John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006)[1] was a New Zealand American psychologist, sexologist and professor at Johns Hopkins University known for his research on human sexual behavior and gender. Believing that gender identity was malleable within the first two years of life, Money advocated for the surgical "normalization" of the genitalia of intersex infants.[2]

John Money
Money in 1996
Born
John William Money

(1921-07-08)8 July 1921
Morrinsville, New Zealand
Died7 July 2006(2006-07-07) (aged 84)
Alma materVictoria University of Wellington
Harvard University
AwardsJames McKeen Cattell Fellow Award (1992)
Scientific career
FieldsPsychology
InstitutionsJohns Hopkins University

Money introduced new terminology in sex research, coining the terms gender role and sexual orientation.[3][4] Despite widespread popular belief, Money did not coin gender identity.[5] Money believed in drug treatment for sex offenders to extinguish their sex drives.[6]

Since the 1990s, Money's work and research has been subject to significant academic and public scrutiny.[7] A 1997 academic study criticized Money's work in many respects, particularly in regard to the involuntary sex-reassignment of the child David Reimer.[8][9] Money allegedly coerced David and his brother Brian to perform sexual rehearsal with each other, which Money then photographed. David Reimer lived a troubled life, eventually committing suicide at 38; his brother died of an overdose at age 36.[10]

Money believed that transgender people had an idée fixe, and established the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic in 1965. He screened adult patients for two years prior to granting them a medical transition, and believed sex roles should be de-stereotyped, so that masculine women would be less likely to desire transition.[11] Money is generally viewed as a negative figure by the transgender community.[12]

Money's writing has been translated into many languages and includes around 2,000 articles, books, chapters and reviews. He received around 65 honors, awards and degrees in his lifetime.[3]

Early life edit

Money was born in Morrinsville, New Zealand, to a Christian fundamentalist[13] family of English and Welsh descent.[14] His parents were members of the Plymouth Brethren Christian Church.[13] He attended Hutt Valley High School[15] and initially studied psychology at Victoria University of Wellington,[16] graduating with a double master's degree in psychology and education in 1944.[17][18] He was a junior member of the psychology faculty at the University of Otago in Dunedin.

Author Janet Frame attended some of Money's classes at the University of Otago, as part of her teacher training. Frame was attracted to Money, and eager to please him.[19] In October 1945, after Frame wrote an essay mentioning her thoughts of suicide,[20] Money convinced Frame to enter the psychiatric ward at Dunedin Public Hospital, where she was misdiagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia.[21][22] Frame then spent eight years in psychiatric institutions, during which she was subjected to electroshock and insulin shock therapy.[23][22] Frame narrowly missed being lobotomized.[24][22][23] In Frame's autobiography, An Angel at My Table, Money is referred to as John Forrest.[20]

Career and views edit

In 1947, at the age of 26, Money emigrated to the United States to study at the Psychiatric Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. He left Pittsburgh and earned his PhD from Harvard University in 1952.

Money became a professor of pediatrics and medical psychology at Johns Hopkins University from until his death.[citation needed]

Money proposed and developed several theories related to the topics of gender identity and gender roles, and coined terms like gender role[25] and lovemap. He popularised the term paraphilia (appearing in the DSM-III, which would later replace perversions) and introduced the term sexual orientation in place of sexual preference, arguing that attraction is not necessarily a matter of free choice.[3][4] Although often misattributed to him, Money did not coin the term 'gender identity'.[5]

In 1960 and 1961, he co-authored two papers with Richard Green, "Incongruous Gender Role: Nongenital Manifestations in Prepubertal Boys" and "Effeminacy in Prepubertal Boys: Summary of Eleven Cases and Recommendations for Case Management."[26][27]

Money pioneered the use of drug treatment for sex offenders to extinguish their sex drives.[6][28] According to a 1987 paper, he employed the drug Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate) for use on sex offenders at Johns Hopkins beginning in 1966. The practice later spread in the United States and Europe.[29]

Sex reassignment of David Reimer edit

During his professional life, Money was respected as an expert on sexual behavior, especially known for his views that gender was learned rather than innate. However, it was later revealed that his most famous case of David Reimer, born Bruce Reimer, was fundamentally flawed.[30] In 1966, a botched circumcision left eight-month-old Reimer without a penis. Money persuaded the baby's parents that sex reassignment surgery would be in Reimer's best interest. At the age of 22 months, Reimer underwent an orchiectomy, in which his testicles were surgically removed. He was reassigned to be raised as female and his name changed from Bruce to Brenda. Money further recommended hormone treatment, to which the parents agreed. Money then recommended a surgical procedure to create an artificial vagina, which the parents refused. Money published a number of papers reporting the reassignment as successful. David Reimer was raised under the "optimum gender rearing model" which was the common model for sex and gender socialization/medicalization for intersex youth. The model was heavily criticized for being sexist, and for assigning an arbitrary gender binary.[2]

According to John Colapinto's biography of David Reimer, starting when Reimer and his twin Brian were six years old, Money showed the brothers pornography and forced the two to rehearse sexual acts. Money would order David to get down on all fours and Brian was forced to "come up behind [him] and place his crotch against [his] buttocks". Money also forced Reimer, in another sexual position, to have his "legs spread" with Brian on top. On "at least one occasion" Money took a photograph of the two children performing these acts.[31]

When either child resisted Money, Money would get angry. Both Reimer and Brian recall that Money was mild-mannered around their parents, but ill-tempered when alone with them. Money also forced the two children to strip for "genital inspections"; when they resisted inspecting each other's genitals, Money got very aggressive. Reimer says, "He told me to take my clothes off, and I just did not do it. I just stood there. And he screamed, 'Now!' Louder than that. I thought he was going to give me a whupping. So I took my clothes off and stood there shaking."[31]

Money's rationale for his treatment of the children was his belief that "childhood 'sexual rehearsal play'" "at thrusting movements and copulation" was important for a "healthy adult gender identity".[10] Brian spoke about the therapy "only with the greatest emotional turmoil", and David was unwilling to speak about the details publicly.[31]

At 14 years old and in extreme psychological agony, David Reimer was told the truth by his parents. He chose to begin calling himself David, and he underwent surgical procedures to revert the female bodily modifications.[31]

Despite the pain and turmoil of the brothers, for decades, Money reported on Reimer's progress as the "John/Joan case", describing apparently successful female gender development and using this case to support the feasibility of sex reassignment and surgical reconstruction even in non-intersex cases.[32]

By the time this deception was discovered, the idea of a purely socially constructed gender identity and infant Intersex medical interventions had become the accepted medical and sociological standard.[32]

David Reimer's case came to international attention in 1997 when he told his story to Milton Diamond, an academic sexologist, who persuaded Reimer to allow him to report the outcome in order to dissuade physicians from treating other infants similarly.[33] Soon after, Reimer went public with his story, and John Colapinto published a widely disseminated and influential account in Rolling Stone magazine in December 1997.[34] This was later expanded into The New York Times bestselling biography As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl (2000),[35] in which Colapinto described how—contrary to Money's reports—when living as Brenda, Reimer did not identify as a girl. He was ostracized and bullied by peers (who dubbed him "cavewoman"),[36][37] and neither frilly dresses[38][39] nor female hormones made him feel female.[10]

In July 2002, Brian was found dead from an overdose of antidepressants. In May 2004, David committed suicide by shooting himself in the head with a sawed-off shotgun at the age of 38. According to his mother, "he had recently become depressed after losing his job and separating from his wife."[40]

Money argued that media response to Diamond's exposé was due to right-wing media bias and "the antifeminist movement." He said his detractors believed "masculinity and femininity are built into the genes so women should get back to the mattress and the kitchen".[41] However, intersex activists also criticized Money, stating that the unreported failure had led to the surgical reassignment of thousands of infants as a matter of policy.[42] Privately, Money was mortified by the case, colleagues said, and as a rule did not discuss it.[1]

Researcher Mary Anne Case wrote that Money made "fraudulently deceptive claims about the malleability of gender in certain patients who had involuntarily undergone sex reassignment surgery" and that this fueled the anti-gender movement.[43]

The Money and Reimer case was highlighted in the 2023 documentary Every Body, in which intersex individuals describe growing up and their struggles due to their gender being mis-identified.[44]

Transgender people and the Johns Hopkins Gender Clinic edit

Money had a particular interest in gender dysphoria and transgender people.[45] He believed transgender people had an Idée fixe; a preoccupation of the mind resistant to change.[45]: 107 

According to Goldie, Money is a seen as a "negative figure" among transgender people.[12] In one paper, Money described trans women as "devious, demanding and manipulative in their relationships with people on whom they are also dependent" and “possibly also incapable of love.”[46][47]

Money believed that de-stereotyping sex roles might prevent people from wanting to transition, arguing “a tomboy-ish girl, prenatally androgenized, grows up to be a career-minded woman, not a transsexual who claims to need sex reassignment”.[11][48]

In 1965, Money co-established the Gender Identity Clinic at Johns Hopkins with the endocrinologist Claude Migeon. Money screened adult patients for two years prior to granting them a medical transition, and argued that none regret the procedure as a result.[49] The hospital began performing sexual reassignment surgery in 1966, and was the first clinic in the United States to do so.[50][51]

Homosexuality and sexual orientation edit

John Money was a leading proponent of the idea that human sexual orientation develops through learning and gendered socialization.[52] He believed that males raised as girls from a young age would grow up to be attracted to males, and live as heterosexual women.[53] However, this belief was disproven: in the case of David Reimer, he grew up to be attracted to women,[52] and a 2016 academic review found that in seven total cases (boys raised as girls due to botched circumcision or cloacal exstrophy), all were strongly attracted to women, not men, inconsistent with this learning theory of homosexuality.[54]

Chronophilias edit

Money coined the term chronophilia and nepiophilia (sexual attraction to toddlers and infants) in 1986. In two 1983 case study publications, Money stated that pedophilia, among other chronophilias, could be characterized as combining "devotion, affection, and limerence", "comradeship with a touch of hero-worship" and ultimately as "harmless... in most instances".[55]

He stated[where?] that both sexual researchers and the public do not make distinctions between affectional pedophilia and sadistic pedophilia. According to Colapinto, Money told ''Paidika'', a now defunct Dutch journal of pedophilia, that:

"If I were to see the case of a boy aged 10 or 12 who's intensely attracted toward a man in his 20s or 30s, if the relationship is totally mutual, and the bonding is genuinely totally mutual, then I would not call it pathological in any way."[56][57]

Also in 1986, Money postulated the existence of multiple chronophilic forms of erotic age-roleplaying, or age impersonation, which he named "infantilism", "juvenilism", "adolescentilism", "gerontilism".[55]

Books on sexology edit

Money co-edited a 1969 book, Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment, which helped bring more acceptance to sexual reassignment surgery and transsexual individuals.[1]

Money introduced numerous definitions related to gender in journal articles in the 1950s, many of them as a result of his studies of intersex morphology. His definition of gender is based on his understanding of sex differences among human beings. According to Money, the fact that one sex produces ova and the other sex produces sperm is the irreducible criterion of sex difference. However, there are other sex-derivative differences that follow in the wake of this primary dichotomy. These differences involve the way urine is expelled from the human body and other questions of sexual dimorphism. According to Money's theory, sex-adjunctive differences are typified by the smaller size of females and their problems in moving around while nursing infants. This then makes it more likely that the males do the roaming and hunting.[citation needed]

Sex-arbitrary differences are those that are purely conventional: for example, color selection (baby blue for boys, pink for girls). Some of the latter differences apply to life activities, such as career opportunities for men versus women. Finally, Money created the now-common term gender role which he differentiated from the concept of the more traditional terminology sex role. This grew out of his studies of intersex people.

In his studies of intersex people, Money alleged that there are six variables that define sex. While in the average person all six would line up unequivocally as either all "male" or "female", in hermaphrodites any one or more than one of these could be inconsistent with the others, leading to various kinds of anomalies. In his seminal 1955 paper he defined these factors as:[58]

  1. assigned sex and sex of rearing
  2. external genital morphology
  3. internal reproductive structures
  4. hormonal and secondary sex characteristics
  5. gonadal sex
  6. chromosomal sex

and added,

"Patients showing various combinations and permutations of these six sexual variables may be appraised with respect to a seventh variable: 7. Gender role and orientation as male or female, established while growing up."[58]

He then defined gender role as;

"all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively. It includes, but is not restricted to sexuality in the sense of eroticism. Gender role is appraised in relation to the following: general mannerisms, deportment and demeanor; play preferences and recreational interests; spontaneous topics of talk in unprompted conversation and casual comment; content of dreams, daydreams and fantasies; replies to oblique inquiries and projective tests; evidence of erotic practices, and, finally, the person's own replies to direct inquiry."[58]

Money made the concept of gender a broader, more inclusive concept than one of masculine/feminine. For him, gender included not only one's status as a man or a woman, but was also a matter of personal recognition, social assignment, or legal determination; not only on the basis of one's genitalia but also on the basis of somatic and behavioral criteria that go beyond genital differences. In 1972, Money presented his theories in Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, a college level textbook. The book featured David Reimer as an example of gender reassignment.[citation needed]

In his book Gay, Straight and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation, Money develops a conception of "bodymind".[59] "Bodymind" is a way for scientists, in developing a science about sexuality, to move on from the platitudes of dichotomy between nature versus nurture, innate versus the acquired, biological versus the social, and psychological versus the physiological. He suggested that all of these capitalize on the ancient, pre-Platonic, pre-biblical conception of body versus the mind, and the physical versus the spiritual. In coining the term "bodymind", in this sense, Money wishes to move beyond these very ingrained principles of our folk or vernacular psychology.

Money also developed a view of "Concepts of Determinism" which, transcultural, transhistorical, and universal, all people have in common, sexologically or otherwise.[60] These include pairbondage, troopbondage, abidance, ycleptance, foredoomance, with these coping strategies: adhibition (engagement), inhibition, explication. Money suggested that the concept of "threshold"[61] – the release or inhibition of sexual (or other) behavior – is most useful for sex research as a substitute for any concept of motivation. Moreover, it confers the distinct advantage of having continuity and unity to what would otherwise be a highly disparate and varied field of research. It also allows for the classification of sexual behavior. For Money, the concept of threshold has great value because of the wide spectrum to which it applies. "It allows one to think developmentally or longitudinally, in terms of stages or experiences that are programmed serially, or hierarchically, or cybernetically (i.e. regulated by mutual feedback)."[59]

Personal life edit

Money was briefly married in the 1950s and never had any children.[62]

 
Money (right) with sexologist Romano Forleo [it] and his wife in Rome, 1996

Money was an early supporter and patron of many famous artists, including New Zealand artists Rita Angus and Theo Schoon,[63] and the American artist Lowell Nesbitt, whom he provided with an x-ray for one artwork.[64] Money was also acquainted with Yoko Ono, visiting her in London with Richard Green, and fashioning some of her sculptures.[65][64]

In 2002, as his Parkinson's disease worsened, Money donated a substantial portion of his art collection to the Eastern Southland Art Gallery in Gore, New Zealand.[66] In 2003, the New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark opened the John Money wing at the gallery.[67]

Money died on 7 July 2006, one day before his 85th birthday, in Towson, Maryland, of complications from Parkinson's disease.[1] He was survived by eight nieces and nephews.[62]

Selected works edit

  • Money, John. (1952). Hermaphroditism: An Inquiry into the Nature of a Human Paradox. Thesis (Ph.D.), Harvard University.
  • ____, and Patricia Tucker. (1975). Sexual Signatures on Being a Man or a Woman. Little Brown & Co: ISBN 0-316-57825-8
  • ____ (1985). The Destroying Angel. Prometheus. ISBN 0-879-75277-7
  • ____ (1986). Venuses Penuses. Prometheus. ISBN 978-0879753276
  • ____ (1986). Lovemaps: Clinical Concepts of Sexual/Erotic Health and Pathology, Paraphilia, and Gender Transposition in Childhood, Adolescence, and Maturity. New York: Irvington. ISBN 0-8264-0852-4
  • ____ (1988) Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505407-5
  • ____ (1989). Vandalized Lovemaps: Paraphilic Outcome of 7 Cases in Pediatric Sexology. Prometheus Books: ISBN 0-87975-513-X
  • ____ (1994). Sex Errors of the Body and Related Syndromes: A Guide to Counseling Children, Adolescents, and Their Families , 2nd ed. Baltimore: P.H. Brooks Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55766-150-2
  • ____ (1995). Gendermaps: Social Constructionism, Feminism, and Sexosophical History. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-0852-4
  • ____, and Anke Ehrhardt. (1996). Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson. Originally published: 1972 ISBN 0-8018-1406-5
  • ____ (1999). The Lovemap Guidebook: A Definitive Statement. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-1203-3

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d Carey, Benedict (11 July 2006). "John William Money, 84, Sexual Identity Researcher, Dies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  2. ^ a b Dreger, Alice; Herndon, April (2009). "Progress and Politics in the Intersex Rights Movement: Feminist Theory in Action" (PDF). GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies. 15 (2): 199–224. doi:10.1215/10642684-2008-134. ISSN 1064-2684. S2CID 145754009.
  3. ^ a b c Ehrhardt, Anke A. (August 2007). "John Money, PhD". The Journal of Sex Research. 44 (3): 223–224. doi:10.1080/00224490701580741. JSTOR 20620298. PMID 3050136. S2CID 147344556.
  4. ^ a b Tosh, Jemma (25 July 2014). Perverse Psychology: The pathologization of sexual violence and transgenderism. Routledge. ISBN 9781317635444.
  5. ^ a b Byrne, Alex (5 June 2023). "The Origin of "Gender Identity"" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 52 (7): 2709–2711. doi:10.1007/s10508-023-02628-0. PMID 37277576. S2CID 259090258 – via Springer Nature.
  6. ^ a b Downing, Lisa; Morland, Iain; Sullivan, Nikki (2014). Fuckology. University of Chicago Press. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226186757.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-226-18661-0.
  7. ^ Germon, Jennifer (2009), Germon, Jennifer (ed.), "Money and the Production of Gender", Gender: A Genealogy of an Idea, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 23–62, doi:10.1057/9780230101814_2, ISBN 978-0-230-10181-4, retrieved 14 June 2023
  8. ^ Diamond, M; Sigmundson, HK (1997). "Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications". Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 151 (3): 298–304. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170400084015. PMID 9080940.
  9. ^ Martin, Patricia (2002). "Moving toward an international standard in informed consent: The impact of intersexuality and the Internet on the standard of care". Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy. 9: 135–169. PMID 14986668.
  10. ^ a b c Colapinto, John (2001b). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York: Harper Perennial (published 2006). pp. 86–88. ISBN 978-0-06-092959-6.
  11. ^ a b Goldie 2014, p. 181-182.
  12. ^ a b Goldie 2014, p. 89.
  13. ^ a b Goldie 2014, p. 17.
  14. ^ "John William Money, PhD, 1921–2006". Program in Human Sexuality, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  15. ^ Thomson, Ainsley (12 May 2004). "NZ psychologist silent on former patient". New Zealand Herald.
  16. ^ "Kiwi sexologist dies in US hospital". The New Zealand Herald. 10 July 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  17. ^ "John Money, PhD". Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  18. ^ Money, John (1944). Career or culture? : a study of the relation of vocation & culture in education (Masters thesis thesis). Open Access Repository Victoria University of Wellington. doi:10.26686/wgtn.17061158.
  19. ^ King, Michael. An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame. Penguin (NZ), 2002. pp. 64-5.
  20. ^ a b Evans, Patrick (2010). "Frame, Janet Paterson". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
  21. ^ Frame, Janet. An Autobiography. (collected edition). Auckland: Century Hutchinson, 1989; New York: George Braziller, 1991. pp. 374–5
  22. ^ a b c King, Michael. An Inward Sun: The World of Janet Frame. Penguin (NZ), 2002. p. 69, 70, 97, 105, 111, 112, 186,
  23. ^ a b Janet, Frame (2015). An Angel at My Table. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 9780349006697.
  24. ^ Frame, Janet. An Autobiography. (collected edition). Auckland: Century Hutchinson, 1989; New York: George Braziller, 1991. pp. 222–23
  25. ^ Diamond, Milton (2004). "Sex, gender, and identity over the years: a changing perspective". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 13 (3): 591–607. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2004.02.008. PMID 15183375. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008.
  26. ^ Green, Richard; Money, John (August 1960). "Incongruous Gender Role: Nongenital Manifestations in Prepubertal Boys". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 131 (2): 160–168. doi:10.1097/00005053-196008000-00009. ISSN 0022-3018. PMID 13708206. S2CID 45302178.
  27. ^ Green, Richard; Money, John (February 1961). "Effeminacy in prepubertal boys. Summary of eleven cases and recommendations for case management". Pediatrics. 27: 286–291. doi:10.1542/peds.27.2.286. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 13708205. S2CID 245091693.
  28. ^ Green, Richard (1 December 2006). "John Money, Ph.D. (July 8, 1921–July 7, 2006): A Personal Obituary". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 35 (6): 629–632. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9132-5. ISSN 1573-2800. PMID 17123149. S2CID 44468647.
  29. ^ "Pervert or sexual libertarian?: Meet John Money, "the father of f***ology"". Salon. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  30. ^ "Dr. Money and the Boy With No Penis". Horizon. Season 41. Episode 8. 4 November 2004. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
  31. ^ a b c d Colapinto, John (2001). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York: Harper Perennial (published 2006). ISBN 978-0-06-092959-6.
  32. ^ a b Puluka, Anne (2015). "Parent versus State: Protecting Intersex Children from Cosmetic Genital Surgery". Michigan State Law Review. 2015: 2095.
  33. ^ Diamond, Milton; Sigmundson, HK (March 1997). "Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 151 (3): 298–304. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170400084015. PMID 9080940. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  34. ^ Colapinto, John (11 December 1997). "The True Story of John/Joan". Rolling Stone. pp. 54–97. Archived from the original on 15 August 2000. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  35. ^ Koch, Michaela (2017). Discursive Intersexions: Daring Bodies between Myth, Medicine, and Memoir. Practices of Subjectivation. Vol. 9. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag. p. 143. ISBN 978-3-8394-3705-6.
  36. ^ "Health Check: The Boy Who Was Raised a Girl". BBC News. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  37. ^ Karkazis, Katrina (2008). Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8223-8921-7.
  38. ^ Colapinto 2001, p. 115.
  39. ^ Warnke, Georgia (2008). After Identity: Rethinking Race, Sex, and Gender. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-511-39180-4.
  40. ^ "David Reimer, 38, Subject of the John/Joan Case". The New York Times. 12 May 2004.
  41. ^ Walker, Jesse (24 May 2004). "The Death of David Reimer". Reason.com. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  42. ^ Who was David Reimer (also, sadly, known as "John/Joan")? via Intersex Society of North America. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  43. ^ Case, Mary Anne (2019). "Trans Formations in the Vatican's War on 'Gender Ideology'". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. University of Chicago Press. 44 (3): 639–664. doi:10.1086/701498. ISSN 0097-9740. S2CID 149472746.
  44. ^ Bugbee, Teo (29 June 2023). "'Every Body' Review: Celebrating the 'I' in L.G.B.T.Q.I.A.+". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  45. ^ a b Goldie, Terry (2014). The Man Who Invented Gender: Engaging the Ideas of John Money. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-2794-2.
  46. ^ Money, John; Brennan, John G. (1970). "Heterosexual vs. homosexual attitudes: Male partners' perception of the feminine image of male transexuals∗" (PDF). The Journal of Sex Research. 6 (3): 201. doi:10.1080/00224497009550666. ISSN 0022-4499.
  47. ^ Wills, Matthew (1 October 2020). "A History of Transphobia in the Medical Establishment". JSTOR Daily. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  48. ^ Money, John (1 July 1977). "Destereotyping sex roles" (PDF). Society. 14 (5): 25–28. doi:10.1007/BF02700823. ISSN 1936-4725. S2CID 145021324.
  49. ^ Goldie 2014, p. 96.
  50. ^ Bullough, Vern (2003). "The Contributions of John Money: A Personal View". The Journal of Sex Research. Taylor and Francis, Ltd. 40 (3): 230–236. doi:10.1080/00224490309552186. JSTOR 3813317. PMID 14533016. S2CID 22122271.
  51. ^ Day, Meagan (15 November 2016). "How one of America's best medical schools started a secret transgender surgery clinic". Timeline. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  52. ^ a b LeVay, Simon (2017). Gay, straight, and the reason why: the science of sexual orientation. Oxford University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-19-029737-4. OL 26246092M – via Open Library.
  53. ^ Colapinto 2001, p. 272-273.
  54. ^ Bailey, J. Michael; Vasey, Paul L.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc (2016). "Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 17 (2): 72–74. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. ISSN 1529-1006. PMID 27113562.
  55. ^ a b Janssen, Diederik (2017). "John Money's "Chronophilia": Untimely Sex between Philias and Phylisms". Sexual Offender Treatment. 12 (1).
  56. ^ Interview: John Money. PAIDIKA: The Journal of Paedophilia, Spring 1991, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 5.
  57. ^ Colapinto, John (December 1997). "The True Story of John / Joan". Rolling Stone. pp. 54–97.
  58. ^ a b c Money, John; Hampson, Joan G; Hampson, John (October 1955). "An Examination of Some Basic Sexual Concepts: The Evidence of Human Hermaphroditism". Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Johns Hopkins University. 97 (4): 301–19. PMID 13260820.
  59. ^ a b Money 1988, p. 116.
  60. ^ Money 1988, pp. 114–119.
  61. ^ Money 1988, p. 115.
  62. ^ a b "Dr. John Money, pioneer in sexual identity, dies". NBC News. 9 July 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2023.
  63. ^ "John Money Collection". Eastern Southland Gallery.
  64. ^ a b Green, Richard (2009). "The Three Kings: Harry Benjamin, John Money, Robert Stoller". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 38 (4): 610–613. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9392-3. ISSN 1573-2800. PMID 18568308. S2CID 27054069.
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