Imbolc or Imbolg (Irish pronunciation: [ɪˈmˠɔlˠɡ]), also called Saint Brigid's Day (Irish: Lá Fhéile Bríde; Scottish Gaelic: Là Fhèill Brìghde; Manx: Laa'l Breeshey), is a Gaelic traditional festival. It marks the beginning of spring, and for Christians (especially in Ireland) it is the feast day of Saint Brigid. It is held on 1 February, which is about halfway between the winter solstice and the spring equinox.[1][2] Historically, its traditions were widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. It is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals—along with Bealtaine, Lughnasadh and Samhain.[3]

Imbolc / St Brigid's Day
Also calledLá Fhéile Bríde  (Irish)
Là Fhèill Brìghde  (Scottish Gaelic)
Laa'l Breeshey  (Manx)
Observed byHistorically: Gaels
Today: Irish people, Scottish people, Manx people, Celtic neopagans and Wiccans
Pagan (Celtic polytheism, Celtic neopaganism, Wicca)
Significancebeginning of spring, feast day of Saint Brigid
Celebrationsfeasting, making Brigid's crosses and Brídeógs, visiting holy wells, divination, spring cleaning
Date1 February
(or 1 August for Neopagans in the S. Hemisphere)
Related toGŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau, Candlemas, Groundhog Day

Imbolc is mentioned in early Irish literature, and there is evidence suggesting it was also an important date in ancient times. It is believed that Imbolc was originally a pagan festival associated with the goddess Brigid, and that it was Christianized as the feast day of Saint Brigid, who could be a Christianization of the goddess.[4] The festivities on the feast of Saint Brigid did not begin to be recorded in detail until the early modern era. In recent centuries this day was marked making of Brigid's crosses and a doll-like figure of Brigid (a Brídeóg) would be paraded from house-to-house by girls, sometimes accompanied by 'strawboys'. Brigid was said to visit one's home on the eve of the festival. To receive her blessings, people would make a bed for Brigid and leave her food and drink, and items of clothing would be left outside for her to bless. Brigid was also evoked to protect homes and livestock. Special feasts were had, holy wells were visited, and it was a time for divination.

Although many of its customs died out in the 20th century, it is still observed by Christians and non-Christians in its Christian and neo-pagan forms respectively, and its customs have been revived in some places. Since the latter 20th century, Celtic neopagans and Wiccans have observed Imbolc as a religious holiday.[1][2]

Origins and EtymologyEdit

Scholars such as historian Ronald Hutton argue that the festival must have pre-Christian origins.[5] Some scholars argue that the date of Imbolc was significant in Ireland since the Neolithic period.[6] A few passage tombs in Ireland are aligned with the sunrise around the times of Imbolc and Samhain. This includes the Mound of the Hostages on the Hill of Tara,[7][8] and Cairn L at Slieve na Calliagh.[9] Frank Prendergast argues that this alignment is so rare that it is rather a product of chance.[10]

The etymology of Imbolc/Imbolg is unclear. The most common explanation is that it comes from the Old Irish i mbolc (Modern Irish: i mbolg), meaning 'in the belly', and refers to the pregnancy of ewes at this time of year.[11] Joseph Vendryes linked it to the Old Irish verb folcaim, 'to wash/cleanse oneself'. He suggested that it referred to a ritual cleansing, similar to the ancient Roman festival Februa or Lupercalia, which took place at the same time of year.[12][13] Eric P. Hamp derives it from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning both 'milk' and 'cleansing'.[14] Professor Alan Ward derives it from the Proto-Celtic *embibolgon, 'budding'.[15] The early 10th century Cormac's Glossary has an entry for Oímelc, calling it the beginning of spring and deriving it from oí-melg ('ewe milk'), explaining it as "the time that sheep's milk comes".[16] However, linguists believe this is the writer's respelling of the word to give it an understandable etymology.[17]

The Táin Bó Cúailnge ('Cattle Raid of Cooley') indicates that Imbolc (spelt imolg) is three months after the 1 November festival of Samhain.[18] Imbolc is mentioned in another Old Irish poem about the Táin in the Metrical Dindshenchas: "iar n-imbulc, ba garb a ngeilt", which Edward Gwynn translates "after Candlemas, rough was their herding".[14] Candlemas is the Christian holy day which falls on 2 February and is known in Irish as Irish: Lá Fhéile Muire na gCoinneal, 'feast day of Mary of the Candles'.[19]

Hutton writes that Imbolc must have been "important enough for its date to be dedicated subsequently to Brigid … the Mother Saint of Ireland".[5] Cogitosus, writing in the late 7th century, first mentions a feast day of Saint Brigid being observed in Kildare on 1 February.[20] Brigid is said to have lived in the 6th century and founded the important monastery of Kildare. She became the focus of a major cult. However, historical facts about her are rare, and early hagiographies about her "are mainly anecdotes and miracle stories, some of which are deeply rooted in Irish pagan folklore".[21] It is suggested that Saint Brigid is based on Brigid, a Gaelic goddess.[22] Like the saint, the goddess is associated with wisdom, poetry, healing, protection, blacksmithing and domesticated animals, according to Cormac's Glossary and Lebor Gabála Érenn.[20][23] It is suggested that the festival, which celebrates the onset of spring, is linked with Brigid in her role as a fertility goddess.[24] According to Hutton, it could be that the goddess Brigid was already linked to Imbolc and this was continued by making it the saint's feast day. Or it could be that Imbolc's association with milk drew the saint to it, because of a legend that she had been the wet-nurse of Christ.[5]

Historic customsEdit

Imbolc/St Brigid's Day is mentioned in several early Irish manuscripts, but they say very little about its medieval rites and customs.[5] Imbolc (1 February) was treated as one of four seasonal festivals in Gaelic Ireland along with Beltane (1 May), Lughnasadh (1 August) and Samhain (1 November). The tale Tochmarc Emire, which survives in a 10th century version, names Imbolc as one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals, and says it is "when the ewes are milked at spring's beginning".[5][25] This linking of Imbolc with the arrival of lambs and sheep's milk probably reflected farming customs that ensured lambs were born before calves. In late winter/early spring, sheep could survive better than cows on the meager vegetation, and farmers sought to resume milking as soon as possible due to their dwindling stores.[12] The Hibernica Minora includes an Old Irish poem about the four seasonal festivals, translated by Kuno Meyer (1894). It says "Tasting of each food according to order, this is what is proper at Imbolc: washing the hands, the feet, the head". This suggests ritual cleansing.[12] Prominent folklorist Seán Ó Súilleabháin wrote: "The main significance of the Feast of St. Brigid would seem to be that it was a christianization of one of the focal points of the agricultural year in Ireland, the starting point of preparations for the spring sowing. Every manifestation of the cult of the saint (or of the deity she replaced) is bound up in some way with food production".[26]

From the 18th century to the mid 20th century, many accounts of the festival were recorded by folklorists and other writers. They tell us how it was celebrated then, and shed light on how it may have been celebrated in the past.[2][27]

People making Brigid's crosses at St Brigid's Well near Liscannor

The festival is traditionally observed on 1 February. However, because the day was deemed to begin and end at sunset, the celebrations and observances would begin on what is now 31 January. It has also been argued that originally the timing of the festival was more fluid and based on seasonal changes. It is associated with the onset of the lambing season[24] (which could vary by as much as two weeks before or after 1 February),[11] the beginning of preparations for the spring sowing,[26] and the blooming of blackthorn.[28] In Ireland, a spring cleaning was also customary around the time of St Brigid's Day.[29]

Holy wells were visited, as they were during the other Gaelic festivals of Beltane and Lughnasa. Visitors to holy wells would pray for health while walking 'sunwise' around the well. They would then leave offerings, typically coins or clooties (see clootie well). Water from the well was used to bless the home, family members, livestock and fields.[29][30]

Donald Alexander Mackenzie also recorded in the 19th century that offerings were made "to earth and sea". The offering could be milk poured into the ground or porridge poured into the water, as a libation.[31]

Saint BrigidEdit

Saint Brigid in a stained-glass window

As well as being a springtime festival, it is the feast day of Saint Brigid (Old Irish: Brigit, modern Irish: Bríd, modern Scottish Gaelic: Brìghde or Brìd, anglicised Bridget).

On St Brigid's Eve, Brigid was said to visit virtuous households and bless the inhabitants.[5] As Brigid represented the light half of the year, and the power that will bring people from the dark season of winter into spring, her presence was very important at this time of year.[32][33] Before going to bed, people would leave items of clothing or strips of cloth outside for Brigid to bless.[5] The clothes or strips of cloth would be brought inside, and believed to now have powers of healing and protection.[32][33]

Families would have a special meal or supper on St Brigid's Eve to mark the last night of winter.[5] This typically included food such as colcannon, sowans, dumplings, barmbrack or bannocks.[29] Often, some of the food and drink would be set aside for Brigid.[5]

Brigid would be symbolically invited into the house and a bed would often be made for her. In the north of Ireland, a family member, representing Brigid, would circle the home three times carrying rushes. They would then knock the door three times, asking to be let in. On the third attempt they are welcomed in, the meal is had, and the rushes are then made into crosses or a bed for Brigid.[34] In 18th century Mann, the custom was to stand at the door with a bundle of rushes and say "Brede, Brede, come to my house tonight. Open the door for Brede and let Brede come in". The rushes were then strewn on the floor as a carpet or bed for Brigid. In the 19th century, some old Manx women would make a bed for Brigid in the barn with food, ale, and a candle on a table.[5] The custom of making Brigid's bed was particularly common in the Hebrides of Scotland, where it was recorded as far back as the 17th century. A bed of hay or a basket-like cradle would be made for Brigid and someone would then call out three times: "a Bhríd, a Bhríd, thig a stigh as gabh do leabaidh" ("Bríd Bríd, come in; thy bed is ready").[5] A corn dolly called the dealbh Bríde (icon of Brigid) would be laid in the bed and a white wand, usually made of birch, would be laid beside it.[5] It represented the wand that Brigid was said to use to make the vegetation start growing again.[35] Ashes from the fire would be raked smooth and, in the morning, they would look for some kind of mark on the ashes as a sign that Brigid had visited.[5][36] If there was no mark, they believed bad fortune would come unless they buried a cockerel at the meeting of three streams as an offering and burned incense on their fire that night.[5] Women in some parts of the Hebrides would also dance while holding a large cloth and calling out "Bridean, Bridean, thig an nall 's dean do leabaidh" ("Bríd, Bríd, come over and make your bed").[5]

A Brigid's cross

In Ireland and Scotland, a representation of Brigid would be paraded around the community by girls and young women. Usually it was a doll-like figure known as a Brídeóg (also called a 'Breedhoge' or 'Biddy'). It would be made from rushes or reeds and clad in bits of cloth, flowers or shells.[5][36] In the Hebrides of Scotland, a bright shell or crystal called the reul-iuil Bríde (guiding star of Brigid) was set on its chest. The girls would carry it in procession while singing a hymn to Brigid. All wore white with their hair unbound as a symbol of purity and youth. They visited every house in the area, where they received either food or more decoration for the Brídeóg. Afterwards, they feasted in a house with the Brídeóg set in a place of honour, and put it to bed with lullabies. When the meal was done, the local young men humbly asked for admission, made obeisance to the Brídeóg, and joined the girls in dancing and merrymaking.[5] In many places, only unwed girls could carry the Brídeóg, but in some both boys and girls carried it.[37]

In some places, rather than carrying a Brídeóg, a girl took on the role of Brigid. Escorted by other girls, she went house-to-house wearing 'Brigid's crown' and carrying 'Brigid's shield' and 'Brigid's cross', all of which were made from rushes.[38] The procession in some places included 'strawboys', who wore conical straw hats, masks and played folk music; much like the wrenboys.[38] Up until the mid-20th century, children in Ireland still went house-to-house asking for pennies for "poor Biddy", or money for the poor. In County Kerry, men in white robes went from house to house singing.[39]

In Ireland, Brigid's crosses (pictured on the right) were made on St Brigid's Day. A Brigid's cross usually consists of rushes woven into a four-armed equilateral cross, although there were also three-armed crosses.[40][41] They were often hung over doors, windows and stables to welcome Brigid and for protection against fire, lightning, illness and evil spirits.[38] The crosses were generally left there until the next St Brigid's Day.[5] In western Connacht, people would make a Crios Bríde (Bríd's girdle); a great ring of rushes with a cross woven in the middle. Young boys would carry it around the village, inviting people to step through it and so be blessed.[5]

Today, some people still make Brigid's crosses and Brídeógs or visit holy wells dedicated to St Brigid on 1 February.[42] Brigid's Day parades have been revived in the town of Killorglin, County Kerry, which holds a yearly "Biddy's Day Festival". Men and women wearing elaborate straw hats and masks visit public houses carrying a Brídeóg to bring good luck for the coming year. They play folk music, dance and sing. The highlight of this festival is a torchlight parade through the town followed by a song and dance contest.[43]

Weather divinationEdit

Snowdrops in the snow

The festival was traditionally a time of weather divination, and the old tradition of watching to see if serpents or badgers came from their winter dens may be a forerunner of the North American Groundhog Day. A Scottish Gaelic proverb about the day is:

Thig an nathair as an toll
Là donn Brìde,
Ged robh trì troighean dhen t-sneachd
Air leac an làir.

The serpent will come from the hole
On the brown Day of Bríde,
Though there should be three feet of snow
On the flat surface of the ground.[44]

Imbolc was believed to be when the Cailleach—the divine hag of Gaelic tradition—gathers her firewood for the rest of the winter. Legend has it that if she wishes to make the winter last a good while longer, she will make sure the weather on Imbolc is bright and sunny, so she can gather plenty of firewood. Therefore, people would be relieved if Imbolc is a day of foul weather, as it means the Cailleach is asleep and winter is almost over.[45] At Imbolc on the Isle of Man, where she is known as Caillagh ny Groamagh, the Cailleach is said to take the form of a gigantic bird carrying sticks in her beak.[45]


Imbolc celebration in Marsden, West Yorkshire, February 2007

Imbolc or Imbolc-based festivals are held by some Neopagans. As there are many kinds of Neopaganism, their Imbolc celebrations can be very different despite the shared name. Some try to emulate the historic festival as much as possible. Other Neopagans base their celebrations on many sources, with historic accounts of Imbolc being only one of them.[46][47]

Neopagans usually celebrate Imbolc on 1 February in the Northern Hemisphere and 1 August in the Southern Hemisphere.[48][49][50][51] Some Neopagans celebrate it at the astronomical midpoint between the winter solstice and spring equinox (or the full moon nearest this point). In the Northern Hemisphere, this is usually on 3 or 4 February.[52] Other Neopagans celebrate Imbolc when the primroses, dandelions, and other spring flowers emerge.[53]

Celtic ReconstructionistEdit

Celtic Reconstructionists strive to reconstruct the pre-Christian religions of the Celts. Their religious practices are based on research and historical accounts,[54][55] but may be modified slightly to suit modern life. They avoid syncretism (i.e. combining practises from different cultures). They usually celebrate the festival when the first stirrings of spring are felt, or on the full moon nearest this. Many use traditional songs and rites from sources such as The Silver Bough and The Carmina Gadelica. It is a time of honouring the Goddess Brigid, and many of her dedicants choose this time of year for rituals to her.[54][55]

Wicca and Neo-DruidryEdit

Wiccans and Neo-Druids celebrate Imbolc as one of the eight Sabbats in their Wheel of the Year, following Midwinter and preceding Ostara. In Wicca, Imbolc is commonly associated with the goddess Brigid and as such it is sometimes seen as a "women's holiday" with specific rites only for female members of a coven.[56] Among Dianic Wiccans, Imbolc is the traditional time for initiations.[57]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 p. 38
  2. ^ a b c McNeill, F. Marian (1959, 1961) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1–4. William MacLellan, Glasgow; Vol. 2, pp. 11–42
  3. ^ Cunliffe, Barry (1997). The Ancient Celts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Page 188-190.
  4. ^ Berger, Pamela (1985). The Goddess Obscured: Transformation of the Grain Protectress from Goddess to Saint. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 70–73. ISBN 9780807067239.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Hutton, Ronald (1996). Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–138. ISBN 9780198205708.
  6. ^ "Imbolc". Newgrange UNESCO World Heritage website. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  7. ^ photo of Samhain sunrise at the Mound of Hostages "The Stone Age Mound of the Hostages is also aligned with the Samhain sun rise." The sun rises from the same angle on Imbolc.
  8. ^ Murphy, Anthony. "Mythical Ireland – Ancient Sites – The Hill of Tara – Teamhair". Mythical Ireland – New light on the ancient past. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  9. ^ Brennan, Martin. The Stones of Time: Calendars, Sundials, and Stone Chambers of Ancient Ireland. Inner Traditions, 1994. pp. 110–11
  10. ^ Prendergast, Frank (2021). Gunzburg, Darrelyn (ed.). The Archaeology of Height: Cultural Meaning in the Relativity of Irish Megalithic Tomb Siting. London, New York, Oxford, New Delhi, Sydne: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 13–42.
  11. ^ a b Chadwick, Nora K. (1970). The Celts. Harmondsworth: Penguin. p. 181. ISBN 0-14-021211-6.
  12. ^ a b c Patterson, Nerys. Cattle Lords and Clansmen: The Social Structure of Early Ireland. University of Notre Dame Pess, 1994. p.129
  13. ^ Wright, Brian. Brigid: Goddess, Druidess and Saint. The History Press, 2011. p. 83
  14. ^ a b Hamp, Eric (1979–80). "Imbolc, Óimelc". Studia Celtica (14/15): 106–113.
  15. ^ Ward, Alan (2011). The Myths of the Gods: Structures in Irish Mythology. p. 15. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017 – via CreateSpace.
  16. ^ Meyer, Kuno, Sanas Cormaic: an Old-Irish Glossary compiled by Cormac úa Cuilennáin, King-Bishop of Cashel in the ninth century (1912).
  17. ^ Kelly, Fergus. Early Irish Farming: A Study Based Mainly on the Law-texts of the 7th and 8th Centuries AD. School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1997. p.460
  18. ^ Ó Cathasaigh, Tomás (1993). "Mythology in Táin Bó Cúailnge", in Studien zur Táin Bó Cúailnge, p.123
  19. ^ MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 270. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
  20. ^ a b Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. pp.60–61
  21. ^ Farmer, David. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Fifth Edition, Revised). Oxford University Press, 2011. p.66
  22. ^ MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-19-280120-1.
  23. ^ Wright, Brian. Brigid: Goddess, Druidess and Saint. The History Press, 2011. pp.26–27
  24. ^ a b Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. 2006. p. 287.
  25. ^ unknown. "The Wooing of Emer by Cú Chulainn". Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition.
  26. ^ a b Danaher (1972), The Year in Ireland, p.13
  27. ^ Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp. 200–229
  28. ^ Aveni, Anthony F. (2004). The Book of the Year: A Brief History of Our Seasonal Holidays. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 38. ISBN 0-19-517154-3.
  29. ^ a b c Danaher, The Year in Ireland, p. 15.
  30. ^ Monaghan, p. 41.
  31. ^ Mackenzie, Donald. Wonder Tales from Scottish Myth and Legend (1917). p. 19.
  32. ^ a b McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1,2,4. William MacLellan, Glasgow
  33. ^ a b "Carmina Gadelica Vol. 1: II. Aimsire: Seasons: 70 (notes). Genealogy of Bride. Sloinntireachd Bhride". Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  34. ^ Danaher, The Year in Ireland, pp. 20–21, 97–98
  35. ^ Carmichael, Carmina Gadelica, p. 582
  36. ^ a b Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing, 2004. p. 256.
  37. ^ Monaghan, p. 58.
  38. ^ a b c Danaher, The Year in Ireland, pp.22–25
  39. ^ Monaghan, p. 44.
  40. ^ Ó Duinn, Seán (2005). The Rites of Brigid: Goddess and Saint. Dublin: Columba Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-1856074834.
  41. ^ Evans, Emyr Estyn. Irish Folk Ways, 1957. p. 268
  42. ^ Monaghan, p. 60.
  43. ^ "Home". Biddy's Day. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  44. ^ Carmichael, Alexander (1900) Carmina Gadelica: Hymns and Incantations, Ortha Nan Gaidheal, Volume I, p. 169 The Sacred Texts Archive
  45. ^ a b Briggs, Katharine (1976) An Encyclopedia of Fairies. New York, Pantheon Books., pp. 57–60
  46. ^ Adler, Margot (1979) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. p. 3
  47. ^ McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. p. 51
  48. ^ Nevill Drury (2009). "The Modern Magical Revival: Esbats and Sabbats". In Pizza, Murphy; Lewis, James R (eds.). Handbook of Contemporary Paganism. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. pp. 63–67. ISBN 9789004163737.
  49. ^ Hume, Lynne (1997). Witchcraft and Paganism in Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 9780522847826.
  50. ^ Vos, Donna (2002). Dancing Under an African Moon: Paganism and Wicca in South Africa. Cape Town: Zebra Press. pp. 79–86. ISBN 9781868726530.
  51. ^ Bodsworth, Roxanne T (2003). Sunwyse: Celebrating the Sacred Wheel of the Year in Australia. Victoria, Australia: Hihorse Publishing. ISBN 9780909223038.
  52. ^ " explains the reason we have seasons". Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  53. ^ Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. pp. 184–5
  54. ^ a b McColman, Carl (2003) p. 12
  55. ^ a b Bonewits (2006) pp. 130–7
  56. ^ Gallagher, Ann-Marie (2005). The Wicca Bible: The Definitive Guide to Magic and the Craft. London: Godsfield Press. Page 63.
  57. ^ Budapest, Zsuzsanna (1980) The Holy Book of Women's Mysteries ISBN 0-914728-67-9

Further readingEdit

  • Carmichael, Alexander (1992) Carmina Gadelica: Hymns and Incantations (with illustrative notes on wards, rites, and customs dying and obsolete/ orally collected in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland) Hudson, NY, Lindisfarne Press, ISBN 0-940262-50-9
  • Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6
  • Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland. Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2
  • McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1–4. William MacLellan, Glasgow
  • Ó Catháin, Séamas (1995) Festival of Brigit

External linksEdit

Modern eventsEdit