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Hypnotherapy is type of complementary and alternative medicine in which the imagination is used in an attempt to help with a variety problems, such as breaking bad habits or coping with stress.[1]

Hypnotherapy
Alternative therapy
Benefits Placebo
ICD-10-PCS GZF
ICD-9-CM 94.32

It is used for a wide variety of applications, and studies into its efficacy are often of poor quality[2] which makes it difficult to determine efficacy. Several recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the literature on various conditions have concluded that the efficacy of hypnotherapy is "not verified",[3] that there is no evidence[4][5] or insufficient evidence[6][7] for efficacy.

Contents

DefinitionEdit

The Federal Dictionary of Occupational Titles describes the job of the hypnotherapist: "Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns: Consults with client to determine nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic state by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client, using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client's problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning. GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77"[8]

Traditional hypnotherapyEdit

The form of hypnotherapy practiced by most Victorian hypnotists, including James Braid and Hippolyte Bernheim, mainly employed direct suggestion of symptom removal, with some use of therapeutic relaxation and occasionally aversion to alcohol, drugs, etc.[9]

Ericksonian hypnotherapyEdit

In the 1950s, Milton H. Erickson developed a radically different approach to hypnotism, which has subsequently become known as "Ericksonian hypnotherapy" or "Neo-Ericksonian hypnotherapy." Erickson made use of an informal conversational approach with many clients and complex language patterns, and therapeutic strategies. This divergence from tradition led some of his colleagues, including Andre Weitzenhoffer, to dispute whether Erickson was right to label his approach "hypnosis" at all.[10]

The founders of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), a methodology similar in some regards to hypnotism, claimed that they had modelled the work of Erickson extensively and assimilated it into their approach.[11][12] Weitzenhoffer disputed whether NLP bears any genuine resemblance to Erickson's work.[10]

Solution focused hypnotherapyEdit

In the 2000s, hypnotherapists began to combine aspects of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) with Ericksonian hypnotherapy to produce therapy that was goal focused (what the client wanted to achieve) rather than the more traditional problem focused approach (spending time discussing the issues that brought the client to seek help). A solution-focused hypnotherapy session may include techniques from NLP.[13]

Cognitive/behavioral hypnotherapyEdit

Cognitive behavioural hypnotherapy (CBH) is an integrated psychological therapy employing clinical hypnosis and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).[14] The use of CBT in conjunction with hypnotherapy may result in greater treatment effectiveness. A meta-analysis of eight different researches revealed "a 70% greater improvement" for patients undergoing an integrated treatment to those using CBT only.[15]

In 1974, Theodore X. Barber and his colleagues published a review of the research which argued, following the earlier social psychology of Theodore R. Sarbin, that hypnotism was better understood not as a "special state" but as the result of normal psychological variables, such as active imagination, expectation, appropriate attitudes, and motivation.[16] Barber introduced the term "cognitive-behavioral" to describe the nonstate theory of hypnotism, and discussed its application to behavior therapy.

The growing application of cognitive and behavioral psychological theories and concepts to the explanation of hypnosis paved the way for a closer integration of hypnotherapy with various cognitive and behavioral therapies.[17]

Many cognitive and behavioral therapies were themselves originally influenced by older hypnotherapy techniques,[18] e.g., the systematic desensitisation of Joseph Wolpe, the cardinal technique of early behavior therapy, was originally called "hypnotic desensitisation"[19] and derived from the Medical Hypnosis (1948) of Lewis Wolberg.[20]

Curative hypnotherapyEdit

David Lesser[21] (1928 - 2001) was the originator of what we today understand by the term Curative Hypnotherapy.[22] It was he who first saw the possibility of finding the causes of people’s symptoms by using a combination of hypnosis, IMR and a method of specific questioning that he began to explore. Rather than try to override the subconscious information as Janet had done, he realised the necessity- and developed the process- to correct the wrong information. Lesser’s understanding of the logicality and simplicity of the subconscious led to the creation of the methodical treatment used today and it is his innovative work and understanding that underpins the therapy and is why the term ‘Lesserian[23]’ was coined and trademarked. As the understanding of the workings of the subconscious continues to evolve, the application of the therapy continues to change. The three most influential changes have been in Specific Questioning (1992) to gain more accurate subconscious information; a subconscious cause/effect mapping system (SRBC)(1996) to streamline the process of curative hypnotherapy treatment; and the ‘LBR Criteria’ (2003) to be able to differentiate easier between causal and trigger events and helping to target more accurately the erroneous data which requires reinterpretation.

UsesEdit

ChildbirthEdit

Hypnotherapy is often applied in the birthing process and the post-natal period,[24][25][26][27][28][29] but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it alleviates pain during childbirth[7] and no evidence that it is effective against post-natal depression.[5]

BulimiaEdit

Literature shows that a wide variety of hypnotic interventions have been investigated for the treatment bulimia nervosa, with inconclusive effect.[30] Similar studies have shown that groups suffering from bulimia nervosa, undergoing hypnotherapy, were more exceptional to no treatment, placebos, or other alternative treatments.[30]

Other usesEdit

Among its many other applications in other medical domains,[31] hypnotism was used therapeutically, by some alienists in the Victorian era, to treat the condition then known as hysteria.[32]

Modern hypnotherapy is widely accepted for the treatment of certain habit disorders, to control irrational fears,[33][34] as well as in the treatment of conditions such as insomnia[35] and addiction.[36] Hypnosis has also been used to enhance recovery from non-psychological conditions such as after surgical procedures,[37] in breast cancer care[38] and even with gastro-intestinal problems,[39] including IBS.[40][41]

EfficacyEdit

A 2003 meta-analysis on the efficacy of hypnotherapy concluded that "the efficacy of hypnosis is not verified for a considerable part of the spectrum of psychotherapeutic practice.[3]

In 2005, a meta-analysis by the Cochrane Collaboration found no evidence that hypnotherapy was more successful than other treatments or no treatment in achieving cessation of smoking for at least six months.[4]

In 2007, a meta-analysis from the Cochrane Collaboration found that the therapeutic effect of hypnotherapy was "superior to that of a waiting list control or usual medical management, for abdominal pain and composite primary IBS symptoms, in the short term in patients who fail standard medical therapy", with no harmful side-effects. However the authors noted that the quality of data available was inadequate to draw any firm conclusions.[2]

Two Cochrane reviews in 2012 concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support its efficacy in managing the pain of childbirth[7] or post-natal depression.[5]

In 2016, a literature review published in La Presse Medicale found that there is not sufficient evidence to "support the efficacy of hypnosis in chronic anxiety disorders".[6]

Occupational accreditationEdit

United States definition of hypnotherapistEdit

The U.S. (Department of Labor) Directory of Occupational Titles (D.O.T. 079.157.010) supplies the following definition:

"Hypnotherapist – Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior pattern through hypnosis. Consults with client to determine the nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic states by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degrees of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client's problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning.

The department of health in the state of Washington regulates hypnotherapists.[42]

United KingdomEdit

UK National Occupational StandardsEdit

In 2002, the Department for Education and Skills developed National Occupational Standards for hypnotherapy[43] linked to [[National Vocational Qualification]s] based on the then National Qualifications Framework under the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. NCFE, a national awarding body, issues level four national vocational qualification diploma in hypnotherapy. Currently AIM Awards offers a Level 3 Certificate in Hypnotherapy and Counselling Skills at level 3 of the Regulated Qualifications Framework.[44]

UK Confederation of Hypnotherapy Organisations (UKCHO)Edit

The regulation of the hypnotherapy profession in the UK is at present the main focus of UKCHO, a non-profit umbrella body for hypnotherapy organisations. Founded in 1998 to provide a non-political arena to discuss and implement changes to the profession of hypnotherapy, UKCHO currently represents 9 of the UK's professional hypnotherapy organisations and has developed standards of training for hypnotherapists, along with codes of conduct and practice that all UKCHO registered hypnotherapists are governed by. As a step towards the regulation of the profession, UKCHO's website now includes a National Public Register of Hypnotherapists[45] who have been registered by UKCHO's Member Organisations and are therefore subject to UKCHO's professional standards. Further steps to full regulation of the hypnotherapy profession will be taken in consultation with the Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health.

AustraliaEdit

Professional hypnotherapy and use of the occupational titles hypnotherapist or clinical hypnotherapist is not government-regulated in Australia.

In 1996, as a result of a three-year research project led by Lindsay B. Yeates, the Australian Hypnotherapists Association[46] (founded in 1949), the oldest hypnotism-oriented professional organization in Australia, instituted a peer-group accreditation system for full-time Australian professional hypnotherapists, the first of its kind in the world, which "accredit[ed] specific individuals on the basis of their actual demonstrated knowledge and clinical performance; instead of approving particular 'courses' or approving particular 'teaching institutions'" (Yeates, 1996, p.iv; 1999, p.xiv).[47] The system was further revised in 1999.[48]

Australian hypnotism/hypnotherapy organizations (including the Australian Hypnotherapists Association) are seeking government regulation similar to other mental health professions. However, the various tiers of Australian government have shown consistently over the last two decades that they are opposed to government legislation and in favour of self-regulation by industry groups.[49]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)". National Health service. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Webb AN, Kukuruzovic R, Catto-Smith AG, Sawyer SM. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome" Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005110. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005110.pub2
  3. ^ a b Flammer; Bongartz (2003). "On the efficacy of hypnosis: a meta-analytic study" (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis: 179–197. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Abbot NC, Stead LF, White AR, Barnes J. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation" Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001008. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001008
  5. ^ a b c Sado, M.; Ota, E.; Stickley, A.; Mori, R. (2012). Sado, Mitsuhiro, ed. "Hypnosis during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period for preventing postnatal depression". The Cochrane Library. 6: CD009062. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009062.pub2. PMID 22696381. 
  6. ^ a b Pelissolo, A (2016). "[Hypnosis for anxiety and phobic disorders: A review of clinical studies]". Presse Med. 45 (3): 284–90. doi:10.1016/j.lpm.2015.12.002. PMID 26944812. 
  7. ^ a b c Jones, L.; Othman, M.; Dowswell, T.; Alfirevic, Z.; Gates, S.; Newburn, M.; Jordan, S.; Lavender, T.; Neilson, J. P. (2012). Neilson, James P, ed. "Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews". The Cochrane Library. 3: CD009234. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2. PMID 22419342. 
  8. ^ "Dictionary of Occupational Titles: Hypnotherapist (079.157-010)". U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Administrative Law Judges. Retrieved 2017-11-15. 
  9. ^ Tom Kraft; David Kraft (2005). "Covert sensitization revisited: six case studies". Contemporary Hypnosis. 22 (4): 202–209. doi:10.1002/ch.10. 
  10. ^ a b André Muller Weitzenhoffer (2000). The practice of hypnotism (2 ed.). OCLC 606253084. 
  11. ^ John Grinder; Richard Bandler (1976). Patterns of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson. 1. ISBN 1-55552-052-9. 
  12. ^ Gregg E. Gorton (2005). "Milton Hyland Erickson". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 162 (7): 1255. 
  13. ^ http://afsfh.com/solution-focused-brief-therapy/
  14. ^ Robertson, D (2012). The Practice of Cognitive-Behavioural Hypnotherapy: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Hypnosis. London: Karnac. ISBN 978-1855755307. 
  15. ^ Kirsch, I.; Montgomery, G.; Sapperstein, G. (April 1995). "Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: A meta analysis". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 63 (2): 214–220. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.63.2.214. PMID 7751482. 
  16. ^ Barber, Theodore X.; Spanos, Nicholas P.; Chaves, John F. (1974). Hypnotism, imagination, and human potentialities. Pergamon Press. OCLC 912492464. 
  17. ^ Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V. (2005). "The additive benefit of hypnosis and cognitive–behavioral therapy in treating acute stress disorder" (PDF). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 73 (2): 334–340. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.73.2.334. PMID 15796641. 
  18. ^ Weitsenhoffer, A. (1972). "Behavior therapeutic techniques and hypnotherapeutic methods". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 15 (2): 71–82. doi:10.1080/00029157.1972.10402222. PMID 4679810. 
  19. ^ Wolpe, Joseph (1958). Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. p. 203. ISBN 978-0804705097. 
  20. ^ Wolberg, Lewis Robert (1948). Medical hypnosis. 2. Grune & Stratton. OCLC 881360526. 
  21. ^ Lesser, David (1985). Hypnotherapy Explained (1 ed.). Birmingham: Curative Hypnotherapy Examination Committee. p. 160. ISBN 0951087517. 
  22. ^ Ratcliffe, Mary (2010). What If It Really Is? (1 ed.). Guildford: Grosvenor House Publishing Ltd. p. 174. ISBN 9781907211454. 
  23. ^ Lesser, David (1989). Book of Hypnosis (1 ed.). CHEC. p. 143. ISBN 0951087525. 
  24. ^ Odent, Michel; Dick-Read, Grantly (2004). Childbirth without fear: the principles and practice of natural childbirth. Pinter & Martin. ISBN 0-9530964-6-7. [page needed]
  25. ^ Mongan, Marie F. (2005). HypnoBirthing: The Mongan Method: A Natural Approach To A Safe, Easier, More Comfortable Birthing (3rd Edition). HCI. 
  26. ^ Sanjay Datta, Bhavani Shankar Kodali, Scott Segal (2010). "Non-pharmacological Methods for Relief of Labor Pain". Obstetric Anesthesia Handbook: 85–93. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-88602-2_7. 
  27. ^ Phillips-Moore, J. (2005). "HypnoBirthing". TheAustralian Journal of Holistic Nursing. 12 (1): 41–2. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  28. ^ Wainer, N (2000). "HypnoBirthing. A radical change on our perspective of pain in childbirth". Midwifery today with international midwife (55): 36–38. PMID 11189565. 
  29. ^ Mottershead, N (March 2006). "Hypnosis: removing the labour from birth". The practising midwife. 9 (3): 26–7, 29. PMID 16562656. 
  30. ^ a b Barabasz, Marianne (2012). "Cognitive hypnotherapy with bulimia". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 54 (4): 353–64. doi:10.1080/00029157.2012.658122. PMID 22655335. 
  31. ^ Savage, George Harvey (1909). The Harveian Oration on Experimental Psychology and Hypnotism Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London, October 18, 1909. London: Henry Frowde. OL 26297021M. 
  32. ^ Crimlisk, Helen L.; Ron, Maria A. (1999). "Conversion hysteria: History, diagnostic issues, and clinical practice". Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 4 (3): 165–180. doi:10.1080/135468099395909. 
  33. ^ Crawford, Helen J.; Barabasz, Arreed F. (1993). "Phobias and intense fears: Facilitating their treatment with hypnosis". In Rhue, Judith W.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Kirsch, Irving. Handbook of clinical hypnosis. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. pp. 311–337. doi:10.1037/10274-015. 
  34. ^ Gow, M. A. (2006). "Hypnosis with a 31-year-old female with dental phobia requiring emergency extraction" (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis. 23 (2): 83–91. doi:10.1002/ch.312. 
  35. ^ Deirdre Barrett (1998). The pregnant man: tales from a hypnotherapist's couch. New York: Times Books. ISBN 9780812929058. 
  36. ^ "Hypnosis as an addiction treatment". Alcohol Rehab Thailand. 
  37. ^ Diamond, S.G.; Davis, O.C.; Schaechter, J.D.; Howe, R.D. (2006). "Hypnosis for rehabilitation after stroke: Six case studies" (PDF). Contemporary Hypnosis. 23 (4): 173–180. doi:10.1002/ch.319. 
  38. ^ Cramer H, Lauche R, Paul A, Langhorst J, Kümmel S, Dobos GJ (September 2014). "Hypnosis in breast cancer care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Integrative Cancer Therapies (review). 14 (1): 5–15. doi:10.1177/1534735414550035. PMID 25233905. 
  39. ^ Palsson, O.S. "Effects of hypnosis on GI problems" (PDF). UNCCenter for Functional GI & Motility Disorders. 
  40. ^ Tan, Gabriel; Hammond, D. Corydon; Gurrala, Joseph (2005). "Hypnosis and irritable bowel syndrome: a review of efficacy and mechanism of action". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 47 (3): 161–178. doi:10.1080/00029157.2005.10401481. PMID 15754863. 
  41. ^ Whorwell, P.J. (2005). "The history of hypnotherapy and its role in the irritable bowel syndrome" (PDF). Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 22 (11–12): 1061–1067. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02697.x. 
  42. ^ Hypnotherapist Washington Department of Health
  43. ^ National Occupational Standards for hypnotherapy http://www.rebhp.org/articles/Hypnotherapy.pdf
  44. ^ "Register of Regulated Qualifications". Ofqual. Retrieved 6 November 2016. 
  45. ^ Harry Cannon - harry.cannon@ntlworld.com (2010-12-01). "UKCHO Register search page - The UK Confederation of Hypnotherapy Organisations". Ukcho.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-28. 
  46. ^ http://www.ahahypnotherapy.org.au
  47. ^ The accreditation criteria and the structure of the accreditation system were based on those described in Yeates, Lindsay B., A Set of Competency and Proficiency Standards for Australian Professional Clinical Hypnotherapists: A Descriptive Guide to the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association Accreditation System, Australian Hypnotherapists' Association, (Sydney), 1996. ISBN 0-646-27250-0 [1]
  48. ^ The revised criteria, etc. are described in Yeates, Lindsay B., A Set of Competency and Proficiency Standards for Australian Professional Clinical Hypnotherapists: A Descriptive Guide to the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association Accreditation System (Second, Revised Edition), Australian Hypnotherapists' Association, (Sydney), 1999. ISBN 0-9577694-0-7.
  49. ^ For example, see Media Release 89/70: issued on 12/4/1989, by Peter Collins — who was, at the time, the NSW State Government Minister for Health — which announced that the N.S.W. Government had made "a decision not to proceed with plans to place controls on Hypnosis and to ban Stage Hypnosis". Also, see Dewsbury, R., "Reversal by Govt over hypnotists", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Thursday, 13 April 1989), p.8.