Joint Entrance Examination – Advanced

Joint Entrance Examination – Advanced (JEE-Advanced) (formerly the Indian Institute of Technology - Joint Entrance Examination (IIT-JEE)), is an academic examination held annually in India. It is organised by one of the seven zonal IITs (IIT Roorkee, IIT Kharagpur, IIT Delhi, IIT Kanpur, IIT Bombay, IIT Madras, and IIT Guwahati)[2] under the guidance of the Joint Admission Board (JAB) on a round-robin rotation pattern for the qualifying candidates of the JEE-Main (exempted for Foreign Candidates). It was used to be the sole prerequisite for admission to the Indian Institutes of Technology bachelor's programs before the introduction of UCEED,[3] Online B.S.[4] and Olympiad entry[5] but seats through these new mediums are very low (except IITM Online B.S. which has open enrolment).

Joint Entrance Examination – Advanced
AcronymJEE-Advanced
TypeElectronic assessment
Developer / administrator
Knowledge / skills tested (Both are compulsory)
PurposeAdmission to undergraduate Engineering, Science and Architecture courses in 23 IITs
Year started1961 (61 years ago) (1961)
Duration2 Papers of 3 hours each; Total 6 hours a day
OfferedOnce a year
Restrictions on attemptsMaximum two attempts in consecutive years
Countries / regionsIndia
LanguagesEnglish and Hindi
Annual number of test takersIncrease 155,538 (2022)[1]
Qualification rate26.17% out of which who wrote JEE Advanced after qualifying JEE Main
Websitejeeadv.ac.in

JEE Advanced is considered one of the toughest examinations in the world with the qualification rate of 26.17% in 2022.[6]

Other universities—such as the Marine Engineering and Research Institute, Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy (IIPE), the Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, the Indian Institute of Space Technology (IIST), the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISERs), and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) — use the score obtained on the JEE-Advanced exam as the basis for admission. The JEE-Advanced score is also used as a possible basis for admission by Indian applicants to non-Indian universities such as the University of Cambridge and National University of Singapore.[7][8]

HistoryEdit

The first institute among IITs, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, started in 1951. In its initial years before 1961, students were admitted based on their academic results, followed by an interview in several locations across the country. From 1955 to 1960, admissions for the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur were conducted via a national examination. Academic disciplines were allotted to the students via interviews and counselling sessions held at Kharagpur.[9]

The IIT-JEE was first conducted in 1961, coinciding with the 1961 IIT Act.[10]

In 1978, the English paper was not considered when ranking participants' performance in the examination. In 1998, the English test was discontinued.

In 1997, the IIT-JEE was conducted twice after the question paper was leaked in some locations.

Between 2000 and 2005, an additional screening test was used alongside the main examination, intended to reduce pressure on the main examination by allowing only about 20,000 top candidates to appear for the examination, out of more than 450,000 applicants.

In 2002, an additional exam called the AIEEE was introduced, and it was used for admissions to many institutions of national importance other than the IITs.

In June 2005, The Hindu newspaper led a campaign for reforming the IIT-JEE to eradicate the "coaching mania" and to improve gender and socio-economic diversity.[11][12][13] Two possible solutions were proposed - either a convergence between the screening test and the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE), or a two-tier examination. Whereas ranks from the first tier can be used to gain admission to the NITs and other engineering colleges in the country.

In September 2005, the group of directors of all the IITs announced significant revisions to the examination. These were implemented from 2006 onward.[14] The revised examination consisted of a single objective test, replacing the earlier two-test system. In the revised examination, to be eligible for the main examination, candidates in the general category had to obtain at least 60% aggregate marks in the 12th-grade examinations organized by various educational boards of India, while candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Persons With Disabilities (PwD) categories needed a minimum score of 55%.

From 2006, the screening exam was abolished with the introduction of a single-stage multiple-choice exam that started in 2006. In 2008, the director and the dean of IIT Madras proposed further revisions to the examination, arguing that the coaching institutes were "enabling many among the less-than-best students to crack the test and keeping girls from qualifying". They expressed concern that the present system did not allow for applicants' 12 years of schooling to have a bearing on admissions into IIT.[15]

In 2008, the Indian Institutes of Technology began offering their admission tests in Dubai.[16] Annually, the number of candidates for the examination in Dubai varies between 200 and 220.[17]

In 2012, the AIEEE was changed to JEE (Main), and IIT-JEE was renamed JEE (Advanced); the JEE (Main) had become the screening exam for JEE (Advanced).

The two-tier reform suggested in 2005 may become a reality as the Indian government has announced plans for a single entrance exam for all engineering colleges from 2018, with students aspiring for the IITs having to pass the nationwide standard entrance test (JEE-Main) with high marks and then take the JEE-Advanced to qualify for the IITs.[18] In 2018, the JEE (Advanced) exam started being conducted online.

EligibilityEdit

The eligibility criteria for taking the JEE (Advanced) exam are as follows:[19]

  • Candidates should rank among the top 2,000 candidates in Paper-1 of JEE (Main), broken down per category. For example, for JEE (Advanced) 2019, the top 250,000 were eligible, but only 46.5% of those were open for all, the rest being reserved for special categories: 10% for General-Economically Weaker Sections, 27% for OBC- Non Creamy Layer, 15% for SC, 7.5% for ST, and the remaining 40.5% OPEN for all.
  • Candidates should be less than 25 years of age, with five-year relaxation for SC, ST, and PwD candidates.
  • Candidates can attempt examination at most two times in two consecutive years.
  • Candidates should have qualified the Class XII Board Examination (or equivalent) in the same or the previous year. (For Example, For JEE-2022, students must have passed Class XII board(or equivalent) in 2022 or 2021.
  • Candidates should not have accepted admission in any of the IITs earlier.

In addition, candidates are required to either be within the category-wise top 20th percentile of successful candidates in the Class XII Board Examination or secure a 75% mark (65% for SC (scheduled castes), ST (scheduled tribes), and PwD (people with disabilities).[20] Foreign Candidates are exempted from the requirement of JEE-Main.

Qualifying PercentageEdit

Minimum percentage of marks prescribed for inclusion in the rank list[21]

Category Minimum percentage

of marks in each subject

Minimum percentage

of aggregate marks

Common rank list (CRL)                  10.0                35.0
OBC-NCL/GEN-EWS                   9.0                31.5
ST/SC/PWD                   5.0                17.5
Preparatory course

for SC/ST/PWD

                  2.5                 8.75

Minimum percentage of aggregate/subject marks may be lowered subsequently considering the toughness of the paper and the need of students.

For example: Minimum percentage of marks prescribed for inclusion in the rank list in 2022[22]

Category Minimum percentage

of marks in each subject

Minimum percentage

of aggregate marks

Common rank list (CRL)                  4.17                15.28
OBC-NCL/GEN-EWS                  4.17                13.89
ST/SC/PWD                  2.50                 7.78
Preparatory course

for SC/ST/PWD

                 0.83                 3.89

Number of applicants by year [23]Edit

Year Registered Appeared Qualified
1997 91,279 - -
1998 95,619 - -
1999 112,347 - -
2000 128,624 - -
2001 147,775 - -
2002 178,043 - -
2003 178,940 - -
2004 175,355 - -
2005 198,059 - -
2006 299,087 - -
2007 251,803 243,029 7,200
2008 321,653 311,258 8,652
2009 398,264 384,977 10,035
2010 473,982 455,571 13,104
2011 485,136 468,280 13,196
2012 506,484 479,651 24,112
2013 126,749 115,971 20,834
2014 126,995 119,580 27,152
2015 124,741 117,238 26,354
2016 155,797 147,678 36,566
2017 171,814 159,540 51,040[24]
2018 165,656 155,158 31,988
2019 174,432 161,319 38,705
2020 160,838 150,838 43,204
2021 151,193 141,699 41,862
2022 160,038 155,538 40,712
NOTE:
  • (1) Qualifying JEE advanced does not mean IIT admission.[25][26]
  • (2) Reserved categories have lower qualifying cutoff, (e.g. GEN-EWS/OBC-NCL get 10% relaxation, SC/ST/PWD get 50% relaxation and SC/ST/PWD also get 75% relaxation for preparatory courses in IITs) who are also considered qualified and thus included in the list.[27]
  • (3) From 2013, only a certain threshold number of students from JEE main are allowed to write JEE advanced.[28]

Organizing instituteEdit

This list shows the organizers of the JEE (Advanced) in recent years.

Year Organizer
2006 IIT Kharagpur
2007 IIT Bombay
2008 IIT Roorkee
2009 IIT Guwahati
2010 IIT Madras[29]
2011 IIT Kanpur[30]
2012 IIT Delhi[31]
2013 IIT Delhi[32]
2014 IIT Kharagpur[33]
2015 IIT Bombay[34]
2016 IIT Guwahati[35]
2017 IIT Madras[36]
2018 IIT Kanpur[37]
2019 IIT Roorkee[38]
2020 IIT Delhi[39]
2021 IIT Kharagpur[40]
2022 IIT Bombay[41]
2023 IIT Guwahati[42]

Seats[43]Edit

The number of students taking the examination increased substantially each year with 506,484 candidates registered for JEE (Advanced) 2012.[44] However, with the two stage JEE (Main) + JEE (Advanced) structure from 2013,[45] the number of candidates in JEE (Advanced) is fixed at 1.5 lakh students in 2013 and it is increased in subsequent years to 2.5 lakhs as of 2022.[46] The total seats available in each institute (Seat Matrix) is summarized in table below, year wise.[47][48]

Institute 2002[49] 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011[50] 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022[51]
IIT Bhilai --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 120 120 127 143 183 183 183 203
IIT Bhubaneswar --- --- --- 120 120 120 120 120 160 180 180 260 350 369 420 475 475 475
IIT Bombay 491 600 574 648 746 880 880 880 880 880 903 903 929 1026 1115 1360 1360 1360
IIT Delhi 552 552 553 626 721 851 851 851 851 851 851 851 851 910 1061 1209 1209 1209
IIT (ISM) Dhanbad 444 444 658 705 923 1012 1034 1034 1023 962 935 912 912 1007 952 1125 1125 1125
IIT Dharwad --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 120 120 126 137 170 185 310
IIT Gandhinagar --- --- --- 120 120 120 120 120 140 150 150 180 180 194 212 250 250 288
IIT Goa --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 90 90 97 150 157 157 157
IIT Guwahati 250 350 365 435 498 588 615 615 660 660 660 615 645 702 795 902 922 952
IIT Hyderabad --- --- --- 120 120 120 140 140 210 220 220 240 285 294 317 425 470 505
IIT Indore --- --- --- --- 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 260 260 275 294 360 360 360
IIT Jammu --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 90 120 154 213 237 240 240
IIT Jodhpur --- --- --- 120 120 120 160 160 200 160 120 160 180 247 352 490 490 530
IIT Kanpur 456 456 541 608 702 827 827 827 827 827 853 827 827 910 1016 1182 1210 1210
IIT Kharagpur 653 659 874 988 1138 1341 1341 1370 1341 1341 1341 1341 1341 1453 1603 1902 1869 1869
IIT Madras 553 554 540 612 713 838 838 838 838 838 838 838 838 877 967 1133 1133 1133
IIT Mandi --- --- --- --- 120 120 120 120 120 120 145 150 150 200 282 329 329 336
IIT Palakkad --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 120 120 120 163 181 188 169 180
IIT Patna --- --- --- 120 120 120 120 120 200 200 200 200 225 250 361 427 547 582
IIT Roorkee 402 546 746 884 1013 1155 1155 1155 1105 1065 1030 970 975 1043 1190 1353 1353 1353
IIT Ropar --- --- --- 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 155 260 309 346 370 370 395
IIT Tirupati --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 120 120 120 180 203 237 237 237
IIT (BHU) Varanasi 568 568 686 766 881 1057 1057 1057 1090 1090 1090 1090 1090 1167 1364 1589 1589 1589
Total 4369 4583 5537 6992 8295 9509 9618 9647 9885 9784 10006 10572 10988 12080 13674 16053 16232 16598

Note: This intake is only about bachelor's program intake through JEE Advanced and it is not about intake in IITs, because some IITs also admit students through UCEED, Olympiads.[52][53][54][55][56]

In 2011, additional courses were introduced in the IITs. IIT Tirupati and IIT Palakkad were started in 2015 and four more institutes (IIT Bhilai, IIT Dharwad, IIT Goa, and IIT Jammu) opened in 2016. In 2018, to ensure minimum female enrollment of 14%, the IITs introduced "female-only" and "gender-neutral" seats based on 2017 enrollment statistics; and "super-numerary" seats were allocated per-institute and per-course to reach a 14% target. With these, and slight overall seat increases, the total seat availability was over 12,000, including 801 "super-numerary female-only" seats. For 2019, with the partial rollout of a 10% EWS quota (without a reduction in non-reserved seats) and the increase of the female enrollment target to 17%, the total seats available went up to over 13,500, with over 1200 super-numerary female-only seats. In 2020, with the full rollout of the 10% EWS quota and a 20% female enrolment target, total available seats increased further to 16,053, with over 1500 super-numerary female-only seats.

CriticismEdit

In 2012, Super 30 founder and mathematician Anand Kumar criticized the New Admission Norms, saying that the decision of the IITs' council to give a chance to students in the top 20% from various boards in the class 12 examinations was "a decision in haste". "This is one decision that will go against the poor, who don't have the opportunity to study in elite schools," he added.[57]

The IIT-JEE is conducted only in English and Hindi; it has been criticized as being harder for students where other Indian languages, like Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Urdu, Oriya, Bengali, Marathi, Assamese, or Gujarati, are more prominent. In September 2011, the Gujarat High Court acted on a Public Interest Litigation by the Gujarati Sahitya Parishad, demanding the examinations be conducted in Gujarati also.[58] A second petition was made that October by Navsari's Sayaji Vaibhav Sarvajanik Pustakalaya Trust.[59] Another petition was made at the Madras High Court for conducting the exam in Tamil. In the petition, it was claimed that not conducting the exam in the regional languages violates article 14 of the Constitution of India. The Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) party, a political party in Tamil Nadu, held a demonstration at Chennai for conducting the IIT-JEE and other national entrance exams in regional languages also, particularly Tamil in Tamil Nadu.[60]

The PMK party filed Public Interest Litigation in the Madras High Court to conduct the IIT-JEE entrance exam in Tamil. They claimed that every year 763,000 students were completing grade 12 in Tamil Nadu, 75% of them from Tamil Medium. They had to take the entrance exam in English or Hindi, neither of which was their medium of instruction nor their mother tongue, and so were denied their fundamental right to take the entrance exam in a language familiar to them.[61][62] Shiv Sena urged the MHRD to conduct the IIT-JEE and other national undergraduate entrance exams in regional languages, particularly Marathi language in Maharashtra.[63] In 2017, the Supreme Court ordered JAB to put a bar on the ongoing counseling process. There were three questions comprising a total of 11 marks that were unclear.

Changes made in JEE (Advanced) in 2018Edit

There were several changes made to the exam in 2018. The Joint Admission Board (JAB) decided to conduct the entire exam online from 2018 onwards, hoping to reduce the chances of paper leak and make logistics and evaluation easier. It said that the online exam would neutralize the problem of misprinting.[64]

CoachingEdit

Preparation for the Joint Entrance Exam begins typically two to four years before students take the test. More than 90% of students who passed this exam attended coaching institutes, which had created a ₹232.61 billion industry with annual tuition of up to ₹250,000.[citation needed] These academies included mock tests multiple times a week, up to 200 students per class, and long hours, ranging from 4 to 7 hours a day, in addition to regular high school work. There were hundreds of academies across the country, and the most famous—in Kota, Rajasthan—attracted approximately 125,000 students each year.[65] Coaching programs are major corporations, listed on the Indian stock market and also attracting tens of millions of rupees of investment from private equity firms.[66] The high-pressure environments at these coaching institutes have been blamed for a significant number of suicides.[67]

Recent schedule revisionsEdit

The former HRD minister of India, Ramesh Pokhriyal confirmed the dates and the nature of conduct for the JEE Main and Advanced examinations for the academic year 2021. The JEE-Main exam was slated to be conducted in eight sessions over four days— two sessions each day— for each phase, with a total of four phases being held in four different months. The first phase was organized from the 23 to 28 February, while the other phases were scheduled to be organized in the subsequent months of March, April and May. The JEE-Advanced exam was scheduled to be held on 3 July 2021 but was postponed— together with the third and fourth phases of the JEE-Main examination that were to be held in the respective months of April and May— due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The third and fourth phases of the JEE-Main examinations were later held on 20 July - 3 August and 26 August – 2 September, respectively. The JEE-Advanced exam was held on 3 October 2021.

JEE-Advanced 2022 was scheduled to be held on 3 July 2022 in the usual two sessions- Morning and Afternoon (both compulsory). However, with 2022 JEE-Main being postponed from April / May to 20–29 June / 21–30 July, JEE-Advanced 2022 was also postponed and subsequently held on 28 August 2022.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  13. ^ National admission test called for[dead link].
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