Interstate 580 (I-580) is an approximately 76-mile-long (122 km) east–west auxiliary Interstate Highway in Northern California. The heavily traveled spur route of I-80 runs from US Route 101 (US 101) in San Rafael in the San Francisco Bay Area to I-5 at a point outside the southern city limits of Tracy in the Central Valley. I-580 forms a concurrency with I-80 between Albany and Oakland, the latter of which is the location of the MacArthur Maze interchange immediately east of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. I-580 provides a connection from the Bay Area to the southern San Joaquin Valley and Southern California via I-5, as I-5 bypasses the Bay Area to the east.
|Auxiliary route of I-80|
|Maintained by Caltrans|
|Length||75.550 mi[a] (121.586 km)|
|Existed||July 1, 1964–present|
|William Elton "Brownie" Brown Freeway, and the MacArthur Freeway through Oakland|
|Restrictions||No trucks over 4.5 short tons (4.1 t; 4.0 long tons) through Oakland|
|West end||US 101 in San Rafael|
|East end||I-5 near Tracy|
|Counties||Marin, Contra Costa, Alameda, San Joaquin|
A portion of I-580 is called the MacArthur Freeway, after General Douglas MacArthur. Other portions are named the John T. Knox Freeway (after a former speaker pro tempore of the California State Assembly), the Eastshore Freeway (after its location on San Francisco Bay), the Arthur H. Breed Jr. Freeway (after a former California State assemblyperson and senator—the stretch itself lying between the cities of Castro Valley and Dublin), the William Elton "Brownie" Brown Freeway (after a Tracy resident instrumental in determining the route of I-5 through the San Joaquin Valley), the Sgt. Daniel Sakai Memorial Highway (after the Castro Valley resident and Oakland SWAT officer killed in the 2009 shootings of Oakland police officers), and the John P. Miller Memorial Highway (after the Lodi resident and California Highway Patrol officer killed while chasing down a DUI driver).
The western terminus of I-580 is roughly 10 miles (16 km) north of San Francisco in the city of San Rafael (Marin County), at the junction with US 101. The interchange with US 101 is incomplete, only allowing continuous travel from southbound US 101 to eastbound I-580 (via exit 451B) and from westbound I-580 to northbound US 101. Heading eastward through the light industrial portion of eastern San Rafael, I-580 provides access to San Quentin State Prison at the eastern tip of land before joining the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge to cross San Francisco Bay. I-580 enters the city of Richmond in Contra Costa County midspan, then continues through Richmond to join I-80 in Albany at the "Hoffman Split".
After joining I-80, I-580 runs directly south for several miles along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay in the segment known as the Eastshore Freeway, then enters the MacArthur Maze. The segment between the Hoffman Split and the MacArthur Maze is a wrong-way concurrency, meaning I-580 east is signed as I-80 west, and vice versa. From the MacArthur Maze, I-580 is known as the MacArthur Freeway, which runs through Oakland and San Leandro to Castro Valley. About halfway to Castro Valley from the Maze, is an interchange with the Warren Freeway (State Route 13 [SR 13]). Between this interchange and Castro Valley, I-580 runs near or along the trace of the Hayward Fault, a major branch of the San Andreas Fault.
In Castro Valley, I-580 turns eastward toward Dublin Canyon before descending into Dublin and Pleasanton. After passing through Livermore, the freeway enters the Altamont Pass. The road emerges in the Central Valley west of Tracy, where, after I-205 splits near Altamont Raceway Park, it turns southeastward and terminates by merging with I-5 south of Tracy just shy of the Stanislaus County line.
I-580 through Altamont Pass is a major crossing of the Diablo Range, linking the Central Valley to the Bay Area, and also a major route to Southern California. I-580 is the only freeway that crosses the Diablo Range, making it the safest route through the mountains. Prior to the construction of this route, traffic was detoured to Pacheco (SR 152) and Polonio (SR 46) passes.
I-580 provides Interstate Highway access between San Francisco and Los Angeles since I-5 runs east of the Bay Area. However, the primary control city listed on freeway signs along eastbound I-580 between I-80 and I-205 is instead Stockton, a vestige of when this segment used to be part of US 50.
I-580 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The route is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System and is officially designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) from the San Leandro city limits to SR 24 and from I-5 to I-205, meaning that these are substantial sections of highway passing through a "memorable landscape" with no "visual intrusions", where the potential designation has gained popular favor with the community.
Truck ban through OaklandEdit
Trucks over 4.5 short tons (4.1 t; 4.0 long tons) are prohibited through Oakland between Grand Avenue and the San Leandro border. Specifically, eastbound trucks cannot travel beyond Grand Avenue/Lakeshore Avenue (exit 21B), and those going westbound must get off at MacArthur Boulevard/Foothill Boulevard (exit 30). They are instead instructed to take I-238 in Castro Valley and then I-880 through Oakland as an alternative route.
The truck prohibition has been in effect before the freeway was since the freeway was built in 1963 as part of US 50. Both the FHWA and Caltrans imposed the restriction, partly because the city of Oakland already had a truck ban through the area prior to the freeway's construction. Since then, the restriction was grandfathered in when the freeway was both renumbered and added to the Interstate Highway System.
As a result, it is the only segment of Interstate Highway in California that is not part of the National Truck Network (several other California state highways have similar truck bans such as SR 2 and SR 85, but not any other Interstates). With trucks normally rerouted onto I-880 instead of I-580 through Oakland, the former generally gets more traffic than the latter. For decades, the trucking industry lobbied to have the ban removed but was unsuccessful due to local opposition. In 2000, the California State Legislature passed Assembly Bill 500, adding the I-580 truck restriction into the California Vehicle Code. The ban is temporarily lifted by the California Highway Patrol for short periods to reduce traffic congestion when major accidents occur on I-880 or I-238.
Richmond–San Rafael BridgeEdit
Tolls are collected only for westbound traffic on the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge. An open road tolling system is used on the bridge, and they can be paid by either a FasTrak transponder or license plate tolling. The high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane leading to the bridge requires a car with three or more people.
High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes along I-580 between Pleasanton and Livermore opened in February 2016. The eastbound express lanes stretch 12 miles (19 km) between Hacienda Drive and North Greenville Road. The westbound express lanes extend an additional two miles (3.2 km) west to San Ramon Road/Foothill Road.
As of August 2022[update], the HOT lanes' hours of operation is weekdays between 5:00 am and 8:00 pm. Solo drivers are tolled using a congestion pricing system based on the real-time levels of traffic. Carpools, motorcycles, and clean air vehicles are not charged. All tolls are collected using an open road tolling system, and therefore there are no toll booths to receive cash. Each vehicle using the HOT lanes is required to carry either a FasTrak Flex or CAV (Clean Air Vehicle) transponder, with its switch set to indicate the number of the vehicle's occupants (1, 2, or 3 or more). Solo drivers may also use the FasTrak standard tag without the switch. Drivers without any FasTrak tag will be assessed a toll violation regardless of whether they qualified for free.
I-5W and the San Francisco Bay AreaEdit
Interstate 5W (I-5W) was originally conceived as part of a loop Interstate with a directional suffix and was what is now I-580 from I-5 to Oakland.[self-published source] However, I-5W and most of the other Interstates around the country with directional suffixes were eventually renumbered or eliminated, except for I-35E and I-35W in Texas and Minnesota, and more recently I-69W, I-69C, and I-69E in Texas. The former route of I-5W now corresponds to I-580 from I-5 to Oakland, I-80 from Oakland to Vacaville, and I-505 from Vacaville to I-5 near Dunnigan.
I-5 to Castro ValleyEdit
For the most part, the I-580 freeway in this segment was constructed over or alongside the right-of-way of US 50, previously part of the old Lincoln Highway, during the course of the late 1960s and early 1970s. The segment which begins at the split with I-205 was constructed during the same period of time over a new right-of-way to a junction with I-5, running through some low hills on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley near the city of Patterson.
In the 1990s, the freeway segment from Castro Valley through Pleasanton was enlarged and otherwise reengineered in conjunction with the construction of the Dublin/Pleasanton–Daly City line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART). The BART tracks were placed in a new median between the westbound and eastbound lanes of I-580 as was the new Dublin/Pleasantion station. The interchange with I-238 and the Hayward exit ramps was also reengineered at this time.
MacArthur Freeway: Castro Valley to OaklandEdit
The I-580 freeway in this segment was constructed starting in February 1960, adjacent to the city streets which were part of US 50 between Castro Valley and the large interchange along the eastern approach to the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in Oakland now called the MacArthur Maze. The freeway was named in honor of World War II General Douglas MacArthur. Prior to the construction of this freeway, the various city streets of Oakland that were designated for US 50 (principally 38th Street, Hopkins Street, Moss Avenue, Excelsior Avenue, and part of Foothill Boulevard) had been renamed for the General as "MacArthur Boulevard" which, for the most part, still parallels the MacArthur Freeway. The renaming occurred on March 26, 1942, by a resolution of the Oakland City Council.
Oakland to San RafaelEdit
From the Maze to the interchange locally known as the "Hoffman Split" in Albany, just north of the Gilman Street interchange (Hoffman Boulevard was the predecessor of I-580 in this section), I-580 follows the Eastshore Freeway, a wrong-way concurrency with I-80 for its entirety: northward on the Eastshore is signed I-80 east and I-580 west; headed southward, one finds signs indicating I-80 west and I-580 east.
At the Hoffman Split, I-580 leaves the Eastshore Freeway in a northwesterly direction through the cities of Albany and Richmond. It then crosses San Francisco Bay over the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge. The freeway in this section, officially named the John T. Knox Freeway, was constructed from 1987 to 1991. It replaced a number of city streets which comprised the earlier highway leading to the San Rafael Bridge, principally, Hoffman and Cutting boulevards.
|Location||San Rafael, California|
Interstate 180 (I-180) was a temporary designation used in 1978 for the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge, now part of I-580. At the time, the bridge had been identified as part of SR 17 but was marked for inclusion in the Interstate Highway System.
Briefly the bridge used the number 180, despite the Fresno-area SR 180's use of the number. The California Streets and Highways Code has a policy against using one route number for multiple noncontiguous highways. Unless the existing SR 180 is renumbered, which is unlikely due to its familiarity as the road to Kings Canyon National Park, there will not be an I-180 in California.
The segment of I-580 from I-680 to I-205 is undergoing significant expansion. Among the projects along this segment is the now-completed high-occupancy vehicle lanes in each direction, a westbound auxiliary lane between Fallon and Tassajara roads, the now-completed construction of a new interchange at Isabel Avenue in Livermore, the reconstruction of several interchanges, the construction of additional truck climbing lanes for the eastward ascent to the Altamont Pass, and plans to preserve the right-of-way to accommodate a future BART extension in the median of the freeway.
|San Rafael||0.00||0.00||1A|| |
US 101 north – San Rafael, Santa Rosa
|Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; west end of I-580; US 101 south exit 451B|
Francisco Boulevard south to US 101 – San Francisco
|Signed as exit 1 eastbound|
Sir Francis Drake Boulevard south to US 101
|Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|2.15||3.46||2B||Francisco Boulevard – San Quentin||Signed as exit 2 eastbound|
|San Francisco Bay||4.78||7.69||Richmond–San Rafael Bridge (westbound toll only)|
|Richmond||6.56||10.56||7A||Stenmark Drive – Point Molate||No eastbound exit|
Richmond Parkway to I-80 east – Port Richmond, Sacramento
|Signed as exit 7 eastbound|
|7.93||12.76||8||Canal Boulevard, Garrard Boulevard|
|8.97||14.44||9||Cutting Boulevard, Harbour Way||Signed as exits 9A (Cutting Boulevard, Harbour Way south) and 9B (Harbour Way north) westbound|
|9.68||15.58||10A||Marina Bay Parkway, South 23rd Street|
|Albany||13.01||20.94||13||Buchanan Street – Albany||Westbound exit is part of I-80 east exit 13A|
I-80 east (Eastshore Freeway) – Vallejo, Sacramento
|West end of I-80 overlap; westbound exit and eastbound entrance; I-580 west follows I-80 east exit 13B|
|15.07||24.25||11[b]||University Avenue – Berkeley|
SR 13 south (Ashby Avenue) / Shellmound Street
|Shellmound Street accessible only from westbound I-580 / eastbound I-80|
|Emeryville||16.94||27.26||9[b]||Powell Street – Emeryville||No exit from I-880 north|
|Oakland||18.09||29.11||♦||San Francisco (I-80 west)||HOV access only via I-80 west; eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
I-80 Toll west (Bay Bridge) – San Francisco
|Eastbound signage; east end of I-80 overlap; west end of MacArthur Maze; I-580 east follows I-80 exit 8B|
I-880 south (Nimitz Freeway) / West Grand Avenue – Alameda, San Jose
|Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; eastbound exit is part of I-80 west exit 8B; access to Oakland International Airport; former SR 17 south|
I-80 Toll west (Bay Bridge) – San Francisco
|Westbound left exit and eastbound entrance; east end of MacArthur Maze|
|19.03||30.63||19A||MacArthur Boulevard, San Pablo Avenue (SR 123)||Eastbound left exit and westbound entrance|
|19B||West Street, San Pablo Avenue (SR 123)||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
SR 24 east (Grove-Shafter Freeway) – Berkeley, Walnut Creek
|Signed as exit 19B eastbound; provides direct exit ramp onto Martin Luther King Jr Way/51st Street; SR 24 exit 2B|
I-980 west (Grove-Shafter Freeway) to I-880 – Downtown Oakland
|Signed as exit 19C eastbound; provides direct exit ramp onto 27th Street/West Grand Avenue; I-980 exit 2A; signed as only I-980/Downtown Oakland from 1989-1998|
|20.23||32.56||20||Webster Street, Broadway-Auto Row||Eastbound exit only|
|20.76||33.41||21A||Harrison Street, Oakland Avenue, MacArthur Boulevard||MacArthur Blvd not signed eastbound, Oakland Ave not signed westbound|
|21B||Grand Avenue, Lakeshore Avenue||Signed as exits 21B (Grand Ave) and 22A (Lakeshore Ave) westbound|
|22.37||36.00||22B||Park Boulevard, 14th Avenue||Signed as exit 22 eastbound; 14th Ave not signed eastbound|
|23.47||37.77||23||Fruitvale Avenue, Coolidge Avenue||Signed as exit 24 westbound; Coolidge Ave not signed eastbound|
|23.75||38.22||24||35th Avenue||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|25||MacArthur Boulevard, High Street||Signed as exits 25A (High St) and 25B (MacArthur Blvd) eastbound|
SR 13 north (Warren Freeway) / Seminary Avenue – Berkeley
|Signed as exits 26A (SR 13) and 26B (Seminary Ave) westbound; SR 13 exits 1A-B|
|26.75||43.05||27A||Edwards Avenue||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|27.26||43.87||27B||Keller Avenue, Mountain Boulevard||Signed as exit 27 westbound|
|28.72||46.22||29A||Golf Links Road, 98th Avenue||Signed as exit 29 westbound|
|30.01||48.30||29B||106th Avenue, Foothill Boulevard||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|Oakland–San Leandro line||30||MacArthur Boulevard, Foothill Boulevard||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|30.58||49.21||31A||Dutton Avenue, Estudillo Avenue – Downtown San Leandro||Signed as exit 31 westbound; Dutton Ave not signed westbound|
|San Leandro||31.12||50.08||31B||Grand Avenue – Downtown San Leandro||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|31.63||50.90||32A||Benedict Drive||Westbound exit only|
|32.21||51.84||32B||150th Avenue, Fairmont Drive||Signed as exit 32 eastbound|
|33.34||53.66||33||164th Avenue, Miramar Avenue, Carolyn Street||Carolyn St not signed eastbound, Miramar Ave not signed westbound|
|Castro Valley||34.25||55.12||34|| |
SR 238 south – Hayward
|No westbound exit|
I-238 north to I-880
|Left exit westbound; I-238 exit 14|
|35.58||57.26||36||Redwood Road – Castro Valley||Castro Valley not signed westbound|
|36.53||58.79||37||Grove Way, Crow Canyon Road||Eastbound signage|
|Castro Valley Boulevard||Westbound signage|
|38.71||62.30||39||Eden Canyon Road, Palomares Road|
|Pleasanton–Dublin line||44.61||71.79||44A||San Ramon Road, Foothill Road – Dublin|
|44.21||71.15||—||I-580 Express Lanes west ends||West end of westbound Express Lanes|
|44B||I-680 – Sacramento, San Jose||I-680 exits 30A-B|
|45.08||72.55||45||Hopyard Road, Dougherty Road|
|46.12||74.22||46||Hacienda Drive, Dublin Boulevard||Dublin Blvd not signed eastbound|
|—||I-580 Express Lanes east begins||West end of eastbound Express Lanes|
|46.99||75.62||47||Santa Rita Road, Tassajara Road|
|Dublin||48.24||77.63||48||El Charro Road, Fallon Road|
|Livermore||49.97||80.42||50||Airway Boulevard, Collier Canyon Road|
|50.84||81.82||51||SR 84 (Isabel Avenue) / Portola Avenue|
|51.78||83.33||52A||Portola Avenue (CR J2)||Closed; former eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|52.41||84.35||52||North Livermore Avenue (CR J2) – Downtown Livermore||Formerly signed as exit 52B eastbound|
|54.25||87.31||54||First Street, Springtown Boulevard||Former SR 84|
|55.26||88.93||55||Vasco Road – Brentwood||Brentwood not signed westbound|
|55.80||89.80||—||I-580 Express Lanes||East end of Express Lanes in both directions|
|56.68||91.22||57||North Greenville Road, Altamont Pass Road, Laughlin Road||Laughlin Road not signed eastbound, Altamont Pass Rd not signed westbound|
|||58.99||94.94||59||North Flynn Road|
|Altamont Pass, elevation 1,009 feet (308 m)|
|||63.49||102.18||63||Grant Line Road – Byron|
I-205 east to I-5 north – Tracy, Stockton
|Eastbound left exit and westbound entrance|
I-580 Truck west / Grant Line Road
|Westbound truck bypass|
|||66.99||107.81||67||International Parkway, Patterson Pass Road|
|Tracy||72.38||116.48||72||Corral Hollow Road (CR J2)|
SR 132 east – Modesto
Chrisman Road to SR 132 east – Tracy, Modesto
|Westbound signage; ramps connect directly to Chrisman Road to the south of its interchange with SR 132|
I-5 south – Fresno, Los Angeles
|Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; east end of I-580; I-5 north exit 446|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
In popular cultureEdit
- I-580 features prominently throughout the Sons of Anarchy series. The backstory of the series establishes that "First 9" (SAMCRO cofounder) John Teller died in a collision on November 13, 1993, 15 years before the pilot episode takes place, and SAMCRO establishes a roadside memorial to Teller near the crash site. In the final scenes of the series finale, Jax rides his father's restored classic motorcycle to visit that memorial, before taking a last ride on I-580.
- I-580 through the Altamont Pass is a stage in the 2011 racing video game Need for Speed: The Run.
- I-580 is broken into pieces, and the length does not reflect the I-80 overlap that would be required to make the route continuous.
- Exit numbers follow I-80 rather than I-580.
- "State Truck Route List". California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on October 27, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
- Faigin, Daniel P. (March 1, 2022). "Interstate 580". California Highways. Archived from the original on April 22, 2022. Retrieved September 7, 2022.[self-published source]
- "Special Route Restriction History: Route 580". California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on April 12, 2021. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- California Department of Transportation (August 2019). "Officially Designated State Scenic Highways and Historic Parkways" (XLSX). Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "Article 2 of Chapter 2 of Division 1". California Streets and Highways Code. Sacramento: California Office of Legislative Counsel. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Federal Highway Administration (March 25, 2015). National Highway System: California (North) (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
- "Article 2.5 of Chapter 2 of Division 1". California Streets & Highways Code. Sacramento: California Office of Legislative Counsel. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- California Department of Transportation (August 2019). "Officially Designated State Scenic Highways and Historic Parkways" (XLSX). Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- California Department of Transportation (2012). Scenic Highway Guidelines (PDF). Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. p. 5. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- California Department of Transportation (July 2007). "Log of Bridges on State Highways". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation.
- "Special Route Restrictions". California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Corbett. "California Assembly Bill 500". Leginfo.ca.gov. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "Richmond–San Rafael Bridge". www.bayareafastrak.org. California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on August 7, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
- "High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) & Express Lanes Northern California Region" (PDF). California Department of Transportation. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- "New I-580 Express Lanes Now Open In East Bay". KGO-TV. February 19, 2016. Archived from the original on February 22, 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
- "I-580 Express Lanes". Alameda County Transportation Commission. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- "I-580 Express Lanes". www.bayareafastrak.org. California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on July 25, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
- "Pay Tolls & Violations". www.bayareafastrak.org. California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
If you use Bay Area Express Lanes, you must use a FasTrak toll tag, otherwise you will receive a violation notice including toll evasion penalties
- Faigin, Daniel P. (August 6, 2022). "Interstate 5". California Highways. Archived from the original on April 22, 2022. Retrieved September 7, 2022.[self-published source]
- Peterson, L.M. (March–April 1960). "US 50 Freeway: State Begins Construction on MacArthur Freeway in Oakland". California Highways and Public Works. Vol. 39, no. 3–4. p. 8. ISSN 0008-1159 – via Internet Archive.
- Norman, Albert E. (October 23, 1960). "Naming Our City Streets". Oakland Tribune. p. M17. ISSN 1068-5936. Archived from the original on September 8, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Peterson, Gary (June 13, 2013). "Bay Area Roadways: Where'd the Names Come From?". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- Ryman, D.C. (March–April 1966). "MacArthur Freeway: Relief for the Nimitz Freeway". California Highways and Public Works. Vol. 45, no. 3–4. pp. 12–15. ISSN 0008-1159. Retrieved September 7, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
- "Former Interstate 180: San Rafael–Richmond". California. AARoads. June 21, 2018. Archived from the original on August 4, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2022.[self-published source]
- Alameda County Congestion Management Agency; California Department of Transportation (2006). "I-580 Corridor Improvements: Project List". Alameda County Congestion Management Agency. Archived from the original on January 11, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2009.
- Chand, A.S (October 14, 2016). "Interstate 580 Freeway Interchanges" (PDF). Cal-NExUS. California Department of Transportation. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- "Elevation and Location of Summits and Passes in California". California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017.
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin (November 5, 2013). "Sons of Anarchy Review: 'John 8:32'". ScreenCrush. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Hinckley, David (October 28, 2014). "Sons of Anarchy Season 7, Episode 8 recap: Jax and his SAMCRO crew are revved up for revenge in 'The Separation of Crows'". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Keveney, Bill (December 10, 2014). "The 6 biggest moments from the Sons of Anarchy finale". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
- Barney, Chuck (December 10, 2014). "Sons of Anarchy finale recap: The way it had to end". Contra Costa Times. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.