Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco, 8th Duke of Escalona

Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco y Zúñiga, Duke of Escalona and Marquess of Villena (Marcilla, Navarre, 7 September 1650 – Madrid, 29 June 1725), was a Spanish aristocrat, politician, and academician who founded the Royal Spanish Academy.

The Duke of Escalona
Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco.jpg
The Duke of Escalona in a 17th century engraving
Director of the Royal Spanish Academy
In office
MonarchPhilip V
Louis I
Succeeded byMercurio López Pacheco, 9th Duke of Escalona
Personal details
Juan Manuel María de la Aurora Fernández Pacheco Acuña Girón y Portocarrero

(1650-09-07)7 September 1650
Marcilla, Navarre, Spain
Died29 June 1725(1725-06-29) (aged 74)
Madrid, Spain
María Josefa de Benavides Silva y Manrique de Lara (m. 1674)


Duke Juan Manuel Fernández, Duke of Escalona, Marquess of Villena, 12th Count of San Esteban de Gormaz, 8th Count of Xiquena was the son of Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona (1599–1653) and his second wife Juana María Francisca de Zuñiga (died 1652).[1] He served as Mayordomo mayor to the king, viceroy, and captain-general of the Kingdoms of Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia, Sicily and Naples, and, on 9 October 1687, was awarded the title of Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. In 1694 he lost the Battle of Torroella against the invading French and, during the War of the Spanish Succession, was imprisoned in Gaeta, Naples, by the Austrian empire, after losing the Siege of Gaeta (1707). Upon his release and return to Spain, he founded—under orders of King Philip V—the Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española (RAE)). He was elected its first lifetime director in 1713.[2]

Marriage and childrenEdit

on 29 September 1674 he married María Josefa de Benavides Silva y Manrique de Lara, daughter of Diego de Benavides, 8th Count of Santisteban. They had 2 sons:

  • Mercurio López Pacheco y Benavides, (Escalona 9 May 1679 - Madrid 7 June 1738), the 9th Duke of Escalona and many other titles and also the lifetime 2nd director of the RAE (1725–1738).
  • Marciano Fernández Pacheco (1688-1743)


  1. ^ http://www.fuenterrebollo.com/Heraldica-Piedra/marqueses-villena-segovia.html
  2. ^ CIUDAD RUIZ, Manuel (2000): «El maestrazgo de Don Rodrigo Téllez Girón», en En la España Medieval, nº 23. 0214-3038, pp. 321–365
Government offices
Preceded by
Alejandro de Bournonville
Viceroy of Navarre
Succeeded by
Baltasar de Zúñiga
Preceded by
Baltasar de los Cobos
Viceroy of Aragon
Succeeded by
Domenico del Giudice
Preceded by
Juan Claros Pérez de Guzmán
Viceroy of Catalonia
Succeeded by
Francisco Antonio de Agurto
Preceded by
Luis Francisco de la Cerda
Viceroy of Naples
Succeeded by
Georg Adam von Martinitz
Preceded by
Pietro Colonna
Viceroy of Sicily
Succeeded by
Francesco del Giudice
Academic offices
New title Director of
The Royal Spanish Academy

Succeeded by
The Duke of Escalona
A seat of
The Royal Spanish Academy

Succeeded by
Tomás Pascual de Azpeitia
Spanish nobility
Preceded by
Diego López Pacheco
Duke of Escalona
Succeeded by
Mercurio López Pacheco
Marquis of Villena
Count of San Esteban de Gormaz
Count of Xiquena
Marquis of Moya
Succeeded by
Vicente de Cabrera