Nizwa (Arabic: نِزْوَى, romanizedNizwā) is the largest city in Ad Dakhiliyah Region in Oman and was the capital of Oman proper. Nizwa is about 140 km (87 mi) (1.5 hours) from Muscat. The population is estimated at around 72,000 people, including the two areas of Burkat Al Mooz and Al-Jabel Al-Akhdar.

Nizwa in March 2008
Nizwa in March 2008
Nizwa is located in Oman
Location of Nizwa in Oman
Coordinates: 22°56′N 57°32′E / 22.933°N 57.533°E / 22.933; 57.533Coordinates: 22°56′N 57°32′E / 22.933°N 57.533°E / 22.933; 57.533
Country Oman
RegionAd Dakhiliyah Region
 • TypeAbsolute monarchy
 • SultanHaitham bin Tariq Al Said
 • Metro
3,500 km2 (1,400 sq mi)
492 m (1,614 ft)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+4 (Oman standard time)

Nizwa is one of the oldest cities in Oman and it was once a center of trade, religion, education and art. Its Jama (grand mosque) was formerly a center for Islamic learning. Nizwa acquired its importance because it has been an important meeting point at the base of the Western Hajar Mountains. Set amid a verdant spread of date palms, it is strategically located at the crossroads of routes linking the interior with Muscat and the lower reaches of Dhofar thus serving as the link for a large part of the country. Today, Nizwa is a diverse prosperous place with numerous agricultural, historical and recreational aspects. Nizwa is a center for date growing and is the market place for the area.


Historians cannot agree on the origins of the name of the city. Some suggest the name was derived from the Arabic verb (Arabic: انزوا) which means being alone. Others say that the city was named after an old water spring.


British RAF Venom attacking Nizwa Fort during Jebel Akhdar War

Nizwa was the capital of Oman in the 6th and 7th centuries AD. With its deep connection to the root of Islam, Nizwa possesses a number of renowned mosques, such as Sultan Qaboos Jama (Friday mosque), So'al Mosque built in the 2nd century AH (9th century AD), Ash-Shawathinah Mosque in Uqr and Ash-Sharja Mosque. There are also Al-Ain Mosque, Ash-Sheikh Mosque and Shuraij Mosque in Tanuf built in 377 AH (around 1000 AD).

Ibn Battuta visited, noting it as "a city at the foot of a mountain, enveloped by orchards and streams, and with fine bazaars and splendid clean mosques."[1]

In the early 1950s, the large round tower of the ancient fort built in the center of the town was bombed and rocketed by the British Royal Air Force, who were called in to assist the then-reigning Sultan Said bin Taymour in suppressing a revolt by leaders of the interior Imamate of Oman. The conflict was driven by a struggle for shares in Oman's newly discovered oil wealth.

Nizwa has become a more modern city since 1970 under the reign of Sultan Qaboos. Improvements include connections to Muscat via a two-lane highway, which has increased tourism. Communications have been improved to include broadband access, and the city is home to a substantial hospital. It is also a hub for education including a Technical College, College of Applied Sciences, The University of Nizwa, and the training academy for the Royal Oman Police. There are now many hotels and tourism is promoted in the area.

Geography and climateEdit

Mountains surround Nizwa from every side and there are some outstanding mountain scenery close by. Nizwa has an arid climate under Köppen's climate classification. In the winter from November until March the climate is pleasant with temperatures as low as 12 C in January. In the summer, the climate is hot and dry with temperatures reaching 45 C in July.

Climate data for Nizwa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26.2
Average low °C (°F) 12.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.7
Source: World Meteorological Organization (temperature and rainfall 1999–2009)[2]


The main tourist attractions in the city are Nizwa Fort, the traditional Souq and Falaj Daris. In the 1990s, the Jama, the fort and the souq which sit next to each other in the centre were renovated using the same traditional materials. In 1993 Nizwa won the award of 'Organisation of Arab Cities'.

Nizwa FortEdit

Nizwa's fort

Nizwa fort was built in the 1668 AD by Imam Sultan Bin Saif Al Ya'rubi. It is Oman's most visited national monument. The fort was the administrative seat of authority for the presiding Imams and Walis in times of peace and conflict. The main bulk of the fort took about 12 years to complete and was built above an underground stream. The fort is a reminder of the town's significance through turbulent periods in Oman's long history. It was a formidable stronghold against raiding forces that desired Nizwa's abundant natural wealth and its strategic location at the crossroads of vital routes.

Nizwa SouqEdit

Nizwa souk

The city, famous for its handicrafts and agricultural products, has an expansive souq with an array of products. It is one of the most important in the country besides Muttrah. The souq bustles with vendors selling everything from meat, fish, fruits and vegetables to spices, dates, gold and silverware. Nizwa is renowned for its silver jewelry which is considered to be the best in the country. Its people are masters in Khanjar making (curved dagger), recognised for its distinctive style and patterns. They also make copper ware, coffee pots, swords, leather goods and pottery.

Nizwa fort

Falaj DarisEdit

Falaj Daris (a World Heritage Site) is the largest falaj in Oman and is the life maintainer of Nizwa. It provides the surrounding countryside with much needed water for the plantations. Al Ghantuq and Dhoot are two other important falajs in Nizwa. Farming is widely practiced and the town's immense palm farms stretches for eight kilometers along the course of two wadis (Kalbouh and Al Abiad). Also in practice are red sugar processing and hide tanning.


Historically, Nizwa was known for producing mats from straw. As of 1920, the city was described as having a "thriving" metalworking industry.[3]



A short drive from Nizwa centre is the old village of Tanuf, known for its seasonal waterfalls. Waterfalls in Tanuf are unique to the area within the steep mountain sides and the water reservoir.[citation needed]

Nizwa is connected to the UAE city of Al Ain by road, via the Mezyad border post. This road also goes past the Provinces of Ibri and Dhank.[5]

People from NizwaEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. p. 98. ISBN 9780330418799.
  2. ^ "Climatological Information – Nizwa". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  3. ^ Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 99.
  4. ^ "ISN, Welcome to Indian School Nizwa, CBSE School, Sultanate of Oman". Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  5. ^ Kazmi, Aftab (23 May 2013). "Mezyad Fort stands tall in the foothills of Jebel Hafeet". Gulf News. Retrieved 4 March 2019.