Ibri (Arabic: عِبْرِي, romanized: ʿIbrī) is a city and Wilāyat (Province) in the Ad Dhahirah Governorate, in northwest Oman.
|Coordinates: 23°14′11″N 56°30′16″E / 23.23639°N 56.50444°E|
|Time zone||UTC+4 (Oman Standard Time)|
Ibri Province (Wilayat Ibri) is distinguished by archaeological landmarks including forts, castles, and towers. In 1979 the largest metal hoard in the ancient Near East came to light in ʿIbri-Selme. Also, there are the remains of the town of Bat, which is the second archaeological site to be classified by UNESCO on the list of world heritage and culture sites, after the Bahla Fort in the A’Dakhliya district. The protohistoric archaeological complex of Bat, al-Khutm and al-Ayn represents one of the most complete and well-preserved ensembles of settlements and necropolises from the 3rd millennium BCE worldwide. The core site is a part of the modern village of Bat, in the Wadi Sharsah approximately 24 km (15 mi) east of the city of Ibri, in the Al-Dhahira Governorate of north-western Oman. Further extensions of the site of Bat are represented by the monumental tower at al-Khutm and by the necropolis at Al-Ayn. Together, monumental towers, rural settlements, irrigation systems for agriculture, and necropolises embedded in a fossilized Bronze Age landscape, form a unique example of cultural relics in an exceptional state of preservation.
Seven monumental stone towers have been discovered at Bat and one is located in Al-Khutm, 2 km (1.2 mi) west of Bat. The towers feature a circular outer wall about 20–25 m (66–82 ft) in diameter, and two rows of parallel compartments on either side of a central well. The earliest known tower at Bat is the mud-brick Hafit period structure underneath the Early Umm An-Nar stone tower at Matariya. The latest known tower is probably Kasr al-Rojoom, which can be ceramically dated to the Late Umm an-Nar period (ca. 2200–2000). All of the stone-built towers show dressed blocks of local limestone laid carefully with simple mud mortar. While conclusive evidence of their function is still missing, they seem to be platforms on which superstructures (now missing) were built – either houses, or temples, or something else entirely. The vast necropolis at Bat includes different clusters of monumental tombs that can be divided into two distinct groups. The first group is Hafit-period "beehive" tombs located on the top of the rocky slopes surrounding Bat, while the second group extends over a river terrace and includes more than a hundred dry-stone cairn tombs. Another important group of beehive tombs is located at Qubur Juhhal at Al-Ayn, 22 km (14 mi) east-southeast of Bat. Most of these tombs are small, single-chambered, round tombs with dry masonry walls dating to the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE. Others are more elaborate, bigger, multi-chambered tombs from the second half of the 3rd millennium BCE. As in many other ancient civilizations, monuments in ancient Oman were usually built with regularly cut stones. Unique of Bat and Al-Ayn are the remains the ancient quarries from which the building materials were mined, and the many workshops that attest to the complete operational procedure, from the quarries, to the stone-masonry, to the buildings construction techniques. The continuous and systematic survey activities constantly increase the types and number of monuments and sites to be documented and protected, which include villages and multiple towers, quarries associated with the Bronze Age stone-masonry workshops, Bronze Age necropolises, an Iron Age fort, Iron Age tombs, and two Neolithic flint mines connected with workshop areas for stone tool-making.
Ibri is characterized by a hot desert climate (Köppen-Geiger climate classification BWh). The average annual temperature is 26.2 °C (79.2 °F), and about 78 mm (3.07 in) of precipitation falls annually. Most of the rainfall occurs in winter.
|Climate data for Ibri|
|Average high °C (°F)||24.6
|Average low °C (°F)||13.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||4
|Source: Climate-Data.org,Climate data|
Historically, Ibri was known for its market and for fruit.
Ibri is currently a center for marble quarrying. In 2022, a landslide killed 10 quarry workers in the Al Aridh area of Ibri.
The Ibri area is also home to the Ibri 2 Solar Power Plant, a 500-megawatt solar farm that is Oman's largest renewable energy project. Completed in 2022 by a consortium of companies from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Gulf states, the project is expected to power 33,000 homes. The plant consists of 1.4 million solar panels and covers an area of 13 million square meters.
There are many government primary and secondary schools in the wilayah plus some private primary schools and one Indian school. In terms of higher education, there is the Ibri College of Technology and a College of Applied Sciences. In addition to this, there are many institutes offering various courses.
The United States Department of State-funded Critical Language Scholarship Program offers Arabic-language training in Ibri, through the Noor Majan Training Institute.
Ibri was one of three locations in Ad Dhahirah Governorate to host the first Al Dhahirah International Film Festival, in October 2022.
Ibri is connected by road to the UAE city of Al-Ain, via the Mezyad border post near Jebel Hafeet. This road also goes through the Wilayat of Dhank and to Nizwa.
- Biladhi Shuhoom
- Railway stations in Oman - planned 2015
- ^ "Population - DATA PORTAL". National Centre for Statistics & Information. Retrieved 2021-10-15.
- ^ a b Christopher P. Thornton; Charlotte M. Cable; Gregory L. Possehl (2016). The Bronze Age Towers at Bat, Sultanate of Oman. University of Pennsylvania Press, Inc. pp. i–vi. doi:10.2307/j.ctv2t4ct6.1. ISBN 978-1-9345-3607-0.
- ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 104.
- ^ "Oman's Ibri quarry mishap toll rises to 10". Oman Daily Observer. March 31, 2022. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- ^ Prabhu, Conrad (January 24, 2022). "Ibri 2 Solar Plant officially launched today". Oman Observer. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- ^ Ibrict
- ^ CAS
- ^ "Ibri, Oman". Critical Language Scholarship. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- ^ "Al Dhahirah International Film Festival kicks off". Arabian Daily. October 24, 2022. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- ^ Kazmi, Aftab (2013-05-23). "Mezyad Fort stands tall in the foothills of Jebel Hafeet". Gulf News. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- P. Yule–G. Weisgerber (2001), The Metal Hoard from ʿIbrī/Selme, Sultanate of Oman. Präh. Bronzefunde XX.7, Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-515-07153-6
- P. Yule–G. Weisgerber (2015), Al-Wāsiṭ Tomb W1 and other Sites, Materials for a Definition of the Second Half of the 2nd Millennium BCE, Der Anschnitt, Yule, 2015, 25, ISBN 978-3-86757-009-1
- Magazine Article on Ibri