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Inverell is a large town in northern New South Wales, Australia, situated on the Macintyre River, close to the Queensland border. It is also the centre of Inverell Shire. Inverell is located on the Gwydir Highway on the western slopes of the Northern Tablelands. It has a temperate climate. In the 2016 census, the population of Inverell was 11,660 and the Inverell Shire population was 16,483.[1]

Inverell
New South Wales
Inverell Court House.JPG
Inverell Court House, built in 1886
Inverell is located in New South Wales
Inverell
Inverell
Coordinates29°46′S 151°07′E / 29.767°S 151.117°E / -29.767; 151.117Coordinates: 29°46′S 151°07′E / 29.767°S 151.117°E / -29.767; 151.117
Population11,660 (2016 census)[1]
Established1856
Postcode(s)2360
Elevation582 m (1,909 ft)[2]
Location
LGA(s)Inverell Shire
CountyGough
State electorate(s)Northern Tablelands
Federal Division(s)New England
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
22.7 °C
73 °F
10.3 °C
51 °F
800.0 mm
31.5 in

HistoryEdit

Prior to white settlement, the Gamilaroi Nation of Aboriginal peoples lived in and occupied this region.[citation needed] In 1848, Alexander Campbell held the 50,000-acre (20,000 ha) Inverell Station on the Macintyre River. The name derives from the name of Mr. MacIntyre's estate. The word is of Gaelic origin, and signifies "meeting place of the swans"; from "Inver", a meeting place, and "Ell", a swan.[3]

The MacIntyre River and Swanbrook Creek join here. The area was also known as "Green Swamp" in the 1850s. Wheat growers, Colin and Rosanna Ross established a store there in 1853,[4] when he asked that a town be surveyed. In 1858, this was done and in the following years the plan was approved and the first land sale was held. Byron Post Office (open since 1855) was replaced by the Inverell Post Office on 15 September 1859.[5] The municipality was proclaimed in March 1872.[6] The last section of the Inverell branchline, from Delungra to Inverell, was opened on 10 March 1902.[7] The last train ran to Inverell on 22 June 1987,[7] and the Delungra to Inverell section of the line was closed on 2 December 1987.[7]

In 1871, the population of Inverell was 509, this increased to 1,212 in 1881.[8] After Federation, the population of Inverell was 1,230 in 1911, and grew to 6,530 (1947) and 8,209 (1961 census).[9][10][11]

Myall Creek MassacreEdit

The massacre of at least 28 Wirrayaraay people by European convicts and settlers took place at Myall Creek near Inverell on 10 June 1838 was notable in that it was one of the very rare cases in colonial Australia for which white people were subsequently executed for the murder of Indigenous people.[12] The crime became known as the Myall Creek Massacre. On 18 December 1838, seven men were publicly hanged at the Sydney Gaol for the atrocity.

Every year on the Sunday of the June long weekend, hundreds of people, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, gather at the Myall Creek Massacre and Memorial Site to attend an annual memorial service.[13]

MiningEdit

Diamonds were discovered at Copes Creek in 1875 and were mined at Copeton from 1883-1922. Commercial sapphire mining was commenced in 1919 at Frazers Creek near Inverell. Rich alluvial deposits in streams were worked initially by hand miners but there was little recorded production up until approximately 1960.[14]

Heritage listingsEdit

Inverell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:


PopulationEdit

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 11,660 people in Inverell.

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 9.5% of the population.
  • 86.0% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were Philippines 1.4% and England 1.2%.
  • 89.8% of people spoke only English at home.
  • The most common responses for religion were Anglican 28.8%, Catholic 22.9% and No Religion 20.2%.[1]

IndustryEdit

The Inverell district is in a fertile agricultural region which produces a wide range of crops, including wheat, barley, oats, sorghum, wine grapes and maize. There are also some mining activities with tin, sapphires, zircons and diamonds (mainly industrial) being found.[14] Inverell is known as the ‘Sapphire City’ because of the sapphires that found throughout the local district, contributing to a major part of Australia's sapphire production.[17]

Copeton Dam, the region's main water supply, was completed in 1976.[18] While being smaller than Sydney Harbour, it can hold nearly 2 times the capacity of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour).[18] The Inland Fishing Festival is held there every year.

Culture and tourismEdit

The Grafton to Inverell Cycle Classic is an annual one day cycling race.[19] Beginning in Grafton, passing through Glen Innes and finishing in Inverell, the Classic is a 230 km ride over the demanding Gibraltar Range. The race starts at 23 metres above sea level and climbs to 1260 metres, before finishing in Inverell at 630 metres. The race is six to seven hours long, depending on weather conditions.[20] Inverell is home to the Bruderhof, an Anabaptist community who share all their possessions.[21] They run a publishing business.[22]

The National Transport Museum comprises more than 120 vehicle exhibits ranging from vintage, veteran, classic and motorcycles in a purpose-built structure on Rifle Range Road.

EducationEdit

There are two primary schools in Inverell; Ross Hill School and Inverell Public School. The two local high schools are Inverell High School and Macintyre High School. Holy Trinity School is a Roman Catholic School in Inverell which caters for students from Kindergarten to Year Ten.

TransportEdit

Inverell is served by Inverell Airport.

Inverell also lies on the Gwydir Highway, one of the primary east-west routes through New South Wales. Thunderbolts Way terminates at Copes Creek, 16 km south of the Gwydir Highway intersection at Inverell.[23][24]

Bus services in Inverell are provided by Inverell Bus Service, which operates two town loops, to the east and west.

Interurban bus service is provided by Symes Coaches to Glen Innes.

NSW Trainlink operates three Coach services in and out of Inverell: between Moree and Grafton, between Inverell and Tamworth via Manilla, and between Inverell and Armidale via Tingha

Climate and weatherEdit

Climate data for Inverell Research Centre
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.1
(106.0)
41.3
(106.3)
35.7
(96.3)
32.1
(89.8)
27.4
(81.3)
25.6
(78.1)
23.0
(73.4)
31.9
(89.4)
32.1
(89.8)
36.2
(97.2)
38.6
(101.5)
38.7
(101.7)
41.3
(106.3)
Average high °C (°F) 29.7
(85.5)
28.9
(84.0)
27.1
(80.8)
23.6
(74.5)
19.3
(66.7)
15.8
(60.4)
15.2
(59.4)
16.7
(62.1)
20.0
(68.0)
23.2
(73.8)
26.0
(78.8)
28.4
(83.1)
22.8
(73.1)
Average low °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
16.3
(61.3)
14.5
(58.1)
11.0
(51.8)
7.5
(45.5)
4.9
(40.8)
3.6
(38.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.0
(44.6)
10.3
(50.5)
12.8
(55.0)
15.1
(59.2)
10.3
(50.6)
Record low °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.2
(43.2)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.3
(31.5)
−3.5
(25.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−4.3
(24.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.7
(36.9)
5.7
(42.3)
−5.5
(22.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 99.1
(3.90)
93.9
(3.70)
69.8
(2.75)
40.2
(1.58)
47.9
(1.89)
45.5
(1.79)
47.9
(1.89)
44.4
(1.75)
48.3
(1.90)
75.8
(2.98)
87.0
(3.43)
98.9
(3.89)
798.7
(31.45)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2mm) 9.8 8.4 6.9 5.6 6.0 7.0 7.3 6.6 6.6 9.2 9.3 9.9 92.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 245.8 260.4 237.0 201.5 180.0 195.3 248.0 258.0 279.0 267.0 279.0 2,930
Source: [25]


Climate data for Inverell, NSW (Inverell Comparison [1879-1997]); 584 m AMSL; 29° 46' 41.88" S
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 43.7
(110.7)
41.7
(107.1)
41.1
(106.0)
33.9
(93.0)
29.4
(84.9)
25.6
(78.1)
24.2
(75.6)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91.0)
36.7
(98.1)
39.4
(102.9)
41.9
(107.4)
43.7
(110.7)
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
29.8
(85.6)
27.8
(82.0)
24.1
(75.4)
19.7
(67.5)
16.2
(61.2)
15.3
(59.5)
17.2
(63.0)
20.5
(68.9)
24.0
(75.2)
27.4
(81.3)
29.7
(85.5)
23.5
(74.4)
Average low °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
14.8
(58.6)
12.4
(54.3)
7.8
(46.0)
3.7
(38.7)
1.2
(34.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
0.5
(32.9)
3.5
(38.3)
7.6
(45.7)
11.1
(52.0)
13.8
(56.8)
7.6
(45.7)
Record low °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
2.2
(36.0)
1.5
(34.7)
−4.3
(24.3)
−7.5
(18.5)
−10.0
(14.0)
−10.6
(12.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−6.7
(19.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.5
(34.7)
−10.6
(12.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 99.1
(3.90)
93.9
(3.70)
69.8
(2.75)
40.2
(1.58)
47.9
(1.89)
45.5
(1.79)
47.9
(1.89)
44.4
(1.75)
48.3
(1.90)
75.8
(2.98)
87.0
(3.43)
98.9
(3.89)
798.7
(31.45)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2mm) 9.8 8.4 6.9 5.6 6.0 7.0 7.3 6.6 6.6 9.2 9.3 9.9 92.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 245.8 260.4 237.0 201.5 180.0 195.3 248.0 258.0 279.0 267.0 279.0 2,930
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology; Inverell Comparison
 
Byron Street, Inverell. Undated

Over the years, Inverell has had three weather stations run by government astronomers (prior to 1908) or the Bureau of Meteorology (after 1908), or both.[26] These stations are:

  • Inverell Comparison (began observations in 1879, ceased observations in November 1997)[27]
  • Inverell Research Centre (began observations in 1949, still operational; converted to an Automatic Weather Station in recent years)[28][29]
  • Inverell (Raglan Street) (began observations in March 1995, still operational; observations done by human observer)[2][30]

Notable weather extremesEdit

The highest maximum temperature recorded at Inverell was 43.7C on 4 January 1903 at the Inverell Comparison site.[27] The lowest maximum temperature for any of the Inverell weather sites was 3.0C on 3 July 1984 at Inverell Research Centre.[28] In September 1892, the town had its biggest snowfall, with 4 to 5 inches (10 to 13 cm) falling.[6] On 5 August 1923, snow fell in parts of the Inverell district.[31]

Notable peopleEdit

Notable people from or who have lived in Inverell include:

 
Uniting Church, Inverell

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Inverell (State Suburb)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 17 August 2016.  
  2. ^ a b "Climate statistics for Inverell (Raglan St)". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  3. ^ "Inverell". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 6 August 2013.  
  4. ^ Readers Digest Guide to Australian Places, Readers Digest, Sydney
  5. ^ Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Premier Postal Auctions. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Major Events in the History of the Inverell District 1827 – 1920" (PDF). Inverell Tourism. p. 2. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  7. ^ a b c Bozier, Rolfe. "Inverell Branch". NSWrail.net. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  8. ^ "NSW 1881 census page vii". NSW 1881 Census - Historical and Colonial Census Data Archive. Australian National University. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  9. ^ "CENSUS OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 1911 - Part XIV Summary" (PDF). Census of the Commonwealth of Australia 1911. Australian Bureau of Statistics. p. 220. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  10. ^ "CENSUS OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 30th June, 1947 - PART VIII. - POPULATION AND OCCUPIED DWELLINGS IN LOCALITIES" (PDF). CENSUS OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 30th June, 1947. Australian Bureau of Statistics. p. 30. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  11. ^ "CENSUS OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA, 30TH JUNE, 1961 - VOL I.-NSW PART V.-POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN LOCALITIES" (PDF). STRALIA. Australian Bureau of Statistics. March 1963. p. 28. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  12. ^ corporateName=National Museum of Australia; address=Lawson Crescent, Acton Peninsula. "National Museum of Australia - Myall Creek massacre". www.nma.gov.au. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  13. ^ corporateName=National Museum of Australia; address=Lawson Crescent, Acton Peninsula. "National Museum of Australia - Myall Creek massacre". www.nma.gov.au. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  14. ^ a b New England Holiday, New England Regional Tourist Zone Association, n.d.
  15. ^ "Inverell Shire Council Building (former)". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00553. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  16. ^ "Inverell Post Office". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01407. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Inverell, Northern Tablelands NSW Australia". Totaltravel. Yahoo!7. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  18. ^ a b "Copeton Dam Brochure" (PDF). State Water Corporation. 2009. p. 2. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  19. ^ "Grafton to Inverell Bike Race 232km", Under Armour, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, USA (mapmyride.com). Retrieved 11 November 2016
  20. ^ "Grafton to Inverell Cycle Classic". www.graftontoinverell.com.au. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  21. ^ "5 Beliefs That Set the Bruderhof Apart From Other Christians". Newsmax. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  22. ^ "About Us". Plough. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  23. ^ 1:100000 topographic maps 9138 Inverell, 9137 Bundarra, 9136 Bendemeer, 9236 Armidale, 9235 Yarrowitch, 9234 Upper Manning and 9233 Gloucester. Retrieved 19 April 2010
  24. ^ "Gilgai". Land and Property Management Authority - Spatial Information eXchange. New South Wales Land and Property Information. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
  25. ^ "Climate Statistics for Inverell Research Centre". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. March 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  26. ^ "A Hundred Years of Science and Service" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. 2001. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  27. ^ a b "Climate statistics for Inverell Comparison". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  28. ^ a b "Climate statistics for Inverell Research Centre". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  29. ^ "Basic Climatological Station Meta-data - Inverell Research Centre" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  30. ^ "Basic Climatological Station Metadata - Inverell (Raglan St)" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  31. ^ "COUNTRY REPORTS". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. 7 August 1923. p. 10. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  32. ^ Mcmullin, Ross (1993). "Australian Dictionary of Biography". Australian Dictionary of Biography.

External linksEdit