Ja'far ibn Dinar al-Khayyat

Ja'far ibn Dinar ibn Abdallah al-Khayyat (Arabic: جعفر بن دينار بن عبد الله الخياط‎) was a ninth-century military commander for the Abbasid Caliphate.

Ja'far ibn Dinar ibn Abdallah al-Khayyat
جعفر بن دينار بن عبد الله الخياط
Abbasid Governor of Yemen
In office
839 – 840
(first term)
MonarchAl-Mu'tasim
DeputyMansur ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Tanukhi & Abdallah ibn Hamdawayh
Abbasid Governor of Yemen
In office
844 – 847
(second term)
MonarchAl-Wathiq
Preceded byHarthamah Shar Bamiyan
Succeeded byHimyar ibn al-Harith
Personal details
ChildrenMansur ibn Ja'far al-Khayyat
FatherDinar ibn Abdallah
Military career
AllegianceAbbasid Caliphate
Service/branchAbbasid Army
Years of servicefl. c. 830s - 860s
RankCommander
Battles/warsArab–Byzantine wars

CareerEdit

Ja'far was likely the son of Dinar ibn Abdallah, an army commander and provincial governor who was active during the caliphate of al-Ma'mun (r. 813–833).[1] He himself first appears in the last years of al-Ma'mun's reign, when he participated in the caliph's 830 invasion of Byzantine Anatolia and was sent with Ujayf ibn Anbasah to receive the submission of the commander of fortress of Sinan.[2]

Ja'far's prominence increased during the reign of al-Ma'mun's successor al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842), who employed him in several of the campaigns of his caliphate. In 837 he and Itakh were sent by the caliph to reinforce al-Afshin against the rebel Babak Khorramdin in Adharbayjan, and he played a leading role in the effort to take Babak's stronghold of al-Badhdh.[3] In the following year he was placed in command of the caliph's left wing during the Amorium Campaign against the Byzantines, and during the assault against Amorium itself he was assigned a sector of the city to attack.[4] In 839 he received the governorship of the Yemen and appointed deputy governors to enforce his rule in that province, but in 840 he incurred the anger of the caliph, who dismissed him from his position and briefly imprisoned him in the custody of Ashinas.[5]

Ja'far was appointed governor of the Yemen a second time in 846, this time by the caliph al-Wathiq (r. 842–847), and was tasked with dealing with the long-running Yu'firid insurgency there. After pausing to go on the pilgrimage, Ja'far entered the Yemen with several thousand cavalry and infantry and proceeded against the rebels. Although his initial advance against the Yu'firids ended without accomplishment, he went on a second expedition soon after and placed their fortress under siege. Upon learning of the death of al-Wathiq in 847, however, he concluded a truce with the Yu'firids and retired to Sana'a. Shortly after this he decided to withdraw to the province altogether and returned to Iraq, leaving his son Muhammad to stay behind as his deputy until Himyar ibn al-Harith was appointed as governor in his stead.[6]

During the caliphate of al-Mutawakkil (r. 847–861), Ja'far oversaw the events of the festival season (mawsim) during the annual pilgrimages of 854 to 858, and was also assigned the supervision of the Mecca Road.[7] Under al-Musta'in (r. 862–866), he was given command of the summer expedition (sa'ifah) of 863 and undertook a successful raid against the Byzantines, but when he gave the governor of Malatyah, 'Umar al-Aqta', permission to continue with the invasion on his own, the Byzantines struck back and killed 'Umar at the disastrous Battle of Lalakaon.[8] Following the flight of al-Musta'in to Baghdad in 865, Ja'far was one of the few officers who remained behind in Samarra, and instead supported the rival caliph al-Mu'tazz (r. 866–869). He is last mentioned that year, when al-Mu'tazz placed him in charge of his guard (haras).[9]

Ja'far's son Mansur ibn Ja'far al-Khayyat later rose to some prominence, likewise serving as a military commander and governor until he was killed in battle during the Zanj Rebellion in 872.[10]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Elad 2013, pp. 278-79.
  2. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 32: 186; Northedge 2008, p. 115 n. 315.
  3. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 33: pp. 46-47, 57-62, 64-69. The nisbahs of Ja'far (khayyat, "tailor") and Itakh (tabbakh, "cook") caused Babak to claim that the caliph had exhausted his military strength and had been reduced to sending his tailor and cook against him; Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 33: p. 94.
  4. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 33: pp. 98, 100, 116; Al-Mas'udi 1873, p. 135.
  5. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 33: pp. 174, 178; Al-Mad'aj 1988, p. 215; Northedge 2008, p. 115 n. 315.
  6. ^ Al-Mad'aj 1988, p. 217; Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 34: p. 36; Northedge 2008, p. 115 n. 315. Al-Ya'qubi 1883, p. 593, remarks that Ja'far was governor of the Yemen when Itakh went on the pilgrimage in 849.
  7. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 34: pp. 129, 132, 145, 148, 150; Northedge 2008, p. 115 n. 315.
  8. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 35: p. 9; Al-Ya'qubi 1883, p. 606; Northedge 2008, p. 115 n. 315.
  9. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 35: pp. 34, 39; Northedge 2008, p. 115 n. 315.
  10. ^ Al-Tabari 1985–2007, v. 36: pp. 120, 122, 123, 125, 137, 138; Northedge 2008, p. 115 n. 315.

ReferencesEdit

  • Elad, Amikam (2013). "Al-Ma'mun's Military Units and their Commanders Up to the End of the Siege of Baghdad (195/810-198/813)". In Bernards, Monique (ed.). Abbasid Studies IV: Occasional Papers of the School of Abbasid Studies, Leuven July 5–July 9, 2010. Cambridge: Gibb Memorial Trust. pp. 245–284. ISBN 978-0-906094-98-3.
  • Al-Mad'aj, Abd al-Muhsin Mad'aj M. (1988). The Yemen in Early Islam (9-233/630-847): A Political History. London: Ithaca Press. ISBN 0863721028.
  • Al-Mas'udi, Ali ibn al-Husain (1873). Les Prairies D'Or, Tome Septieme. Ed. and Trans. Charles Barbier de Meynard and Abel Pavet de Courteille. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
  • Northedge, Alastair (2008). The Historical Topography of Samarra: Samarra Studies I. London: The British School of Archeology in Iraq. ISBN 9780903472227.
  • Al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir (1985–2007). Ehsan Yar-Shater (ed.). The History of Al-Ṭabarī. 40 vols. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Al-Ya'qubi, Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub (1883). Houtsma, M. Th. (ed.). Historiae, Vol. 2. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Political offices
Preceded by
Harthamah Shar Bamiyan
Abbasid governor of the Yemen
844–847
Succeeded by
Himyar ibn al-Harith