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Bufo is a genus of true toads in the amphibian family Bufonidae.

Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Bufo
Garsault, 1764

See text.


True toads have in common stocky figures and short legs, which make them relatively poor jumpers. Their dry skin is thick and "warty".

Behind their eyes, Bufo species have wart-like structures, the parotoid glands. These glands distinguish the true toads from all other tailless amphibians. They secrete a fatty, white poisonous substance which acts as a deterrent to predators. Contrary to folk belief, handling toads does not cause warts, however due to the poison they secrete, and bacteria on their skins, a person should wash their hands thoroughly after handling one.[1] The poison of most if not all toads contains bufotoxin.

Toads can also inflate their bodies when threatened. Males are usually smaller than females and possess a Bidder's organ, an incomplete ovary. The adult male of many species shows a dark throat. Breeding males have dark nuptial pads on their thumbs.[2]


This is a truly cosmopolitan genus, able to live under adverse conditions, and occurring around the world except in the Arctic and Antarctic, Madagascar, Australia (with the exception of the introduced cane toad), and New Guinea and Oceania.


Formerly, the genus Bufo encompassed many species and was divided into several subgenera. Frost et al. (2006) removed most of the species of former Bufo to other genera and restricted the name Bufo to members of the Bufo bufo group of earlier authors.[3] Now, this genus has been reduced to seventeen extant species:[4]

Binomial name and author Common name
Bufo ailaoanus Kou, 1984 Ejia toad, Ailao toad
Bufo aspinius (Yang, Liu, and Rao, 1996)
Bufo bankorensis Barbour, 1908 Central Formosa toad, Bankor toad
Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) Common toad, European toad
Bufo cryptotympanicus Liu & Hu, 1962 Earless toad
Bufo eichwaldi Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008 Eichwald's toad
Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842 Chusan Island toad, Asiatic toad
Bufo japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, 1838 Japanese toad
Bufo linquensis Yang, 1977
Bufo luchunnicus (Yang and Rao, 2008) Luchun stream toad
Bufo menglianus (Yang, 2008) Menglian stream toad
Bufo pageoti Bourret, 1937 Tonkin toad
Bufo spinosus Daudin, 1803 Spiny toad
Bufo stejnegeri Schmidt, 1931 Stejneger's toad, Korean toad, Water toad
Bufo torrenticola Matsui, 1976 Honshū toad, Japanese stream toad
Bufo tuberculatus Zarevskij, 1926 Qinghai Lake toad, Round-warted toad
Bufo tuberospinius (Yang, Liu, and Rao, 1996)
Bufo verrucosissimus (Pallas, 1814) Caucasian toad


  1. ^ Penn State University - How safe is it to hold frogs and toads?
  2. ^ Conant, Roger. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin. Boston.
  3. ^ Pauly et al., (2009). Herpetologica 65:115-128.
  4. ^ "Bufo Garsault, 1764 | Amphibian Species of the World". Retrieved 2019-10-27.


  • - Bufo
  • Blair (ed.), 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo.
  • Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World
  • Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A.; Haddad, C. L. F. B.; De Sá, R. O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Donnellan, S. C.; Raxworthy, C. J.; Campbell, J. A.; Blotto, B. L.; Moler, P.; Drewes, R. C.; Nussbaum, R. A.; Lynch, J. D.; Green, D. M.; Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "The Amphibian Tree of Life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/5781.
  • Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, and D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58: 2517–2535.
  • Pauly, Greg B., Hillis, David M. & Cannatella, David C. (2009): Taxonomic freedom and the role of official lists of species names. Herpetologica 65: 115-128. PDF full-text