Bronisław Malinowski

Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (Polish: [brɔˈɲiswaf maliˈnɔfskʲi]; 7 April 1884 – 16 May 1942) was a Polish-British[a] anthropologist whose writings on ethnography, social theory, and field research have exerted a lasting influence on the discipline of anthropology.[10]

Bronisław Malinowski
Bronislawmalinowski.jpg
Born
Bronisław Kasper Malinowski

7 April 1884
Died16 May 1942(1942-05-16) (aged 58)
NationalityPolish
CitizenshipAustro-Hungarian, Polish, British
Alma materJagiellonian University (PhD, 1908)
London School of Economics (D.Sc., 1916)
Known forFather of social anthropology, popularizing fieldwork, participatory observation, ethnography and psychological functionalism
Spouse(s)Elsie Rosaline Masson, Valetta Swann
Children3
Parent(s)
Scientific career
InstitutionsLondon School of Economics, Yale University
ThesisOn the Principle of the Economy of Thought (1908)
Doctoral students
Other notable students
InfluencesJames Frazer
William James
InfluencedVirtually all subsequent social anthropology

Malinowski was born in what was part of the Austrian partition of Poland, and completed his initial studies at Jagiellonian University in his birth city of Kraków. From 1910, at the London School of Economics (LSE), he studied exchange and economics, analysing Aboriginal Australia through ethnographic documents. In 1914 he traveled to Australia. He conducted research in the Trobriand Islands and other regions in New Guinea and Melanesia where he stayed for several years, studying indigenous cultures.

Returning to England after World War I, he published his principal work, Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), which established him as one of Europe's most important anthropologists. He took posts as lecturer and later as chair in anthropology at the LSE, attracting large numbers of students and exerting great influence on the development of British social anthropology. Over the years, he guest-lectured at several American universities; when World War II broke out, he remained in the United States, taking an appointment at Yale University. He died in 1942 and was interred in the United States. In 1967 his widow, Valetta Swann, published his personal diary kept during his fieldwork in Melanesia and New Guinea. It has since been a source of controversy, because of its ethnocentric and egocentric nature.[11]

Malinowski's ethnography of the Trobriand Islands described the complex institution of the Kula ring and became foundational for subsequent theories of reciprocity and exchange. He was also widely regarded as an eminent fieldworker, and his texts regarding anthropological field methods were foundational to early anthropology, popularizing the concept of participatory observation. His approach to social theory was a form of psychological functionalism that emphasised how social and cultural institutions serve basic human needs – a perspective opposed to A. R. Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism, which emphasised ways in which social institutions function in relation to society as a whole.

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Malinowski, scion of Polish szlachta (nobility),[12]: 1013  was born on 7 April 1884 in Kraków – in the Austrian partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – then part of the Austro-Hungarian province known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.[13]: 332  His father, Lucjan Malinowski, was a professor of Slavic philology at the Jagiellonian University, and his mother was the daughter of a landowning family.[14] As a child he was frail, often suffering from ill health, but excelled academically. On 30 May 1902 he passed his matura examinations (with distinction) at the Jan III Sobieski Secondary School, and later that year began studying at the College of Philosophy of Kraków's Jagiellonian University, where he initially focused on mathematics and the physical sciences.[13]: 332 [15]: 137 

While attending the university he became severely ill (possibly with tuberculosis) and, while he recuperated, his interest turned more toward the social sciences as he took courses in philosophy and education.[13]: 332–333  In 1908 he received a doctorate in philosophy from the Jagiellonian University; his thesis was titled On the Principle of the Economy of Thought.[13]: 333 [15]: 137 

During his student years he became interested in travel abroad, and visited Finland, Italy, the Canary Islands, western Asia, and North Africa; some of those travels were at least partly motivated by health concerns.[13]: 333  He also spent three semesters at the University of Leipzig (ca. 1909-1910), where he studied under economist Karl Bücher and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt.[13]: 333 [15]: 137  After reading James Frazer's The Golden Bough, he decided to become an anthropologist.[16]: 9 [15]: 137 

In 1910 he went to England, becoming a postgraduate student at the London School of Economics, where his mentors included C. G. Seligman and Edvard Westermarck.[13]: 333 [17]: 162 

CareerEdit

In 1911 Malinowski published, in Polish, his first academic paper, "Totemizm i egzogamia" ("Totemism and Exogamy"), in Lud [pl]. The following year he published his first English-language academic paper,[b] and in 1913 his first book, The Family among the Australian Aborigines, and gave his first lectures at the LSE, on topics related to psychology of religion and social psychology.[13]: 333 

 
A photo (Plate I) from Malinowski's Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), showing the native village as well as Malinowski's tent.

In June 1914 he departed London, travelling to Australia, as the first step in his expedition to Papua (in what would later become Papua New Guinea).[13]: 333  The expedition was organized under the aegis of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS).[13]: 333  In fact, initially Malinowski's journey to Australia was supposed to last only about half a year, as he was mainly planning on attending a conference there, and travelled there in a capacity of a secretary to Robert Ranulph Marett. Shortly afterward, his situation became complicated due to the outbreak of World War I as although Polish by ethnicity, he was a subject of Austria-Hungary, which was at the state of war with the United Kingdom. Malinowski, at risk of internment, nonetheless decided not to return to Europe from the British-controlled region and after intervention by a number of his colleagues, including Marett as well as Alfred Cort Haddon, British authorities allowed him to stay in the Australian region and even provided him with new funding.[13]: 333 [15]: 138 [19]: 4–5 [20]: 136 

His first field trip, lasting from August 1914 to March 1915, took him to the Toulon Island (Mailu Island) and the Woodlark Island.[13]: 333  This field trip was described in his 1915 monograph The natives of Mailu.[13]: 333  Subsequently, he conducted research in the Trobriand Islands in the Melanesia region.[13]: 334  He organized two larger expeditions during that time; from May 1915 to May 1916, and October 1917 to October 1918, in addition to several shorter excursions.[13]: 334  It was during this period that he conducted his fieldwork on the Kula ring and advanced the practice of participant observation, which remains the hallmark of ethnographic research today.[15]: 139  The ethnographic collection of artifacts from his expeditions is mostly held by the British Museum and the Melbourne Museum.[13]: 334  During the breaks in between his expeditions he stayed in Melbourne, writing up his research, and publishing new articles, such as Baloma; the Spirits of the Dead in the Trobriand Islands. In 1916 he received the title of Doctor of Sciences.[13]: 333–334 [15]: 138 

In 1919, he returned to Europe, staying at Tenerife for over a year before coming back to London on 1921.[13]: 334 [15]: 138  He resumed teaching at the London School of Economics, accepting a position as a lecturer, declining a job offer from the Polish Jagiellonian University.[13]: 334  That year his book Argonauts of the Western Pacific, often described as his masterpiece, was published.[14][21][22]: 7 [23]: 72  For the next two decades, he would establish the London School of Economics as Europe's main centre of anthropology. In 1924 he was promoted to a reader, and in 1927, a full professor.[13]: 334  In 1930 he became a corresponding foreign member of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences.[13]: 334  In 1933, he became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.[24] In 1934 he travelled to Southern Africa, carrying out research among several tribes such as the Bemba, Kikuyu, Maragoli, Maasai and the Swazi people.[13]: 334  The period 1926-1935 was the most productive time of his career, seeing the publications of many articles and several more books.[13]: 334 

Malinowski taught intermittently in the United States, which he first visited in 1926.[13]: 334  When World War II broke out during one of his American visits, he stayed there.[13]: 334  In 1941 he carried out field research among the Mexican peasants in Oaxaca.[13]: 335  He took up a position at Yale University as a visiting professor, where he remained until his death.[13]: 334  In 1942, he co-founded the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America of which he became its first president.[13]: 335 

Malinowski died in New Haven, Connecticut on 16 May 1942, aged 58, of a stroke[13]: 336  while preparing to resume his fieldwork in Oaxaca. He was interred at Evergreen Cemetery in New Haven.[25]: 241 

WorksEdit

Except a few works from the early 1910s, all of Malinowski's research was published in English.[13]: 333  His first book, The Family among the Australian Aborigines, published in 1913, was based on materials he collected and wrote in the years 1909-1911. It was well-received not just by contemporary reviewers, but also by scholars generations later. In 1963, in his foreword to its new edition, John Arundel Barnes called it an epochal work, and noted how it discredited the previously held theory that Australian Aborigines have no institution of family.[13]: 333 

Published in 1922, Argonauts of the Western Pacific, about the Trobriand people who live on the small Kiriwana island chain northeast of the island of New Guinea, was widely regarded as a masterpiece and significantly boosted Malinowski's reputation in the world of academia.[14][21][22]: 7 [23]: 72  His later books included the Crime and Custom in Savage Society (1926), Sex and Repression in Savage Society (1927), The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia (1929) and Coral Gardens and Their Magic (1935).[13]: 334 

A number of his works were published posthumously: A Scientific Theory of Culture and Others Essays (1944), The Dynamics of Culture Change (1945), Freedom & Civilization (1947), and the controversial[11] A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term (1967).[13]: 335 

The personal diary of Malinowski, along with several others, written in Polish,[13]: 335  was discovered in his Yale University office after his death. First published in 1967, covering the period of his fieldwork in 1914–1915 and 1917–1918 in New Guinea and the Trobriand Islands, it set off a storm of controversy. The year it was published Clifford Geertz called it "gross" and "tiresome", and wrote that it portrayed Malinowski as "a crabbed, self-preoccupied, hypochondriacal narcissist, whose fellow-feeling for the people he lived with was limited in the extreme."[26] Two decades later, however, he praised it as "backstage masterpiece of anthropology, our The Double Helix".[27]: 75  Writing in 1987, James Clifford called it "a crucial document for the history of anthropology".[28]: 97 

Many of Malinowski's works entered public domain in 2013.[29]

Ideas and influencesEdit

Already a year after his death Clyde Kluckhohn described his influence in the field as significant if somewhat controversial, noting that to some he "was a major prophet", and that "no anthropologist has ever had so wide a popular audience".[30] In 1974 Witold Armon [pl] described many of his works as "classics".[13]: 335 

Ethnography and fieldworkEdit

Malinowski is often considered one of anthropology's most skilled ethnographers, especially because of his highly methodical and well-theorised approach to the study of social systems. He is often referred to as the first researcher to bring anthropology "off the verandah" (a phrase that is also the name of a André Singer's 1986 documentary about his work[c]), that is, stressing the need for fieldwork enabling the researcher to experience the everyday life of his subjects along with them. Malinowski emphasised the importance of detailed participant observation and argued that anthropologists must have daily contact with their informants if they are to adequately record the "imponderabilia of everyday life" that are so important to understanding a different culture.[16]: 10 [32][33]: 22 [34]: 74  He stated that the goal of the anthropologist, or ethnographer, is "to grasp the native's point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world".[35] Because of the impact of his argument, he is sometimes credited with inventing the field of ethnography.[36]: 2 

Malinowski in his pioneering[d] research literally set up a tent in the middle of villages he studied, in which he lived for extended periods of times, weeks or months.[15]: 138 [41]: 20 [37]: 361  His argument was shaped by his initial experiences as an anthropologist in the mid-1910s in Australia and Oceania, where during his first field trip he found himself grossly unprepared for it, due to not knowing the language of the people he set to study, nor being able to observe their daily customs sufficiently (during that initial trip, he was lodged with a local missionary and just made daily trips to the village, and endeavour which became increasingly difficult once he lost his translator).[42]: 1182–1183  His pioneering decision to subsequently immerse himself in the life of the natives represents his solution to this problem, and was the message he addressed to new, young anthropologists, aiming to both improve their experience and allow them to produce better data.[33]: 22 

He advocated that stance from his very first publications, which were often harshly critical of those of his elders in the field of anthropology, who did most of their writing based on second-handed accounts.[13]: 335 [16]: 10–14 [43] This could be seen in the relation between Frazer - an influential early anthropologist, nonetheless described as the classic armchair scholar[34]: 17  - and Malinowski was complex; Frazer was one of Malinowski's mentors and supporters, and his work is credited with inspiring young Malinowski to become an anthropologist.[16]: 9  At the same time, Malinowski was critical of Frazer from his early days, and it has been suggested that what he learned from Frazer was not "how to be an anthropologist" but "how not to do anthropology".[43] Ian Jarvie wrote that many of Malinowski's writing represented an "attack" on Frazer's school of fieldwork,[44]: 43  although James A. Boon suggested this conflict has been exaggerated.[16]: 10–14 

Functionalism and other theoriesEdit

Malinowski has been credited with originating, or being one of the main originators, of the school of social anthropology known as functionalism.[13]: 335  It has been suggested that here he has been inspired by the views of William James.[15]: 137  In contrast to Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism, Malinowski's psychological functionalism argued that culture functioned to meet the needs of individuals rather than the needs of society as a whole. He reasoned that when the needs of individuals, who comprise society, are met, then the needs of society are met.[citation needed] To Malinowski, the feelings of people and their motives were crucial to understanding the way their society functioned:

Besides the firm outline of tribal constitution and crystallized cultural items which form the skeleton, besides the data of daily life and ordinary behavior, which are, so to speak, its flesh and blood, there is still to be recorded the spirit—the natives' views and opinions and utterances.

— Argonauts, p. 22.


Apart from fieldwork, Malinowski also challenged the claim to universality of Freud's theory of the Oedipus complex. He initiated a cross-cultural approach in Sex and Repression in Savage Society (1927) where he demonstrated that specific psychological complexes are not universal.[45]: 28 


In 1920, he published his first scientific article on the Kula ring.[15]: 138 [46] In reference to the Kula ring, Malinowski also stated:

Yet it must be remembered that what appears to us an extensive, complicated, and yet well ordered institution is the outcome of so many doings and pursuits, carried on by savages, who have no laws or aims or charters definitely laid down. They have no knowledge of the total outline of any of their social structure. They know their own motives, know the purpose of individual actions and the rules which apply to them, but how, out of these, the whole collective institution shapes, this is beyond their mental range. Not even the most intelligent native has any clear idea of the Kula as a big, organised social construction, still less of its sociological function and implications...The integration of all the details observed, the achievement of a sociological synthesis of all the various, relevant symptoms, is the task of the Ethnographer... the Ethnographer has to construct the picture of the big institution, very much as the physicist constructs his theory from the experimental data, which always have been within reach of everybody, but needed a consistent interpretation.[47]

 
Malinowski with natives, Trobriand Islands, 1918

In these two passages, Malinowski anticipated the distinction between description and analysis, and between the views of actors and analysts. This distinction continues to inform anthropological method and theory.[15]: 141 [48]: 200–221  His research from that period on the Trobriand traditional economy, with its particular focus on magic and magicians, has also been described as a significant addition to the economic anthropology.[15]: 138–139 

Malinowski likewise influenced the course of African history, serving as an academic mentor to Jomo Kenyatta, the father and first president of modern-day Kenya. Malinowski also wrote the introduction to Facing Mount Kenya, Kenyatta's ethnographic study of the Gikuyu tribe. In a brief passage in his 1979 book Broca's Brain, the late science populariser Carl Sagan criticised Malinowski for thinking that "he had discovered a people in the Trobriand Islands who had not worked out the connection between sexual intercourse and childbirth", arguing that it was more likely that the islanders were simply making fun of Malinowski.[49] Mark Mosko wrote in 2014 that further research on Trobriand people affirmed some of Malinowski's claims about their beliefs on procreation, adding that the dogmas are tied to a complicated system of belief encapsulating magic into beliefs about human and plant procreation, but he also stated that "the preponderance of ethnographic evidence ... refutes Malinowski’s notorious claims of Islanders’ supposed “ignorance of physiological paternity”".[50]

TeacherEdit

As a teacher, he preferred lectures to discussions.[13]: 335  He has been praised for his friendly and egalitarian attitude towards women students.[1] Among his students were such future prominent social scientists as Hilda Beemer Kuper,[1] Edith Clarke,[1] Kazimierz Dobrowolski [pl],[13]: 335  Raymond Firth,[1] Meyer Fortes,[citation needed] Jomo Kenyatta,[citation needed] Lucy Mair,[1] Z. K. Matthews,[citation needed] Maria Ossowska,[13]: 335  Stanisław Ossowski,[13]: 335  Hortense Powdermaker,[1] E. E. Evans-Pritchard,[1] Margaret Read,[1] Audrey Richards,[1] Isaac Schapera,[1] Camilla Wedgwood,[1] Monica Wilson[1] and Fei Xiaotong,[13]: 335 .

His doctorate students included Feliks Gross,[13]: 335  Francis L. K. Hsu,[citation needed] Hilda Kuper,[citation needed] Edmund Leach,[citation needed] Józef Obrębski (etnograf) [pl][13]: 335  Ralph Piddington,[citation needed] Audrey Richards,[citation needed] and Andrzej Jan Waligórski [pl],[13]: 335 . He is considered to have raised the next generation of anthropologists, particularly British.[13]: 335 

RemembranceEdit

The Malinowski Memorial Lecture, an annual anthropology lecture series at London School of Economics, inaugurated in 1959, is named after him.[13]: 336  A student-led anthropology magazine at the LSE, The Argonaut, took its name from Malinowski's Argonauts of the Western Pacific.[51]

The Society for Applied Anthropology established the Bronislaw Malinowski Award in his honor in 1950. The award was awarded only until 1952, then went on hiatus until being re-established in 1973; it has been awarded annually since.[52]: 1 [53]

Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz based a character, Duke of Nevermore, from his novel The 622 Downfalls of Bungo or The Demonic Woman [pl] (written in the 1910s but not published until 1972) on Malinowski.[13]: 336 

Personal lifeEdit

In 1919 Malinowski married Elsie Rosaline Masson, an Australian photographer, writer, and traveler (daughter of David Orme Masson), with whom he had three daughters: Józefa (born 1920), Wanda (born 1922), and Helena (born 1925). Elsie died in 1935, and in 1940 Malinowski married the English painter Valetta Swann.[13]: 336 [15]: 138  Malinowski's daughter Helena Malinowska Wayne wrote several articles and a book about her father's life.[54][55]

While Malinowski was brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, after his mother's death he described himself as agnostic.[1]

Selected publicationsEdit

  • Malinowski, B. (1913). The family among the Australian Aborigines: a sociological study. London: University of London Press.
  • Malinowski, B. (1922). Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An account of native enterprise and adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul (Enhanced Edition reissued Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2013).
  • Malinowski, B. (1924). Mutterrechtliche Familie und Ödipus-Komplex. Eine psychoanalytische Studie (in German). Leipzig: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag.
  • Malinowski, B. (1926). Myth in primitive psychology. London: Norton.
  • Malinowski, B. (1926). Crime and custom in savage society. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.
  • Malinowski, B. (1927). Sex and Repression in Savage Society. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
  • Malinowski, B.; H. Ellis (1929). The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia. An Ethnographic Account of Courtship, Marriage, and Family Life Among the Natives of the Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. London.
  • Malinowski, B.; E.R. Leach; J. Berry (1935). Coral gardens and their magic. London: Allen & Unwin.
  • Malinowski, B. (1944). A Scientific Theory of Culture and Others Essays. Chapel Hill, N. Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press.
  • Malinowski, B. (1947). Freedom & Civilization. London.
  • Malinowski, B. (1946). P.M. Kaberry (ed.). The Dynamics of Culture Change: An Inquiry Into Race Relations in Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Malinowski, B. (1948). Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press (Reissued Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 1992).
  • Malinowski, B. (1962). Sex, Culture, and Myth. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
  • Malinowski, B. (1967). A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
  • Malinowski, B. (1993). R.J. Thornton & P. Skalnik (ed.). The early writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Bronisław Malinowski was born into a Polish family in a historic Polish region then administrated by the Austro-Hungarian Empire (see Austrian partition of Poland). In 1910, aged 26, he emigrated to the United Kingdom and spent most of his remaining life – some three decades – working there. After Poland regained independence in 1918, he became a Polish citizen but continued living in the U.K.[1] In 1931 he also obtained British citizenship.[2]: 60  In his preface to a 1937 Polish-language edition of his 1929 book, The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia, he wrote: "I happened to work in a foreign milieu, and served Polish learning only indirectly. But did I cease serving Polish learning as I cast my scholarship into the international arena and worked in conditions that allowed me to achieve enhanced results? I think not. I have always served Polish learning, not less so than others, but differently. Polish learning required such services, performed abroad. I never ceased feeling Polish and, if the need arose to emphasize it, I was always able to do so."[3] Malinowski is described in sources as Polish,[4]: 402 [5]: 210 [6]: 176  Polish-born British,[7][8] or Polish-British.[9]: 304 
  2. ^ Probably "The Economic Aspect of the Intichiuma Ceremonies". He had already in 1910 published a book review in English in Man, the journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, and another there in 1911.[10] For more on Malinowski's early writings, see The Early Writings of Bronislaw Malinowski (1993, 2006) by Robert J. Thornton and Peter Skalnik.[18]
  3. ^ "Bronislaw Malinowski: Off the Veranda." 52 minutes. Films Media Group, 1985.[31]
  4. ^ Malinowski is said to have "gone native" around 1915-1916; another American scholar, John Layard, did so around the same time as well (in 1917).[37]: 361  Chris Gosden wrote that "Malinowski's claim to have moved anthropological fieldwork from the verandah into the village has considerable truth to it, even if this is not the whole truth [as] there is much more continuity between himself and his predecessors than Malinowski allowed for".[38]: 51  Max Gluckman noted that Malinowski developed the idea of fieldwork, but it originated with Alfred Cort Haddon in England and Franz Boas in the United States.[39]: 242  Robert G. Burgess concluded that "it is Malinowski who is usually credited with being the originator of intensive anthropological field research".[40]: 4 

ReferencesEdit

SourcesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Wayne, Helena (1985). "Bronislaw Malinowski: The Influence of Various Women on His Life and Works". American Ethnologist. 12 (3): 529–540. doi:10.1525/ae.1985.12.3.02a00090. ISSN 0094-0496. JSTOR 644537.
  2. ^ Thapan, Meenakshi (1998). Anthropological Journeys: Reflections on Fieldwork. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-1221-4.
  3. ^ Kwilecki, Andrzej (1988). "Tradycje socjologii polskiej". Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny (in Polish). L (2): 227–262.
  4. ^ McGee, R. Jon; Warms, Richard L. (28 August 2013). Theory in Social and Cultural Anthropology: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-5063-1461-7.
  5. ^ Riper, A. Bowdoin Van (15 September 2011). A Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists and Inventors in American Film and TV since 1930. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-8129-7.
  6. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana: M-Mexico City. Grolier Incorporated. 2001. ISBN 978-0-7172-0134-1.
  7. ^ "Bronislaw Malinowski". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  8. ^ Young, Michael W. (2015), "Malinowski, Bronislaw (1884–1942)", The International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality, American Cancer Society, pp. 721–817, doi:10.1002/9781118896877.wbiehs279, ISBN 978-1-118-89687-7, retrieved 10 September 2021
  9. ^ Athyal, Jesudas M. (10 March 2015). Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-250-2.
  10. ^ a b Murdock, George Peter (9 July 1943). "Bronislaw Malinowski". American Anthropologist. 45 (3): 441–451. doi:10.1525/aa.1943.45.3.02a00090.
  11. ^ a b Press, Stanford University (1989). A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term | Bronislaw Malinowski With a New Introduction by Raymond Firth. www.sup.org. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804717076.
  12. ^ Calverton, Victor Francis; Schmalhausen, Samuel Daniel (20 April 2018). Revival: The New Generation (1930): The Intimate Problems of Modern Parents and Children. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-33882-0.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Armon, Witold (1974). "Bronisław Malinowski". Polish Biographical Dictionary (Polski słownik biograficzny) (in Polish). 19. National Film Archive - Audiovisual Institute. pp. 332–336. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  14. ^ a b c Senft, Günter. 1997. Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski. in Verschueren, Ostman, Blommaert & Bulcaen (eds.) Handbook of Pragmatics Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins [1]
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gaillard, Gerald (2004). The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-58580-9.
  16. ^ a b c d e Boon, James A. (1982). Other Tribes, Other Scribes: Symbolic Anthropology in the Comparative Study of Cultures, Histories, Religions and Texts. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-27197-4.
  17. ^ Kuklick, Henrika (9 February 2009). New History of Anthropology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-76621-7.
  18. ^ Thornton, Robert J.; Skalnik, Peter (1 June 2006). The Early Writings of Bronislaw Malinowski. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02646-8.
  19. ^ Malinowski, Bronislaw (November 2001). Malinowski Among the Magi: The Natives of Mailu. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-26244-6.
  20. ^ Moore, Jerry D. (25 July 2008). Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 978-0-7591-1239-1.
  21. ^ a b Malinowski, Bronislaw; Young, Michael W.; Beran, Harry (2016). "Malinowski on Primitive Art: 'Art Notes and Suggestions' of 1921". Pacific Arts. 16 (1): 5–8. ISSN 1018-4252. JSTOR 26788775.
  22. ^ a b Senft, Gunter (19 July 2010). The Trobriand Islanders' Ways of Speaking. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022799-4.
  23. ^ a b Weston, Gavin; Djohari, Natalie (11 May 2020). Anthropological Controversies: The "Crimes" and Misdemeanors that Shaped a Discipline. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-86120-8.
  24. ^ "B.K. Malinowski (1884–1942)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  25. ^ Wayne, Helena (1995). The Story of a Marriage: The Letters of Bronisław Malinowski and Elsie Masson. London: Routledge.
  26. ^ Thompson, Christina A. (1 June 1995). "Anthropology's conrad: Malinowski in the tropics and what he read". The Journal of Pacific History. 30 (1): 53–75. doi:10.1080/00223349508572783. ISSN 0022-3344.
  27. ^ Geertz, Clifford (1988). Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  28. ^ Clifford, James (18 May 1988). The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-69843-7.
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SourcesEdit

  • Firth, Raymond (1960). Man and culture: an evaluation of the work of Bronislaw Malinowski. London: Routledge.

External linksEdit