dale (ed), Karl Polanyi: The Hungarian Writings (Manchester University Press, 2016)
- Encyclopædia Britannica (Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2003) vol 9. p. 554
- "Karl Polanyi". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- For example, Morris Silver, "Redistribution and Markets in the Economy of Ancient Mesopotamia: Updating Polanyi", Antiguo Oriente 5 (2007): 89–112.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Dale, Gareth. 2016. Karl Polanyi: A Life on the Left. New York, USA and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press.
- Dale, Gareth. 2016. Karl Polanyi: A Life on the Left. New York, USA and Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press. P. 13.
- Polanyi, Karl (1940). "Karl Polanyi: Five Lectures on The Present Age of Transformation-Lecture Series Listing of Topics". Bennington College. hdl:11209/8502. Cite journal requires
- Leigh, Robert D. (25 September 1940). "Letter from President Robert Devore Leigh to Peter Drucker". Bennington College. hdl:11209/5449. Cite journal requires
- Leigh, Robert D. (25 September 1940). "The Passing of 19th Century Civilization (Lecture #1 of 5)". Bennington College. hdl:11209/5449. Cite journal requires
- Polanyi, Karl (1940). "The Trend Towards an Integrated Society (Lecture #2 of 5)". Bennington College. hdl:11209/8515. Cite journal requires
- Polanyi, Karl (1940). "The Breakdown of the International System (Lecture #3 of 5)". Bennington College. hdl:11209/8516. Cite journal requires
- Polanyi, Karl (1940). "Is America an Exception? (Lecture #4 of 5)". Bennington College. hdl:11209/8517. Cite journal requires
- Polanyi, Karl (1940). "Marxism and the Inner History of the Russian Revolution". Bennington College. hdl:11209/8518. Cite journal requires
- Boas, George; Fergusson, Francis; Patterson, Margaret; Chapman, Dwight; Hardman, Yvette; Kouwenhoven, John; Luening, Otto; Polanyi, Karl; Stein, Peg; Truman, David; Smith, Bradford; Whittinghill, Maurice (April 1941). "Humanism-Lecture Series Listing of Speakers and Topics". Bennington College. hdl:11209/8501. Cite journal requires
- Polanyi, Karl; Fergusson, Francis; Mendershausen, Horst; d'Estournelles, Paul; Drucker, Peter F.; Hanks, Lucien; Forbes, John D. (1943). "Bennington College Lecture Series, 1943 – Lecture Series Listing of Speakers and Topics". Bennington College. hdl:11209/8499. Cite journal requires
- Polanyi, Karl (1935). Lewis, John; Polanyi, Karl; Kitchin, Donald K. (eds.). "The Essence of Fascism". Christianity and the Social Revolution. London: Victor Gollancz Limited. pp. 359–394.
- Fred Block, « Polanyi’s Double Movement and the Reconstruction of Critical Theory », Revue Interventions économiques [En ligne], 38 | 2008, mis en ligne le 01 décembre 2008, consulté le 13 juillet 2021. URL : Polanyi’s Double Movement and the Reconstruction of Critical Theory, doi:10.4000/interventionseconomiques.274
- McRobbie, Kenneth, ed. (1994), Humanity, Society and Commitment: On Karl Polanyi, Black Rose Books Ltd., ISBN 1-895431-84-0
- McRobbie, Kenneth; Polanyi-Levitt, Kari, eds. (2000), Karl Polanyi in Vienna: The Contemporary Significance of The Great Transformation, Black Rose Books Ltd., ISBN 1-55164-142-9
- Mendell, Marguerite; Salée, Daniel (1991), The Legacy of Karl Polanyi: Market, State, and Society at the End of the Twentieth Century, St. Martins Press, ISBN 0-312-04783-5
- Polanyi-Levitt, Kari, ed. (1990), The Life and Work of Karl Polanyi: A Celebration, Black Rose Books Ltd., ISBN 0-921689-80-2
- Stanfield, J. Ron (1986), The Economic Thought of Karl Polanyi: Lives and Livelihood, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-39629-4
- Dale, Gareth (2010), Karl Polanyi: The Limits of the Market, Polity, ISBN 978-0-7456-4072-3
- Dale, Gareth (2016), Reconstructing Karl Polanyi, Pluto Press, ISBN 978-0745335186
- Dale, Gareth (2016), Karl Polanyi: A Life on the Left, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231176088
- Robert Kuttner, "The Man from Red Vienna" (review of Gareth Dale, Karl Polanyi: A Life on the Left, Columbia University Press, 381 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXIV, no. 20 (21 December 2017), pp. 55–57. "In sum, Polanyi got some details wrong, but he got the big picture right. Democracy cannot survive an excessively free market; and containing the market is the task of politics. To ignore that is to court fascism. (Robert Kuttner, p. 57.)
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Karl Polanyi|
- Karl Polanyi Digital Archive
- The Karl Polanyi Institute of Political Economy – The Karl Polanyi Institute of Political Economy at Concordia University web site.
- Karl Polanyi Wiki
- Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (1944) Review Essay by Anne Mayhew, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Tennessee
- Profile on Karl Polanyi – On the History of Economic Thought Website
- The free market is an impossible utopia (2014-07-18), The Washington Post. A conversation with Fred Block and Margaret Somers on their book, The Power of Market Fundamentalism: Karl Polanyi’s Critique (Harvard University Press, 2014). The book argues that the ideas of Karl Polanyi are crucial to help understand economic recessions and their aftermath.
-  – Why Two Karls Are Better Than One: Integrating Polyani and Marx in a Critical Theory of the Current Crisis by Nancy Fraser
- Works by or about Karl Polanyi at Internet Archive