Jehoash (Hebrew: יְהוֹאָשׁ Yəhō’āš or[1] יוֹאָשׁYō’āš; Israelian Hebrew: 𐤀𐤔𐤉𐤅‎ *’Āšīyāw;[2] Akkadian: 𒅀𒀪𒋢 Yaʾsu [ia-'-su]; Latin: Joas; fl. c. 790 BC), whose name means "Yahweh has given,"[3] was the twelfth king of the ancient northern Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and the son of Jehoahaz.[4] He was the 12th king of Israel and reigned for 16 years. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 801–786 BC, while E. R. Thiele offers the dates 798–782 BC.[5] When he ascended the throne, the Kingdom of Israel was suffering from the predations of the Arameans, whose king Hazael was conquering land controlled by Israel.

King of Northern Israel
Reignc. 798 – c. 782 BC
SuccessorJeroboam II
HouseHouse of Jehu

Biblical account of his reign edit

According to the second book of Kings, Jehoash was sinful and did evil in the eyes of Yahweh for tolerating the worship of the golden calves, yet outwardly at least he worshiped Yahweh.[3] He reigned as king of Israel for 16 years and led the Israelites through some decisive battles, including a war with the kingdom of Judah.[6]

Death of Elisha edit

Jehoash went to visit the prophet Elisha, who was sick with the illness that would eventually lead to his death. He held the prophet Elisha in honor, and wept by his bedside while he was dying. Jehoash pleased Elisha, addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof."[7] When Jehoash failed to completely obey Elisha's instructions, Elisha predicted that Jehoash would only defeat the Arameans three times rather than five or six times, which may have been enough to end the Syrian threat.[8] In three signal and successive victories Jehoash overcame the Syrians, and retook from them the towns which Hazael had captured from Israel.[9]

War with Judah edit

Later in his reign, Jehoash led the men of the Kingdom of Israel in the defeat of king Amaziah of Judah.[3] Amaziah had begun to worship some of the idols he had taken from the Edomites, which the author of Chronicles believes led to his ruin and his defeat by Jehoash, whom he had challenged to battle.

Jehoash had warned Amaziah, saying: "A thistle in Lebanon sent a message to a cedar in Lebanon, 'Give your daughter to my son in marriage.' Then a wild beast in Lebanon came along and trampled the thistle underfoot. You have indeed defeated Edom and now you are arrogant. Glory in your victory, but stay at home! Why ask for trouble and cause your own downfall and that of Judah also?"[8]

Jehoash utterly defeated Amaziah at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and Philistia. Jehoash then advanced on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of the wall, and carried away the treasures of the Temple and the palace. Jehoash took Amaziah as a prisoner. Amaziah's defeat was followed by a conspiracy that took his life.[10] Jehoash also took hostages to assure good conduct.[3]

After the battle he soon died and was buried in Samaria.[11]

Archaeology edit

Stele of Adad-nirari III from Tell al-Rimah, now in the Iraq Museum, mentions the name of Jehoash the Samarian

The excavation at Tell al-Rimah yields a stele of Adad-nirari III which mentioned "Jehoash the Samarian"[12][13] and contains the first cuneiform mention of Samaria by that name.[14] The inscriptions of this "Tell al-Rimah Stele" may provide evidence of the existence of King Jehoash, attest to the weakening of Syrian kingdom (cf. 2 Kings 13:5), and show the vassal status of the northern kingdom of Israel to the Assyrians.[15]

A postulated image of Jehoash is reconstructed from plaster remains recovered at Kuntillet Ajrud.[16][17] The ruins were from a temple built by the northern Israel kingdom when Jehoash of Israel gained control over the kingdom of Judah during the reign of Amaziah of Judah.[18]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ I Kings 22:26
  2. ^ Puech, Émile. “LES INSCRIPTIONS HÉBRAÏQUES DE KUNTILLET ‘AJRUD (SINAÏ).” Revue Biblique (1946-), vol. 121, no. 2, Peeters Publishers, 2014, pp. 161–94,
  3. ^ a b c d "Joash, Jehoash;" New Bible Dictionary. Douglas, J.D., ed. 1982 (second edition). Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, USA. ISBN 0-8423-4667-8, pp. 597–598
  4. ^ 2 Kings 14:1; compare 12:1; 13:10
  5. ^ Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257
  6. ^ 2 Kings 13:10,12
  7. ^ 2 Kings 13:14; 2 Kings 14, Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Holy Bible. Clarke, Adam. 1967. Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, KS, USA. pp. 372–373
  8. ^ a b 2 Kings 14:9–10; "Joash var. Jehoash." The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol III, 1992. Freedman, David Noel., ed., New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-19361-0 pp. 857–858
  9. ^ "Jehoash", Jewish Encyclopedia
  10. ^ 2 Kings 14:8–14, 19
  11. ^ 2 Kings 13:13; "Joash, Jehoash." Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible. Wigoder, Geoffrey, ed., 1986. G.G. The Jerusalem Publishing House Ltd. ISBN 0-89577-407-0
  12. ^ William H. Shea, Adad-Nirari III and Jehoash of Israel, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 101–113, 1978
  13. ^ Tell al-Rimah Stela (797 BCE): inscription by Assyrian king Adad-Nirari III, in which he describes his successes in the west. Quote: "...[4] I received 2,000 talents of silver, 1,000 talents of copper, 2,000 talents of iron, 3,000 linen garments with multicolored trim - the tribute of Mari' - of the land of Damascus. I received the tribute of Jehoash the Samarian, of the Tyrian ruler and of the Sidonian ruler."
  14. ^ Page, Stephanie (1968). "A Stela of Adad-nirari III and Nergal-ereš from Tell al Rimah". Iraq. 30 (2): 139–153. doi:10.2307/4199848. JSTOR 4199848.
  15. ^ "Tell al-Rimah Stele: King Jehoash Found!" Assyrian inscriptions prove Israel's deliverance from the Syrians through King Jehoash. Warren Reinsch. Watch Jerusalem, June 27, 2019.
  16. ^ Pirhiya Beck (1982) The Drawings from Horvat Teiman (Kuntillet 'Ajrud), Tel Aviv, 9:1, 3–68, DOI: 10.1179/033443582788440827
  17. ^ Tallay Ornan (2016) Sketches and Final Works of Art: The Drawings and Wall Paintings of Kuntillet 'Ajrud Revisited, Tel Aviv, 43:1, 3–26, DOI: 10.1080/03344355.2016.1161374
  18. ^ Nir Hasson. A strange drawing found in Sinai could undermine our entire idea of Judaism: Is that a 3,000-year-old picture of god, his penis and his wife depicted by early Jews at Kuntillet Ajrud?. Haaretz. April 4, 2018
Jehoash of Israel
House of Jehoshaphat
Contemporary Kings of Judah: Jehoash/Joash,
Amaziah, Uzziah
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Israel
798–782 BCE
Succeeded by