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Natural yttrium (39Y) is composed of a single isotope yttrium-89. The most stable radioisotopes are 88Y, which has a half-life of 106.6 days and 91Y with a half-life of 58.51 days. All the other isotopes have half-lives of less than a day, except 87Y, which has a half-life of 79.8 hours, and 90Y, with 64 hours. The dominant decay mode below the stable 89Y is electron capture and the dominant mode after it is beta emission. Twenty-six unstable isotopes have been characterized.

Main isotopes of yttrium (39Y)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
87Y syn 3.4 d ε 87Sr
γ
88Y syn 106.6 d ε 88Sr
γ
89Y 100% stable
90Y syn 2.7 d β 90Zr
γ
91Y syn 58.5 d β 91Zr
γ
Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(Y)

90Y exists in equilibrium with its parent isotope strontium-90, which is a product of nuclear fission.

List of isotopesEdit

Nuclide
[n 1]
Z N Isotopic mass (u)
[n 2][n 3]
Half-life
[n 4]
Decay
mode

[n 5]
Daughter
isotope

[n 6][n 7]
Spin and
parity
[n 8][n 4]
Natural abundance (mole fraction)
Excitation energy[n 4] Normal proportion Range of variation
76Y 39 37 75.95845(54)# 500# ns [>170 ns]
77Y 39 38 76.94965(7)# 63(17) ms p (>99.9%) 76Sr 5/2+#
β+ (<.1%) 77Sr
78Y 39 39 77.94361(43)# 54(5) ms β+ 78Sr (0+)
78mY 0(500)# keV 5.8(5) s 5+#
79Y 39 40 78.93735(48) 14.8(6) s β+ (>99.9%) 79Sr (5/2+)#
β+, p (<.1%) 78Rb
80Y 39 41 79.93428(19) 30.1(5) s β+ 80Sr 4−
80m1Y 228.5(1) keV 4.8(3) s (1−)
80m2Y 312.6(9) keV 4.7(3) µs (2+)
81Y 39 42 80.92913(7) 70.4(10) s β+ 81Sr (5/2+)
82Y 39 43 81.92679(11) 8.30(20) s β+ 82Sr 1+
82m1Y 402.63(14) keV 268(25) ns 4−
82m2Y 507.50(13) keV 147(7) ns 6+
83Y 39 44 82.92235(5) 7.08(6) min β+ 83Sr 9/2+
83mY 61.98(11) keV 2.85(2) min β+ (60%) 83Sr (3/2−)
IT (40%) 83Y
84Y 39 45 83.92039(10) 39.5(8) min β+ 84Sr 1+
84mY −80(190) keV 4.6(2) s β+ 84Sr (5−)
85Y 39 46 84.916433(20) 2.68(5) h β+ 85Sr (1/2)−
85m1Y 19.8(5) keV 4.86(13) h β+ (99.998%) 85Sr 9/2+
IT (.002%) 85Y
85m2Y 266.30(20) keV 178(6) ns 5/2−
86Y 39 47 85.914886(15) 14.74(2) h β+ 86Sr 4−
86m1Y 218.30(20) keV 48(1) min IT (99.31%) 86Y (8+)
β+ (.69%) 86Sr
86m2Y 302.2(5) keV 125(6) ns (7−)
87Y 39 48 86.9108757(17) 79.8(3) h β+ 87Sr 1/2−
87mY 380.82(7) keV 13.37(3) h IT (98.43%) 87Y 9/2+
β+ (1.56%) 87Sr
88Y 39 49 87.9095011(20) 106.616(13) d β+ 88Sr 4−
88m1Y 674.55(4) keV 13.9(2) ms IT 88Y (8)+
88m2Y 392.86(9) keV 300(3) µs 1+
89Y[n 9] 39 50 88.9058483(27) Stable 1/2− 1.0000
89mY 908.97(3) keV 15.663(5) s IT 89Y 9/2+
90Y[n 9] 39 51 89.9071519(27) 64.053(20) h β 90Zr 2−
90mY 681.67(10) keV 3.19(6) h IT (99.99%) 90Y 7+
β (.0018%) 90Zr
91Y[n 9] 39 52 90.907305(3) 58.51(6) d β 91Zr 1/2−
91mY 555.58(5) keV 49.71(4) min IT (98.5%) 91Y 9/2+
β (1.5%) 91Zr
92Y 39 53 91.908949(10) 3.54(1) h β 92Zr 2−
93Y 39 54 92.909583(11) 10.18(8) h β 93Zr 1/2−
93mY 758.719(21) keV 820(40) ms IT 93Y 7/2+
94Y 39 55 93.911595(8) 18.7(1) min β 94Zr 2−
95Y 39 56 94.912821(8) 10.3(1) min β 95Zr 1/2−
96Y 39 57 95.915891(25) 5.34(5) s β 96Zr 0−
96mY 1140(30) keV 9.6(2) s β 96Zr (8)+
97Y 39 58 96.918134(13) 3.75(3) s β (99.942%) 97Zr (1/2−)
β, n (.058%) 96Zr
97m1Y 667.51(23) keV 1.17(3) s β (99.3%) 97Zr (9/2)+
IT (.7%) 97Y
β, n (.08%) 96Zr
97m2Y 3523.3(4) keV 142(8) ms (27/2−)
98Y 39 59 97.922203(26) 0.548(2) s β (99.669%) 98Zr (0)−
β, n (.331%) 97Zr
98m1Y 170.74(6) keV 620(80) ns (2)−
98m2Y 410(30) keV 2.0(2) s β (86.6%) 98Zr (5+,4−)
IT (10%) 98Y
β, n (3.4%) 97Zr
98m3Y 496.19(15) keV 7.6(4) µs (2−)
98m4Y 1181.1(4) keV 0.83(10) µs (8−)
99Y 39 60 98.924636(26) 1.470(7) s β (98.1%) 99Zr (5/2+)
β, n (1.9%) 98Zr
99mY 2141.65(19) keV 8.6(8) µs (17/2+)
100Y 39 61 99.92776(8) 735(7) ms β (98.98%) 100Zr 1−,2−
β, n (1.02%) 99Zr
100mY 200(200)# keV 940(30) ms β 100Zr (3,4,5)(+#)
101Y 39 62 100.93031(10) 426(20) ms β (98.06%) 101Zr (5/2+)
β, n (1.94%) 100Zr
102Y 39 63 101.93356(9) 0.30(1) s β (95.1%) 102Zr
β, n (4.9%) 101Zr
102mY 200(200)# keV 360(40) ms β (94%) 102Zr high
β, n (6%) 101Zr
103Y 39 64 102.93673(32)# 224(19) ms β (91.7%) 103Zr 5/2+#
β, n (8.3%) 102Zr
104Y 39 65 103.94105(43)# 180(60) ms β 104Zr
105Y 39 66 104.94487(54)# 60# ms [>300 ns] β 105Zr 5/2+#
106Y 39 67 105.94979(75)# 50# ms [>300 ns] β 106Zr
107Y 39 68 106.95414(54)# 30# ms [>300 ns] 5/2+#
108Y 39 69 107.95948(86)# 20# ms [>300 ns]
  1. ^ mY – Excited nuclear isomer.
  2. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  3. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  4. ^ a b c # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
  5. ^ Modes of decay:
    IT: Isomeric transition
    n: Neutron emission
    p: Proton emission
  6. ^ Bold italics symbol as daughter – Daughter product is nearly stable.
  7. ^ Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
  8. ^ ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
  9. ^ a b c Fission product

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.