Jong Batak Bond

Jong Batak Bond (Dutch for "young Batak association"), sometimes simply called Jong Batak, was a short-lived but influential Batak intellectual organization founded in Batavia, Dutch East Indies (today Jakarta) in December 1925.[1][2] Like Budi Utomo, Jong Java and other such organizations, its members consisted of native Indonesian students in Dutch-language schools interested in advancing their ethnic group and Indonesian nationalism at the same time.[3][4][5] Notable members of the group include Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap, Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia Harahap, Sanusi Pane, Saleh Said Harahap and Arifin Harahap.

The Jong Batak delegation at the Second Indonesian Youth Conference in 1928

Members of the organization represented by Sjarifuddin Harahap participated in the 1928 Youth Pledge which is considered to be one of the major events in the development of the Indonesian nationalist movement.[6] By 1930 Jong Batak, and most of the other "ethnic" associations, had merged into the pan-Indonesian group founded by Sukarno, Indonesia Muda.

HistoryEdit

Jong Batak was founded at a meeting in Batavia on 6 December 1925 by a group of Batak students from secondary schools; the founding meeting was chaired by Volksraad member Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia.[7] The impetus to create the group had come from disaffected Batak members of the nationalist organization Jong Sumatranen Bond who decided to leave that organization because they felt it was dominated by its Minangkabau members.[8][9][10][11][12] Led by Djabangoen Harahap, Ferdinand Lumbantobing, and Sanusi Pane, this new group hoped to discuss, study, and modernize Batak culture, which at that time had a very low status in Indies society.[12][7] However, it mainly became popular among the Toba Batak people; other closely related groups such as the Karo and Mandailing did not use the Batak label at that time and were less interested in this group.[12]

A major function of Jong Batak seems to have been a social one; Batak students in major cities in Java and Sumatra used it to organize football leagues, chess clubs, social gatherings and nature walks.[12][13] The association also published its own newspaper in Weltevreden starting in January 1926, titled Jong Batak: orgaan van den Bataks Bond.[14][15][7] It is unclear how long that publication existed; it appears to have published until 1929.

From 30 April to 2 May 1926 members of Jong Batak participated in the First Indonesian Youth Congress in Weltevreden led by Mohammad Tabrani.[1][16][17] A major proposal of the conference was to merge all of the ethnic youth associations into one pan-Indonesian group, but that conference failed to attract all the major Indonesian youth groups and was considered unsuccessful.[18][19] The youth groups continued to meet in 1927 to try and sort out their differences to create a unified organization, including at a conference hosted by Sukarno in Bandung in December where he called for the creation of a Young Indonesia (Indonesia Muda) association.[20][21] At the follow-up Second Indonesian Youth Conference which took place two year later, on 26–28 October 1928, Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap represented Jong Batak and participated in the famous Youth Pledge, considered a key moment in the development of the Indonesian national movement.[22][23][16][1] Their participation in the conference signaled a greater cooperation between the youth associations, aiming at an eventual merger into one organization.[24]

Because of the increasing strength of Indonesian nationalism, during 1930–1 Jong Batak was dissolved along with Jong Java and other comparable organizations, and its members joined Indonesia Muda (young Indonesia, known in Dutch as Jong-Indonesië) instead.[25][26]

LegacyEdit

The successful Jong Batak chess club continued to compete for several years after the dissolution of the parent organization.

 
Amir Sjarifoeddin in 1947

Although the organization was short-lived, many of the members and leaders of Jong Batak went on to become influential in the Indonesian nationalist movement and in politics after Indonesia gained its independence in the 1940s. Sanusi Pane became one of the most famous Indonesian writers and a schoolteacher.[27] Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap became Indonesian Minister of Defence in 1945, and Prime Minister from June 1947 to January 1948. Todung Sutan Gunung Mulia, Sjarifuddin's cousin, had been a Volksraad member during colonial times and was Minister of Education and Culture from 1945–6 and was also involved in the founding of the Indonesian Christian Party. Arifin Harahap, another former member, was Trade Minister from 1959 to 1962.

An annual arts festival held in Medan, North Sumatra since 2014 took inspiration from the group and is called the Jong Bataks Art Festival.[28][29][30]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Sudiyo, Sudiyo; Santono, Dalimun; Nugroho, Agus; Suwardi, Edy (1997). Sejarah pergerakan nasional indonesia: dari budi utomo sampai dengan pengakuan kedaulatan [Cet.2]. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. pp. 49–52.
  2. ^ Stibbe, D. G.; Sandbergen, F. J. W. H., eds. (1935). Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië Zevende Deel (in Dutch) (2 ed.). 's-Gravenhage: Nijhoff. p. 966.
  3. ^ Halim, Amran; Lumintaintang, Yayah B. (1983). Kongres Bahasa Indonesia 3. Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa. p. 124.
  4. ^ Reid, Anthony (2004). "Melayu as a source of diverse modern identities". In Barnard, Timothy P. (ed.). Contesting Malayness : Malay identity across boundaries. Singapore: Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore. p. 20. ISBN 9789971692797.
  5. ^ Pols, Hans (2018). Nurturing Indonesia: medicine and decolonisation in the Dutch East Indies. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 9781108424578.
  6. ^ Formichi, Chiara (2012). Islam and the Making of the Nation : Kartosuwiryo and Political Islam in 20th Century Indonesia. Leiden: BRILL. p. 27. ISBN 9789004260467.
  7. ^ a b c "Jong Batak Bond". De Locomotief (in Dutch). Semarang. 11 December 1925.
  8. ^ [Geraadpleegd op Delpher op 11-11-2021, https://resolver.kb.nl/resolve?urn=MMKB19:002771182:mpeg21:p00001 "De Intellectueelen en de Inlandsche Beweging."] De nieuwe vorstenlanden (in Dutch). Surakarta. 21 June 1928. p. 1. {{cite news}}: Check |url= value (help)
  9. ^ "De Jeugdbeweging". De Sumatra post (in Dutch). Medan. 10 January 1927. p. 1.
  10. ^ Reid, Anthony (2005). An Indonesian frontier : Acehnese and other histories of Sumatra. Singapore: Singapore University Press. p. 32. ISBN 9789971692988.
  11. ^ "Bataks te Batavia". Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (in Dutch). Rotterdam. 4 May 1927. p. 13.
  12. ^ a b c d Pols, Hans (2018). Nurturing Indonesia: medicine and decolonisation in the Dutch East Indies. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 88–9. ISBN 9781108424578.
  13. ^ "Schaken". Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië (in Dutch). Batavia [Jakarta]. 21 August 1926. p. 13.
  14. ^ "Jong Batak - Cornell University Library Catalog". newcatalog.library.cornell.edu. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  15. ^ "Jong Batak : orgaan van den Bataks Bond". Leiden University Library. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  16. ^ a b Petrus Blumberger, J. Th. (1931). De nationalistische beweging in Nederlandsch-Indië (in Dutch). Tjeenk Willink. pp. 390–3.
  17. ^ "Het Jeugdcongres te Weltevreden". De Locomotief (in Dutch). Semarang. 1 May 1926.
  18. ^ "DE EENHEIDSGEDACHTE IN DE INLANDSCHE JEUGDBEWEGING. Voorbereidingen voor een jeugd congres". De Locomotief (in Dutch). Semarang. 10 March 1926.
  19. ^ van Klinken, G. (2003). Minorities, Modernity and the Emerging Nation Christians in Indonesia, a Biographical Approach. Boston: BRILL. p. 118. ISBN 9789004488434.
  20. ^ ""Jong-Indonesië". Eerste openbare vergadering te Bandoeng. Soekarno spreekt". De Locomotief (in Dutch). Semarang. 28 December 1927.
  21. ^ "NATIONALE JEUGDBEWEGING". Algemeen Handelsblad (in Dutch). Amsterdam. 14 June 1927. p. 10.
  22. ^ Halim, Amran (1981). Bahasa dan Pembangunan Bangsa. Pusat Pembinaan dan Pembangunan Bahasa. p. 374.
  23. ^ Latif, Yudi (2008). Indonesian Muslim intelligentsia and power. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 236. ISBN 9789812304728.
  24. ^ "De Inheemsche Vereenigingen". Algemeen handelsblad voor Nederlandsch-Indië (in Dutch). Semarang. 29 November 1929. p. 1.
  25. ^ Simatupang, T. B. (1996). The fallacy of a myth. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan. p. 19. ISBN 9789794163580.
  26. ^ DAROESMAN, M. M. (1937). "INHEEMSE JEUGDBEWEGING IN INDIË". De Vuurslag; vrijzinnig christelijk jeugdblad-maandblad voor jongens en meisjes vanaf 15 jaar (in Dutch). 2 (7).
  27. ^ Southeast Asian writers. Detroit: Gale. 2009. p. 214. ISBN 9780787681661.
  28. ^ Ritonga, Rechtin Hani (31 October 2020). "Semangati Pemuda, Jong Bataks Arts Festival ke Tujuh Angkat Tema Alunan Mantra Tala". Tribun-medan.com (in Indonesian).
  29. ^ "'Jong Batak Arts Festival 3' Digelar 25-28 Oktober 2016 di Taman Budaya Sumut". Gapura News (in Indonesian). 14 July 2016.
  30. ^ Sinaga, Nikson (28 October 2018). "Jong Batak's Art Festival Angkat Seni Tradisi di Sumut". Kompas (in Indonesian).