Open main menu

Ian Avrum Goldberg (born March 31, 1973) is a cryptographer and cypherpunk. He is best known for breaking Netscape's implementation of SSL (with David Wagner),[1] and for his role as chief scientist of Radialpoint (formerly Zero Knowledge Systems), a Canadian software company. Goldberg is currently a professor at the School of Computer Science, University of Waterloo. He was formerly Tor Project board of directors chairman,[2] and is one of the designers of off the record messaging.[3]

Ian Avrum Goldberg
Portrait of Ian Avrum Goldberg
Born (1973-03-31) March 31, 1973 (age 45)
Alma materUniversity of California, Berkeley
University of Waterloo
Known forOff-the-Record Messaging
Scientific career
FieldsComputer Science
Doctoral advisorEric Brewer



He attended high school at the University of Toronto Schools, graduating in 1991. In 1995, he received a B.Math from the University of Waterloo in pure mathematics and computer science. He obtained a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in December 2000. His thesis was entitled A Pseudonymous Communications Infrastructure for the Internet.[4][5][6] His advisor was Eric Brewer.


As a high school student, Goldberg was a member of Canada's team to the International Math Olympiad from 1989 to 1991, where he received a bronze, silver, and gold medal respectively.[7] He was also a member of University of Waterloo team that won the ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest in 1994.[8] In 1998, Wired Magazine chose him as a member of the "Wired 25".[9] In 2011 he won the EFF Pioneer Award.[10]

Work in cryptographyEdit

In 1995, Goldberg with David Wagner discovered a flaw in the random number generator used for temporary key generation in the SSL implementation of Netscape Navigator.[1][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

One of the first cryptanalyses on the WEP wireless encryption protocol was conducted by Goldberg with Nikita Borisov and David Wagner, revealing serious flaws in its design.[19][20]

Goldberg was a co-author of the Off-the-Record instant messaging encryption protocol. He is also the author of the Perl script included in the novel Cryptonomicon by Neal Stephenson.[21]

In 2009 Goldberg was co-author of the Sphinx Mix Format [22] which is nowadays implemented with the extension of a per hop payload to increase the privacy of payer and payee while routing Bitcoin payments through the Lightning Network.[23]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ian Goldberg (1995-09-18). "Netscape SSL implementation cracked!". Newsgrouphks.lists.cypherpunks. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  2. ^ "Tor Project, a Digital Privacy Group, Reboots With New Board". Retrieved 2016-07-13.
  3. ^ "Tor Project Board of Directors". Tor Project. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  4. ^ "Dr. Ian's PhD Thesis". 30 October 2001.
  5. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 30 October 2001.
  6. ^ Ian Avrum Goldberg (2000-12-21). "A Pseudonymous Communications Infrastructure for the Internet" (PDF).
  7. ^ "International Mathematical Olympiad: Hall of fame".
  8. ^ "1993-94 18th Annual ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest Final Report". 2002-04-01. Archived from the original on 2011-01-02.
  9. ^ "The Wired 25". Wired. 6 (11). November 1998. Retrieved 2006-10-30.
  10. ^ "EFF Celebrates the 2011 Pioneer Award Winners". Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  11. ^ "The Cypherpunks Who Cracked Netscape".
  12. ^ "Security Flaw Is Discovered In Software Used in Shopping".
  13. ^ "Discovery of Internet Flaws Is Setback for On-Line Trade".
  14. ^ "Cypherpunks".
  15. ^ "The New Watchdogs of Digital Commerce".
  16. ^ "Good thing we're not 'bad guys,' say code-cracking grad students".
  17. ^ "The up and comers".
  18. ^ "Net scoop".
  19. ^ Nikita Borisov; Ian Goldberg; David Wagner (2001). "Intercepting Mobile Communications: The Insecurity of 802.11" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  20. ^ "(In)Security of the WEP algorithm".
  21. ^ Neal Stephenson (1999). Cryptonomicon. New York: Avon Books. p. Acknowledgements. ISBN 978-0-380-97346-0.
  22. ^ "Sphinx: A Compact and Provably Secure Mix Format" (PDF).
  23. ^ "Basics Of Lightning Technology #4: Onion Routing Protocol".

External linksEdit