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Ingerophrynus is a genus of true toads with 12 species.[2][3] The genus is found in southern Yunnan and Southeast Asia; from Myanmar and Indochina to peninsular Thailand and Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Nias Island, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.[2] This genus was established after a major taxonomical revision of frogs in 2006.[1]

Bufo biporc M 050409 015 tdp.jpg
Crested toad
(Ingerophrynus biporcatus)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Ingerophrynus
Frost et al., 2006[1]

12 species (see text)


Taxonomy and systematicsEdit

Ten of the species in this genus were formerly considered species of the genus Bufo, most of them in what had been known as the Bufo biporcatus group; the remaining ones were assigned to this genus based on molecular data.[1] In 2007 a new species, Ingerophrynus gollum, was added to this genus.[4] The sister taxon of Ingerophrynus is Sabahphrynus.[2]


The generic name Ingerophrynus honors Robert F. Inger, an American zoologist from the Field Museum of Natural History.[1][5]


The diagnostic characters of the Bufo biporcatus group are the presence of supraorbital, parietal, and supratympanic crests, lack of a tarsal ridge, presence of vocal sacs but absence of melanophores in the surrounding muscle tissue, lack of tibial glands, lack supinator manus humeralis and adductor longus muscles, presence of paired crests on the vertebral column, rugose skull, squamosal bones with broad dorsal otic plates, and smooth palatine bones.[4]


There are 12 species:[2][3]

Binomial Name and Author Common Name
Ingerophrynus biporcatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Crested toad
Ingerophrynus celebensis (Günther, 1859) Sulawesian toad
Ingerophrynus claviger (Peters, 1863) Benkulen toad
Ingerophrynus divergens (Peters, 1871) Malayan dwarf toad
Ingerophrynus galeatus (Günther, 1864) Bony-headed toad
Ingerophrynus gollum Grismer, 2007
Ingerophrynus kumquat (Das and Lim, 2001)
Ingerophrynus ledongensis (Fei, Ye, and Huang, 2009)
Ingerophrynus macrotis (Boulenger, 1887) Big-eared toad
Ingerophrynus parvus (Boulenger, 1887) Lesser Malacca toad
Ingerophrynus philippinicus (Boulenger, 1887) Philippine toad
Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus (Boulenger, 1887) Greater Malacca toad


  1. ^ a b c d Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A.; Haddad, C. L. F. B.; De Sá, R. O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Donnellan, S. C.; Raxworthy, C. J.; Campbell, J. A.; Blotto, B. L.; Moler, P.; Drewes, R. C.; Nussbaum, R. A.; Lynch, J. D.; Green, D. M. & Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "The amphibian tree of life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/5781.
  2. ^ a b c d Frost, Darrel R. (2018). "Ingerophrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b Grismer, L. Lee (2007). "A new species of Ingerophrynus (Anura: Bufonidae) from a lowland rain forest in southern peninsular Malaysia". Journal of Herpetology. 41 (2): 225–230. doi:10.1670/0022-1511(2007)41[225:ansoia];2. JSTOR 4498578.
  5. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael & Grayson, Michael (2013). The Eponym Dictionary of Amphibians. Pelagic Publishing. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-1-907807-42-8.