The idiom "jumping the shark" was coined in 1985 by Jon Hein in response to a 1977 episode from the fifth season of the American sitcom Happy Days, in which Fonzie (Henry Winkler) jumps over a shark while on water-skis. The phrase is pejorative and is used to argue that a creative work or outlet appears to be making a stunt in a seemingly exhaustive attempt to generate elevated attention or publicity to something that was once perceived as popular, but is no longer.
Jon Hein and his University of Michigan roommate Sean Connolly coined the phrase in 1985 in response to Season Five, Episode 3, "Hollywood: Part 3" of the sitcom Happy Days, which aired on September 20, 1977. In the episode, the central characters visit Los Angeles, where a water-skiing Fonzie (Henry Winkler) answers a challenge to his bravery by wearing swim trunks and his trademark leather jacket, and jumping over a confined shark. The stunt was created as a way to showcase Winkler's real-life waterskiing skills. In 1997, Hein created a website, JumpTheShark.com, to publish a list of approximately 200 television shows, and his arguments as to the moments each "jumped the shark". The site became popular, and grew with additional user-contributed examples. Hein sold his company, Jump The Shark, Inc., for "over $1 million" in 2006.
Response from Happy Days cast and crewEdit
"I remember Donny Most and I sitting there, looking at the script. Donny was really upset. He said, 'Oh man look at what our show has kind of devolved into. It's not even very funny, and you know Fonz is jumping over a shark' ... and I kept saying 'Hey Donny we're a hit show, relax. You know it's hard to have great episodes one after another. Fonzie jumping over a shark it's gonna be funny, and great ... I remember thinking that creatively this was not our greatest episode, but I thought it was a pretty good stunt, and I understood why they wanted to do it. And what I remember the most is, it was fun actually driving the speedboat which I did a bit of, noticing that Henry was really a pretty good water skier ... But the thing that has to be remembered about the jumping the shark idea, is that the show went on to be such a massive success for years after that. So, it's kind of a fun expression, and I get a kick out of the fact that they identified that episode (because granted maybe it was pushing things a little too far), but I think a lot of good work was still done after that show, and audiences seemed to really respond to it."
Fred Fox, JrEdit
In a 2010 Los Angeles Times article, former Happy Days writer Fred Fox, Jr., who wrote the episode that later spawned the phrase, said "Was the [shark jump] episode of Happy Days deserving of its fate? No, it wasn't. All successful shows eventually start to decline, but this was not Happy Days' time." Fox also points not only to the success of that episode ("a huge hit" with over 30 million viewers), but also to the continued popularity of the series. In addition, that same season would later include the episode, "My Favorite Orkan", launching the career of the then-unknown actor, Robin Williams. He was consequently given his own spin-off, Mork & Mindy.
In a 2019 interview with NPR, Henry Winkler (Fonzie) told Terry Gross that the origin of the stunt began with the fact that he had been a water-skiing instructor as a teenager at a summer camp. Thus, his father used to say to him "every day for years—tell Garry Marshall that you water ski. Dad, I don't think I'm going to do that. No, no. Tell him you water ski. It's very important. I finally tell Garry, my father wants you to know I water ski." Winkler did all of the water skiing for the scene himself, except for the actual jump. Gross then asked Winkler what it was "about that scene or that episode that came to signify when something's time is up—when it's over?" Winkler responded: "You know what? I don't know. To them, the Fonz water skiing was just like the last straw. The only thing is it wasn't to the audience because we were No. 1 for years after that. So it didn't much matter to anybody." In addition, he told TheWrap in 2018 that he is "not embarrassed" by the phrase. He stated that "newspapers would mention jumping the shark ... and they would show a picture of me in my leather jacket and swim shorts water-skiing. And at that time I had great legs. So I thought, 'I don't care.' And we were No. 1 for the next four or five years." As his character Barry Zuckerkorn (in the sitcom Arrested Development) hopped over a shark in Episode 13 of the second season, Winkler also noted that there "was a book, there was a board game and it is an expression that is still used today ... [and] I'm very proud that I am the only actor, maybe in the world, that has jumped the shark twice—once on Happy Days, and once on Arrested Development."
The idiom has been used to describe a wide variety of situations, such as the state of advertising in the digital video recorder era, and views on rural education policy, the anomalous pursuit of a company acquisition, and the decline of republics into degraded democracy and empire.
Automotive journalist Dan Neil used the expression to describe the Mini Countryman, a much larger evolution of the previously small cars marketed by Mini. In March 2011, in a review titled "What Part of 'Mini' Did You Not Grasp, BMW?" Neil said the bigger car abandoned the company's design ethos and that "with the Countryman, tiny sharks have been jumped".
Similar to the example above, automotive blog The Truth About Cars used the expression in a 2010 retrospective piece to describe the Cadillac Cimarron, a rebadged Chevrolet Cavalier the Cadillac luxury car division sold in the 1980s that ended up being a commercial failure that did major damage to the brand's image; "Yes, as if there was ever any doubt, GM truly jumped the shark with the Cimarron, and it led the way for what was GM's most disastrous decade ever, the eighties. Only GM could have such utterly outsized hubris to think it could get away with dressing up a Cavalier and pawning it off as a BMW-fighter, without even touching the engine, among other sins."
In September 2011, after Republican presidential candidate for the United States Michele Bachmann repeated an anecdote shared with her claiming that the HPV vaccine causes "intellectual disability", radio commentator Rush Limbaugh said "Michele Bachmann, she might have blown it today. Well, not blown it—she might have jumped the shark today."
In August 2014, the city manager of Black Rock City, Nevada described Burning Man, an annual event at nearby Black Rock Desert, as having "jumped the shark", when the 2014 event—which had been previously noted for core values of radical self-expression and self-reliance—featured incongruously posh VIP lounges, cell phone towers, private jets, and "glamping". The implication that Burning Man has "jumped the shark" (or is a fallen utopia) is questioned by cultural anthropologist Graham St John, who argues that Burning Man was never a utopia in the first place.
In January 2018, journalist Keith Olbermann criticized the inclusion of esports players on the sports journalism website The Players' Tribune, saying that they "have jumped the shark by publishing pieces by snotty random kids playing children's games" in response to an article by Doublelift, a League of Legends player.
In May 2021, CNBC news anchor Carl Quintanilla proposed that Elon Musk had jumped the shark with his advocacy of cryptocurrencies instead of focusing on Tesla, Inc as it began to lose market share and its stock price began to plunge.
Writing in the April 2-3, 2022, edition of the Wall Street Journal, reporter Kathryn O'Shea-Evans quoted an interior designer who remarked that chef's kitchens in homes were passé. "Chef's kitchens have jumped the shark. And for what? Unpacking takeout?".
Nuke the fridgeEdit
In 2008, TIME identified a term modeled after "jump the shark": "nuke the fridge". Specifically applicable to film, the magazine defined the term: "to exhaust a Hollywood franchise with disappointing sequels."
The phrase derives from a scene in the fourth Indiana Jones film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, in which Indiana Jones survives an atomic bomb detonation by fitting himself into a lead-lined refrigerator to shield himself from the radiation. The explosion annihilates its surroundings but sends the refrigerator flying sufficiently distant for the protagonist to escape unhurt. The scene was criticized as being scientifically implausible.
Within two days of the film's premiere, the phrase "nuke the fridge" had gone viral, describing film scenes that similarly stretched credulity. Director Steven Spielberg later said the scene was "my silly idea" and was glad to have been part of the pop-culture phrase, while the film's executive producer George Lucas took similar credit believing that Jones would have had an even chance of surviving the blast.
Growing the beardEdit
"Growing the beard" refers to the opposite of jumping the shark; i.e. when a show dramatically improves in quality. In the series Star Trek: The Next Generation the second season is considered to be better in terms of storytelling over the first season; coincidentally, character William Riker, who was clean-shaven for the first season, had grown a beard that he retained for the second season which is where the term was derived from.
Other fictional usesEdit
Fonzie was not the first fictional character to encounter a shark on water skis. In the P. G. Wodehouse 1934 novel Right Ho, Jeeves, Bertie Wooster's cousin Angela does so while aquaplaning on the French Riviera.[a] From 2017 to 2020, The Guardian in the UK published a humorous weekly column in its Saturday listings guide featuring TV programmes that—in the opinion of its journalists—have "jumped the shark".
- In Chapter 7 of Right-Ho, Jeeves, Angela was not jumping a shark. She had been aquaplaning and was regaining "her board after taking a toss, when a great beastly shark came along and cannoned into it, flinging her into the salty once more."
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- Gross, Terry (April 11, 2019). "'I Never Had A Plan B': Henry Winkler On His Career, From The Fonz To 'Barry'". NPR. Archived from the original on September 16, 2021. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
- Pond, Steve (August 21, 2018). "'Barry' Star Henry Winkler on Why He's 'Very Proud' He Jumped That Shark – Twice (Video)". TheWrap. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
- Fox, Jr., Fred (September 3, 2010). "First Person: In defense of 'Happy Days' 'Jump the Shark' episode". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 15, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
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- "'Live at Wiseacres: America Has Jumped the Shark' videotaped performance By Doug Stanhope". YouTube. YouTube.com. July 31, 2008 [uploaded]. Archived from the original on July 2, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- Neil, Dan (March 4, 2011). "What Part of 'Mini' Did You Not Grasp, BMW?". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 2, 2020. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Paul Niedermeyer (August 10, 2010). "Curbside Classic: GM's Deadly Sin #10 – Cadillac Cimarron – The Truth About Cars". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on March 3, 2018. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- Adams, Richard (September 14, 2011). "Michele Bachmann, the HPV vaccine and the Republican landscape". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Buhr, Sarah (August 28, 2014). "Burning Man Founders Admit The Festival Has Jumped The Shark But That's Okay". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- Graham St John, "Jumping the Shark? The Enigma of Burning Man" Archived August 12, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Beyond Burning Man, April 22, 2020
- Olbermann, Keith [@KeithOlbermann] (January 9, 2018). "Three years in. That's awfully early to have jumped the shark by publishing pieces by snotty random kids playing children's games, @PlayersTribune" (Tweet). Retrieved January 11, 2018 – via Twitter.
- Carl Quintanilla [@carlquintanilla] (May 14, 2021). ""Musk might be in danger of turning himself into an unserious figure, which isn't a great narrative for the CEO of one of the world's largest companies." He is on "the wrong end of a nasty correction, and vulnerable to a new narrative that he has 'jumped the shark.'" @johnauthers" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Wall Street Journal, April 2-3, 2022, p. D8
- Cloud, John (November 6, 2013). "Top 10 Buzzwords—The Top 10 Everything of 2008". TIME. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
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- Locker, Melissa (November 28, 2012). "Indiana Jones' 'Nuke the Fridge' Plot Is, Shockingly, Scientifically Impossible". Time. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- ""Jump the Shark", Meet "Nuke the Fridge"". Newsweek. June 28, 2008. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
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- "Star Trek: Why Commander Riker Grew a Beard for The Next Generation Season 2". CBR. May 12, 2021. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (September 14, 2017). "How Seth MacFarlane could save his terminally bland Star Trek clone The Orville". The Verge. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
- Wodehouse, P.G. (2011). Right Ho, Jeeves (Reprint ed.). New York: W.W. Norton.
- Wodehouse, P. G. (1989). Right Ho, Jeeves—excerpt. Google Books. ISBN 9781465540768. Archived from the original on August 31, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
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- "Why 'Happy Days'—and the Fonz—Never Truly 'Jumped the Shark'." Smithsonian (magazine), September 2017.
- "Jon Hein: Jump The Shark: When Good Things Go Bad." The A.V. Club, October 7, 2002.
- Henry Winkler Reflects on "Jumping the Shark" on 'Happy Days'- Sirius XM, October 19, 2020.
- Jon Hein Tracks When TV Shows "Jump the Shark" and Picks the Best Series Ever—The Howard Stern Show, September 11, 2019.