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Local government areas of New South Wales

Map of Local Government Areas in New South Wales
Types and titles of LGAs in New South Wales
LGA Regions in New South Wales
Local government areas in Sydney

The local government areas (LGA) of New South Wales in Australia describes the institutions and processes by which areas, cities, towns, municipalities, regions, shires, and districts can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act 1993 (NSW).

Local government authorities provide a wide range of services. The most important of these are the general services of administration, health, community amenities, recreation and culture, roads and debt servicing throughout the area controlled by the council. Councils also provide a range of trading activities, mainly in country areas of NSW. These trading activities include water supply, sewerage services, gas services and abattoir facilities.[1]

Administered by the Government of New South Wales and subject to periodic restructuring involving voluntary and involuntary amalgamation of areas, local government areas are considered a city when an area has received city status by proclamation of the Governor. Some areas retain designations they held under prior legislation, even though these titles no longer indicate a legal status. These include municipalities (that are predominantly inner-city suburban areas and smaller rural towns) and shires (that are predominantly rural or outer suburban areas). Many councils now choose not to use any area title, and simply refer to themselves as councils, e.g. Northern Beaches Council, Burwood Council. The smallest local government by area in the state is the Municipality of Hunter's Hill; the largest by area is Central Darling Shire Council.

Contents

HistoryEdit

LegislationEdit

The formation of local government in New South Wales predates the formation of responsible government in the state. The Sydney Corporation was formed in 1842, an elected body to manage primary services such as street lighting and drainage.[2] The Municipalities Act, 1858 introduced a system of local government. Municipalities were compulsorily incorporated by legislation in 1876, the third Municipalities Act, 1897 consolidated municipal law, and in 1905 legislation was enacted to establish shires.[3] The Local Government Act, 1906 reformed the municipal system, replaced by the Local Government Act, 1919, which lasted until the most recent 1993 Act.

The core principles of the 1993 legislative reforms were:

  1. greater accountability by councils to their communities through better reporting, management plans, consultation on key issues, and access to information;
  2. changes to the relationship between councillors and staff, whereby the elected council held all powers given under the Act, but could delegate most powers and appoint General Managers to have responsibility for “day-to-day” management, council staff and financial resources; and
  3. a better distinction between service provision and regulatory activity was drawn. Maximum flexibility was given in respect to service provision, with some constraints, and accountability was increased. In regard to regulatory functions, proper attention had to be given to due process and procedural correctness.[3]

Reviews of local government areasEdit

NSW LGAs over time
Year Number
of LGAs
Ref.
1906 327 [3]
1910 324
1991 176
1992 177
2001 173
2004 152
2016 132 [4]

The NSW Government has undertaken periodic reviews of local government since the early 1900s. Reforms included providing enfranchisement for women and for residents who did not own property in the LGA, standardising land valuation systems, and the introduction of ordinances.

1970sEdit

The Barnett Committee Review of Local Government Areas, conducted during 1973-74, sought to create stronger economic LGAs through a substantial reduction in council numbers. The Barnett Report recommended the forced merging of the then 223 existing local government entities into 97 districts; a proposal that was initially rejected by the Askin–led coalition government. However by 1980 and after several references to the NSW Local Government Boundaries Commission, the Wran-led Labor government amalgamated 38 councils into 17 entities.[3]

The Bains of 1978 influenced the adoption of corporate management in councils whereby council affairs were dealt with as a whole and with co-ordinated forward planning, comprehensive distribution of resources and proper performance monitoring. Bains' review had major influence on the engagement of more powerful general managers, councillors becoming policy makers, and staff free from administrative councillor interference.[3]

1980sEdit

Completed by the NSW Local Government Boundaries Commission, this review focused on the efficiencies in the mergers of rural and regional councils and the anticipated economies of scale in service provision.

1990sEdit

The Carr-led Labor government initiated the Local Government Reform Task Force of 1995-97, the principal outcome of which was to promote resource sharing through the various regional organisations of councils.[3] Triggered by a paper issued by the NSW Local Government and Shires Association, twenty-one councils reviewed their own position and explored three options including the status quo, models for resource sharing and a merger. However, only four councils entered into voluntary mergers in order to avoid potential forced amalgamations.[3]

2000sEdit

The Sproats Inquiry into the structure of local government in eight council areas of the Inner City and Eastern Suburbs of Sydney was commissioned by the state government in October 2000. Despite recommendations for mergers, with the Carr government maintaining a no-forced amalgamation policy, no mergers transpired until late 2008 when Sproats was invited to review his earlier paper, including revisiting the controversial proposal to amalgamate the City of Sydney Council with the South Sydney City Council.[3]

The Carr government abandoned its policy of no forced mergers after the 2003 state election. Within a year, regional “super” councils were legislated for Inner Sydney, surrounding Canberra, Goulburn and Tamworth; four general purpose and two county councils were merged in Clarence Valley, as well as a number of other smaller-scale rural council amalgamations.[3]

2010sEdit

In October 2013, the NSW Government released the findings of an independent review of local government in New South Wales. The review findings, entitled Revitalising Local Government, examined historical and projected demographic data, financial sustainability, and other measures and projected the long-term viability all local government bodies in the state. Included in the report were 65 recommendations to the Government.[5]

The Government released its response to the review findings in September 2014 and then facilitated discussions with certain local government authorities with a view towards merger and/or amalgamation.[6] In April 2015, the NSW Government referred the review findings and its responses to the NSW Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) to act as the Expert Advisory Panel and to review local council Fit for the Future proposals.[7] Releasing its final report in October 2015, the IPART reviewed submissions from local government authorities and others with a view towards establishing authorities that have the scale and capacity to engage effectively across community, industry and government, are sustainable and efficient, and that effectively manage infrastructure and deliver services for local communities.The IPART found that:[8][9]

  • 71 per cent of councils in metropolitan Sydney were 'not fit', primarily because councils did not propose a merger despite clear benefits; and
  • 56 per cent of councils in regional NSW were 'not fit', due to not proposing a merger despite clear benefits, ongoing deficits or both.

The IPART proposed a series of council mergers and amalgamation in both metropolitan and regional areas which proposed a reduction in the number of councils from 152 to 112.[10] The NSW Government invited local government authorities to respond by 20 November 2015. Public response to the proposed amalgamations was mixed.[11] Following consideration of the submissions, the Minister for Local Government referred merger proposals to the Chief Executive of the Office of Local Government (OLG) for examination and report under the Local Government Act. The OLG Chief Executive delegated the examination and reporting functions to Delegates who conducted public inquiries and invited further written submissions by 28 February 2016.[12] On 12 May 2016, following a further review by the Minister for Local Government and the independent Local Government Boundaries Commission, Premier Mike Baird announced the creation of 19 new councils, through amalgamations and mergers, with immediate effect. The Minister indicated in principle support to create a further nine new councils, subject to the decision of the courts.[13][14] On the same day, the Governor of New South Wales acted on the advice of the Minister, and proclaimed the 19 new local government areas.[15]

On 9 May 2016, Strathfield Council challenged the proposed merger between Strathfield, Burwood and Canada Bay councils and commenced proceedings in the New South Wales Land and Environment Court. After the Court heard that there were legal flaws in the report from the State Government-appointed delegate who examined the proposal for merging the councils, on 31 May, the NSW Government withdrew from the case and the merger proposal stalled. Mosman, Hunters Hill, North Sydney, Ku-ring-gai, Woollahra, Oberon and Walcha councils also challenged the Government's amalgamations.[16][17] In December, the NSW Court of Appeal unanimously dismissed Woollahra Council's appeal, finding no merit in its arguments that the proposed merger with its neighbouring councils was invalid.[18] In July 2017, the Berejiklian government decided to abandon the forced merger of the Sydney local government areas, following an earlier move to abandon proposed forced mergers in rural and regional NSW.[19]

List of all local government areas in New South WalesEdit

As of 9 September 2016 there were 128 local government areas in New South Wales,[4] listed below in alphabetical order by region. There is also the Unincorporated Far West Region which is not part of any local government area, in the sparsely inhabited Far West, and Lord Howe Island, which is also unincorporated but self-governed by the Lord Howe Island Board.

Greater metropolitan SydneyEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Borough / District / Municipality City km2 sq mi Rank 2016 census Rank
Bayside Council 13 January 1871 (1871-01-13) (as Rockdale municipality) 9 September 2016 (2016-09-09) 50 19 98 156,058 17 [20][21][22]
Blacktown, City of 7 March 1906 (1906-03-07) (shire) 7 March 1979 (1979-03-07) 247 95 103 336,962 2 [23]
Burwood, Municipality of 27 March 1874 n/a 7 2.7 130 36,809 55 [24][25]
Camden Council 6 February 1889 n/a 201 78 104 78,219 29 [26][27]
Campbelltown, City of 21 January 1882 4 May 1968 (1968-05-04) 312 120 98 157,006 16 [28][29]
Canada Bay, City of 11 August 1883 (Municipal District of Concord)
18 January 1890 (Borough of Drummoyne)
December 2000 (2000-12) 20 7.7 122 88,015 27 [30][31]
Canterbury-Bankstown Council 17 March 1879 (1879-03-17) 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 72 28 112 346,302 1 [32][33]
Cumberland Council 9 July 1872 (1872-07-09)
(as the Prospect and Sherwood Municipal District)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 72 28 112 216,079 7 [34][35]
Fairfield, City of 11 December 1888 (1888-12-11)
(as the Smithfield and Fairfield Municipal District)
18 May 1979 (1979-05-18) 102 39 109 198,817 11 [36]
Georges River Council 22 December 1885 (1885-12-22)
(as the Kogarah municipality)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 38 15 115 146,841 19 [37][38]
The Hills Shire 6 March 1906 (1906-03-06)
(as Baulkham Hills Shire)
n/a 401 155 95 157,243 15 [39]
Hornsby Shire 6 March 1906 (1906-03-06) n/a 462 178 93 142,667 20 [40]
Hunter's Hill, Municipality of 7 January 1861 n/a 6 2.3 131 13,999 79 [41][42]
Inner West Council 1861 (1861)
(as an amalgamation of the former Ashfield, Leichhardt and Marrickville municipalities)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 35 14 116 182,043 14 [43][44]
Ku-ring-gai Council 1906 (shire), 1928 (municipality) n/a 86 33 110 118,053 22 [45]
Lane Cove, Municipality of 11 February 1895 (Borough of Lane Cove) n/a 11 4.2 126 36,051 56 [46][47]
Liverpool, City of 27 June 1872 (1872-06-27) (municipal district) 9 November 1960 (1960-11-09) 306 118 99 204,326 9 [48]
Mosman Council 11 April 1893
(as Borough of Mosman)
n/a 9 3.5 128 28,475 62 [49][50]
Northern Beaches Council 7 March 1906 (1906-03-07)
(as Warringah municipality)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 254 98 102 252,878 4 [51][52]
North Sydney Council 31 July 1890 (as Borough of North Sydney) n/a 11 4.2 127 67,658 36 [53][54]
Parramatta Council, City of 27 November 1861 (1861-11-27) (municipality) 27 October 1938 (1938-10-27) 82 32 111 226,149 5 [55][56]
Penrith, City of 12 May 1871 (1871-05-12) (municipality) 21 October 1959 (1959-10-21) 405 156 94 196,066 13 [57][58]
Randwick, City of 23 February 1859 36 14 116 140,660 21 [59][60]
Ryde, City of 12 November 1870 (1870-11-12) (municipal district) 1 January 1992 (1992-01-01) 41 16 114 116,302 23 [61]
Strathfield, Municipality of 2 June 1885 (1885-06-02) n/a 14 5.4 124 40,312 53 [62]
Sutherland Shire 6 March 1906 (1906-03-06) n/a 370 140 97 218,464 6 [63]
Sydney, City of 20 July 1842 (1842-07-20) 25 9.7 120 208,374 8 [64][65]
Waverley, Municipality of 16 June 1859 (1859-06-16) n/a 9 3.5 128 66,812 37 [66][67]
Willoughby, City of 23 October 1865 17 November 1989 23 8.9 121 74,302 32 [68][69][70]
Woollahra, Municipality of 20 April 1860 (1860-04-20) n/a 12 4.6 125 54,240 43 [71][72]

Sydney surroundsEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Borough / District / Municipality City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Blue Mountains, City of 4 January 1889 (1889-01-04)
(as the Municipality of Katoomba)
1 October 1947 (1947-10-01) 1,432 553 53 76,904 31 [73][74]
Central Coast Council 11 November 1886
(as Borough of Gosford)
12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 1,681 649 78 327,736 3 [75][76][77]
Hawkesbury, City of 1843
(as Windsor District Council)
1989 2,793 1,078 69 64,592 38 [78][79]
Wollondilly Shire 7 March 1906 n/a 2,560 990 72 48,519 47 [80][81]

Rural and regional areasEdit

Mid North CoastEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Shire / Municipality City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Bellingen Shire 30 November 1956 1,602 619 80 12,668 84 [82][83]
Clarence Valley Council 2004 10,441 4,031 17 50,671 45 [84]
Coffs Harbour, City of 30 November 1956 (Shire) 1 May 1987 1,175 454 86 72,944 33 [83][85][86]
Kempsey Shire 11 June 1886 (Borough) 3,380 1,310 62 28,885 61 [87][88]
Nambucca Shire 15 December 1915 1,491 576 82 19,212 70 [89][90]
Port Macquarie-Hastings Council 15 March 1887 (1887-03-15) 3,686 1,423 56 78,539 28 [91][92]
Lord Howe Island 1913 (Board of Control), 1954 (Board) 15 5.8 123 382 130 [93][94]

MurrayEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Municipality / Shire City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Albury, City of 1859 1946 164.246 63.416 107 51,076 44 [95][96]
Balranald Shire 27 September 1882 n/a 21,693 8,376 7 2,287 126 [97]
Berrigan Shire 1906 n/a 2,066 798 75 8,462 97 [98]
Edward River Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) n/a 8,881 3,429 24 8,851 95 [99][100]
Federation Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) n/a 5,685 2,195 40 12,777 83 [101][102]
Greater Hume Shire 2004 n/a 5,746 2,219 39 10,351 90 [103]
Murray River Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) n/a 11,865 4,581 14 11,680 87 [104][105]
Murrumbidgee Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) n/a 6,880 2,660 35 3,836 117 [106][107]
Snowy Valleys Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) n/a 8,960 3,460 23 14,395 77 [108][109]
Wentworth Shire 23 January 1879 (1879-01-23) (municipality),
xxxx (shire)
n/a 26,269 10,143 5 6,794 101 [110][111]

MurrumbidgeeEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Municipality / Shire City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Carrathool Shire n/a 18,933 7,310 9 2,719 124 [112]
Coolamon Shire n/a 2,433 939 73 4,315 114 [113]
Griffith, City of 6 January 1928 (1928-01-06) 1 January 1982 (1982-01-01) 1,640 630 79 25,641 63 [114]
Cootamundra-Gundagai Regional Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) n/a 3,981 1,537 54 11,141 89 [115][116]
Hay Shire 1 January 1965 n/a 11,326 4,373 15 2,946 121 [117]
Junee Shire n/a 2,030 780 76 6,295 104 [118]
Leeton Shire n/a 1,167 451 87 11,168 88 [119]
Lockhart Shire 1906 n/a 2,895 1,118 66 3,119 119 [120]
Narrandera Shire 1 January 1960 (1960-01-01) n/a 4,117 1,590 52 5,853 110 [121]
Temora Shire 1 January 1981 n/a 2,802 1,082 68 6,110 106 [122]
Wagga Wagga, City of 15 March 1870 (Borough) 1 January 1981 (1981-01-01) 4,826 1,863 48 62,385 39 [123][124]

HunterEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Municipality / Shire City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Cessnock, City of 7 March 1906 (shire) n/a 1,966 759 77 55,560 42 [125][126]
Dungog Shire 16 May 1893 n/a 2,251 869 74 8,975 93 [127][128]
Lake Macquarie, City of 1906 (shire); 1977 (municipality) 7 September 1984 (1984-09-07) 648 250 90 197,371 12 [129]
Maitland, City of 12 March 1862
(as Municipality of East Maitland)
7 December 1945 392 151 96 77,305 30 [130][131]
Mid-Coast Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) n/a 10,053 3,881 18 90,303 26 [132][133]
Muswellbrook Shire n/a 3,405 1,315 61 16,086 75 [134]
Newcastle, City of 8 June 1859 (Municipality) 187 72 105 155,411 18 [135][136]
Port Stephens Council n/a 979 378 88 69,556 34 [137]
Singleton Council 2 February 1866 (Municipality) n/a 4,893 1,889 46 22,987 65 [138][139]
Upper Hunter Shire May 2004 (2004-05) n/a 8,096 3,126 29 14,112 78 [140]

IllawarraEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Municipality / Shire City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Kiama, Municipality of 1859 (municipality) 258 100 101 21,464 67 [141]
Shellharbour, City of 4 June 1859 (1859-06-04) (municipality) May 1996 147 57 108 68,460 35 [142]
Shoalhaven, City of 1 July 1948 (1948-07-01) (shire) 4,567 1,763 50 99,650 24 [143]
Wingecarribee Shire 1 January 1981 (1981-01-01) n/a 2,689 1,038 70 47,882 48 [144]
Wollongong, City of 24 August 1843 (1843-08-24)
(as Illawarra District Council)
11 September 1942 (1942-09-11) 684 264 89 203,630 10 [145]

Richmond-TweedEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Municipality / Shire City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Ballina Shire 1976 (1976) n/a 484 187 92 41,790 50 [146]
Byron Shire 7 March 1906 (1906-03-07) n/a 567 219 91 31,556 58 [147]
Kyogle Council 7 March 1906
(Shire)
n/a 3,589 1,386 58 8,940 94 [148][149]
Lismore, City of 1879 (municipality) 9 September 1946 (1946-09-09) 1,290 500 85 43,135 49 [150][151]
Richmond Valley Council February 2000 (2000-02) n/a 3,051 1,178 65 22,807 66 [152]
Tweed Shire 1 January 1947 (1947-01-01) n/a 1,321 510 84 91,371 25 [153]

Canberra RegionEdit

Local government area Date
established
Area Population References
km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Bega Valley Shire 1981 6,279 2,424 36 33,253 57 [154]
Eurobodalla Shire 1913 3,428 1,324 59 37,232 54 [155]
Goulburn Mulwaree Council 2004 3,220 1,240 64 29,609 59 [156]
Hilltops Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 7,139 2,756 33 18,498 71 [157][158]
Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 8,960 3,460 22 56,027 41 [159][160]
Snowy Monaro Regional Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 5,319 2,054 42 20,218 69 [161][162]
Upper Lachlan Shire 2004 7,102 2,742 34 7,695 98 [163]
Yass Valley Council 1 January 1980 (1980-01-01) (shire);
11 February 2004 (2004-02-11) (municipality)
3,999 1,544 53 16,142 74 [164]

NorthernEdit

Local government area Date
established
Area Population References
km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Armidale Regional Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 8,621 3,329 26 29,449 60 [165]
Glen Innes Severn Council 5,487 2,119 41 8,836 96 [166]
Gunnedah Shire 19 September 1885
(Municipal District)
4,994 1,928 45 12,215 86 [167][168]
Gwydir Shire 17 March 2004 (2004-03-17) 9,453 3,650 21 5,258 112 [169]
Inverell Shire 5 March 1872
(Municipal District)
8,606 3,323 27 16,483 73 [170][171]
Liverpool Plains Shire 2004 5,086 1,964 44 7,687 99 [172]
Moree Plains Shire 5 December 1890
(Municipal District of Moree)
17,930 6,920 10 13,159 81 [173][174]
Narrabri Shire 13,031 5,031 12 13,084 82 [175]
Tamworth Regional Council 2004 9,892 3,819 20 59,663 40 [176]
Tenterfield Shire 23 November 1871
(Municipal District)
7,332 2,831 32 6,628 102 [177][178]
Uralla Shire 24 April 1882
(Municipal District)
3,230 1,250 63 6,048 108 [179][180]
Walcha Shire 1 June 1955 (1955-06-01) 2,621 1,012 71 3,092 120 [181][182]

Central WestEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Municipality / Shire City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Bathurst Regional 26 May 2004 (2004-05-26) n/a 3,820 1,470 56 41,300 51 [183]
Bland Shire n/a 8,560 3,310 29 5,995 109 [184]
Blayney Shire 1 November 1882 n/a 1,525 589 82 7,257 100 [185][186]
Cabonne Shire 1978 n/a 6,026 2,327 38 13,386 80 [187]
Cowra Shire 1980 (1980) n/a 2,810 1,080 68 12,460 85 [188]
Forbes Shire 4 June 1870 (as Municipal District) n/a 4,720 1,820 50 9,587 91 [189][190]
Lachlan Shire n/a 7,431 2,869 32 6,194 105 [191]
Lithgow, City of 4 June 1889 (Municipality) 21 December 1945 4,551 1,757 52 21,090 68 [192][193][194]
Mid-Western Regional 26 May 2004 (2004-05-26) n/a 8,737 3,373 26 24,076 64 [195]
Oberon Shire 7 March 1906 n/a 3,659 1,413 58 5,301 111 [196][149]
Orange, City of 9 January 1860 (Municipality) 10 July 1946 285 110 101 40,344 52 [197][198]
Parkes Shire 1 March 1883 (as Municipal District) n/a 5,958 2,300 39 14,608 76 [199][200]
Weddin Shire n/a 3,410 1,320 61 3,664 118 [201]

North WesternEdit

Local government area Date
established
Area Population References
km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Bogan Shire 1891 (municipality); 1906 (shire) 14,611 5,641 11 2,692 125 [202]
Bourke Shire 4 July 1878 41,679 16,092 4 2,834 123 [203][204]
Brewarrina Shire 15 January 1901 19,188 7,409 8 1,651 128 [205][206]
Cobar Shire 18 March 1884 44,065 17,014 3 4,647 113 [207][208]
Coonamble Shire 3 May 1880 9,926 3,832 19 3,918 116 [209][210]
Dubbo Regional Council 12 May 2016 (2016-05-12) 7,536 2,910 30 50,077 46 [211][212]
Gilgandra Shire 1906 4,836 1,867 47 4,236 115 [213]
Narromine Shire 23 April 1898 5,264 2,032 43 6,444 103 [214][215]
Walgett Shire 7 March 1906 22,336 8,624 6 6,107 107 [216]
Warren Shire 24 April 1895 10,760 4,150 16 2,732 122 [217][218]
Warrumbungle Shire 2004 12,380 4,780 13 9,384 92 [219]

Far WestEdit

Local government area Date established Area Population References
Municipality / Shire City km2 mi2 Rank (2016 census) Rank
Broken Hill, City of 24 September 1888 170 66 106 17,708 72 [220][221]
Central Darling Shire 20 March 1959
6 February 1883 (as Municipal District of Wilcannia)
n/a 53,511 20,661 2 1,833 127 [222][223][224]
Unincorporated Far West n/a 93,300 36,000 1 698a 129 [225]
^a As of 27 June 2017, ABS census data was available for the 2011 census only.

Former local government areas in New South WalesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Special Article - The History of Government in New South Wales". New South Wales Year Book, 1998. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Government. 7 March 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  2. ^ Kelly, A. H. (4–8 July 2011). The Development of Local Government in Australia, Focusing on NSW: From Road Builder to Planning Agency to Servant of the State Government and Developmentalism (Paper). World Planning Schools Congress 2011. Perth: University of Wollongong. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tiley, Ian; Dollery, Brian (April 2010). "Local Government Amalgamation in New South Wales". Centre for Local Government. University of New England. 
  4. ^ a b "Local Government Directory". Office of Local Government. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  5. ^ Sansom, Graham; Munro, Jude; Inglis, Glenn (25 October 2013). "Revitalising Local Government: Final Report" (PDF). Independent Local Government Review Panel. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  6. ^ "Reform – Fit for the Future". Local Government NSW. 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Baird, Mike (22 April 2015). "Terms of Reference for a review of local council Fit for the Future proposals by an Expert Advisory Panel" (PDF) (Press release). NSW Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 
  8. ^ Boxall, Peter J., AO; Jones, Catherine; Comrie, John (October 2015). "Assessment of Council Fit for the Future Proposals" (PDF). NSW Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal. ISBN 978-1-925340-21-1. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 
  9. ^ Baird, Mike; Toole, Paul (20 October 2015). "Fit for the future: $2 billion community windfall by merging unfit councils" (Press release). Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "NSW councils to merge under State Government plan for forced amalgamations; 2016 elections delayed". ABC News. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  11. ^ Kembrey, Melanie. "Council mergers: expert adviser Graham Sansom slams merger proposals". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  12. ^ "Background". Council Boundary Review. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 18 February 2016. 
  13. ^ "Introduction". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  14. ^ "New councils for NSW". Family & Community Services (Press release). Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  15. ^ "Local Government (Council Amalgamations) Proclamation 2016" (PDF). Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  16. ^ Raper, Ashleigh (31 May 2016). "NSW council amalgamations: Strathfield, Burwood and Canada Bay merger stopped". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  17. ^ Davies, Anne (31 May 2016). "Council amalgamations: government push for mergers suffers setback". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  18. ^ Visentin, Lisa (22 December 2016). "Woollahra loses merger appeal, hints at High Court challenge". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 31 December 2016. 
  19. ^ Blumer, Clare; Chettle, Nicole (27 July 2017). "NSW council amalgamations: Mayors fight to claw back court dollars after backflip on merger". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  20. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Botany Bay (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 5 July 2017.   
  21. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Rockdale (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 5 July 2017.   
  22. ^ "Bayside Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  23. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Blacktown (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 5 July 2017.   
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  76. ^ "Central Coast Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
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  88. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 11 Jun 1886". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
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  98. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Berrigan (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  102. ^ "Federation Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
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  107. ^ "Murrumbidgee Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
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  109. ^ "Snowy Valley Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
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  114. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Griffith (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  119. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Leeton (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  120. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Lockhart (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  122. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Temora (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  123. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Wagga Wagga (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  126. ^ "PROCLAMATION - Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001) - 7 Mar 1906". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
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  130. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Maitland (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  138. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Singleton (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  139. ^ "MUNICIPAL INSTITUTIONS. - MUNICIPALITY OF SINGLETON. PROCLAMATION. - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 2 Feb 1866". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
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  141. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Kiama (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  142. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Shellharbour (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  143. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Shoalhaven (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  144. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Wingecarribee (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  145. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Wollongong (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  147. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Byron (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  148. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Kyogle (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  153. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Tweed (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  154. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Bega Valley (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  155. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Eurobodalla (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  156. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Goulburn Mulwaree (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  158. ^ "Hilltops Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  159. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  160. ^ "Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  161. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Snowy Monaro Regional (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  162. ^ "Snowy Monaro Regional Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
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  164. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Yass Valley (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  165. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Armidale Regional (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  166. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Glen Innes Severn (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  167. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Gunnedah (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  170. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Inverell (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  171. ^ "PROCLAMATION. - By His Excellency SIR ALFRED STEPHEN, Knight, a Companion of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, Chief Justice of the Colony of New South Wales, Administering the Government thereof. - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 5 Mar 1872". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
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  173. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Moree Plains (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  174. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 5 Dec 1890". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  175. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Narrabri (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  176. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Tamworth Regional (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  177. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Tenterfield (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  178. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 23 Nov 1871". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  179. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Uralla (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  180. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 24 Apr 1882". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  181. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Walcha (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  182. ^ Walcha 100 years of Local Government. Walcha: Walcha Shire Council. 1989. 
  183. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Bathurst Regional (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  184. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Bland (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  185. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Blayney (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  186. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 1 Nov 1882". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  187. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Cabonne (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  188. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Cowra (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  189. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Forbes (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  190. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 4 Jun 1870". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  191. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Lachlan (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  192. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Lithgow (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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  194. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 4 Jun 1889". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  195. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Mid-Western Regional (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  196. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Oberon (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  197. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Orange (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  198. ^ "MUNICIPALITY OF ORANGE. - PROCLAMATION. - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 9 Jan 1860". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  199. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "2016 Community Profiles: Parkes (A)". 2016 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  200. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 1 Mar 1883". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  201. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Weddin (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  202. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Bogan (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  203. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Bourke (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  204. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 4 Jul 1878". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  205. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Brewarrina (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  206. ^ "PROCLAMATION - Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001) - 15 Jan 1901". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  207. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Cobar (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  208. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 18 Mar 1884". Trove. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  209. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Coonamble (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  210. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 3 May 1880". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  211. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Western Plains Regional (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  212. ^ "Western Plains Regional Council". Stronger Councils. Government of New South Wales. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  213. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Gilgandra (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  214. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Narromine (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  215. ^ "PROCLAMATION - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 23 Apr 1898". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  216. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Walgett (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  217. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Warren (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  218. ^ "Government Gazette Proclamations and Legislation - New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900) - 24 Apr 1895". nla.gov.au. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  219. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Warrumbungle Shire (A)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
  220. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Broken Hill (C)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2017.   
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