The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Applications to Human Welfare, was a British journal, devoted to the promotion of the theories and practices (and the collection and dissemination of reports of the applications) of the pseudoscientific concepts of mesmerism and phrenology, and the enterprise of "connecting and harmonizing practical science with little understood laws governing the mental structure of man". The name derived from the Greek word Zoe (ζωή) meaning "life". The Zoist was published quarterly, without a break, for fifteen years: from March 1843 until January 1856.
|Edited by||John Elliotson, William Collins Engledue|
Edited by John Elliotson, the founder, and former president of the London Phrenological Society, who had been expelled from the University College Hospital in 1838 for his mesmeric practices, and William Collins Engledue, a former President of the British Phrenological Association, who was ostracized by both his medical colleagues for his dedication to mesmerism and phrenology, and by the majority of phrenologists for his rejection of their "socio-religious", spiritual position, in favour of a scientific, materialist, brain-centred position that, in effect, reduced mental operations to physical forces.
"The Zoist was a materialist journal; it repudiated metaphysics and argued that everything—including human thinking—could be explained through the laws of the physical universe ..."
The Zoist's first edition was published in January 1843. It was published quarterly, without a break, for fifteen years from March 1843 until January 1856; and each quarterly issue cost 2s.6d..
It was also published in annual volumes; and the first twelve annual volumes were published simultaneously by Hippolyte Ballière, in London, J.B. Ballière, in Paris, and T.O. Weigel, in Leipzig; the thirteenth and last volume was published by Arthur Hall, Virtue, and Co., in London.
Aside from the already established journal, The Phrenological Journal and Miscellany, which ran from 1823 to 1847, and The Phrenological Almanac, which ran from 1842 to 1845, published by the Glasgow Phrenological Society, there was Spencer T. Hall's The Phreno-Magnet and Mirror of Nature: A Record of Facts, Experiments, and Discoveries in Phrenology, Magnetism, &c., which lasted for eleven monthly issues (from February 1843 to December 1843), the short-lived Mesmerist: A Journal of Vital Magnetism, which only lasted for twenty weekly issues (from 13 May 1843 to 23 September 1843), The Annals of Mesmerism and Mesmero-Phrenology, which lasted for three monthly issues (from July 1843 to September 1843), and The People's Phrenological Journal and Compendium of Mental and Moral Science, published weekly, by the Exeter and London Phrenological Societies, for two years (1843 to 1844).
Then, to add to the mix, James Braid's definitive work on hypnotism, Neurypnology or The Rationale of Nervous Sleep, Considered in Relation with Animal Magnetism, Illustrated by Numerous Cases of its Successful Application in the Relief and Cure of Disease was released in July 1843.
Cerebral Physiology & MesmerismEdit
The choice of the "Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism" sub-title for their journal—rather than, that is, "Animal Magnetism & Phrenology"—is a measure of the pragmatic, materialist, "leading edge" proto-scientific orientation of both Elliotson and Engledue.
Their deliberately chosen term "cerebral physiology" (coined by Engledue) was entirely consistent with the original anatomy-centred term of "cranioscopy" (German, die Kraniometrie) chosen by the German neuroanatomist Franz Joseph Gall; and it was intentionally applied—rather than the (then) prevailing English, metaphysical, mind-centred term, "phrenology" coined by Thomas Forster (see Forster (1815) – to distinguish their own rational, sceptical, proto-scientific efforts in pursuit of a scientific understanding of (what would be termed, today) "brain science", from the superstitious "phrenology" (which was eventually universally dismissed as a flawed pseudoscience).
Similarly, their choice of term "mesmerism" was intentionally applied to indicate that, whilst they were deeply committed to a scientific ratification, and neurophysiological investigation of the phenomena supposedly produced by mesmeric methods, their interest was almost exclusively in the consequences of the applications of the practices of Franz Mesmer, rather than paying any particular attention to the wide range of metaphysical theories of the "animal magnetists".
Apart from providing valuable literature reviews and announcements of new publications, The Zoist was a constant, reliable source of information, disciplinary interaction, original accounts of phenomena, relevant case studies of its application to wide range of conditions, ranging from epilepsy, stammering, and headache, to torticollis, asthma, and rheumatism, and extensive reports of pertinent innovations and discoveries.
Elliotson was an opponent of capital punishment, and argued, within the Zoist, based upon his phrenological analysis of the heads of executed murderers, that not only was phrenology true, but also that, from this, capital punishment was futile as a deterrent.
According to Gauld (1992, pp. 219–243), apart from its concentration on mesmerism and phrenology, The Zoist was one of the principal sources for information, discussion, and education in the following domains of interest:
- (1) Mesmeric Analgesia: although The Zoist would become the major vehicle for the (post-1846) reports of James Esdaile's work in India, it completely ignored the extensive (early 1842) work reported by Braid in his Neurypnology (1843, p. 253). Elliotson had already published his Numerous Cases of Surgical Operations without Pain in early 1843.
- (2) Phreno-mesmerism (a.k.a. phreno-magnetism) and hemicerebral mesmerism (the mesmerization of each hemisphere of the brain separately).
- (3) "Reichenbach phenomena" and other matters.
- (4) Electro-biology and related matters.
- (5) Alleged instances of extra-sensory perception (ESP) occurring in a mesmeric context.
In accordance with its avowed purpose, the Zoist presented articles on phrenology and mesmerism. Many papers were contributed by Elliotson who was a constant writer in the journal. The purpose of these communications was essentially propagandistic.
For the most part they comprised reports on patients treated with mesmerism, testimonials and endorsements from physicians and satisfied patients, and polemics with opponents of mesmerism.
In addition, the Zoist also concerned itself with social problems, such as housing, crime, and education.
The views expressed on these questions were based generally on phrenological theory; and it is worthy of note that these views were very progressive.
Thus, opposition to capital punishment was forcibly expressed on several occasions, and demands were raised for the mental examination of criminals…
An article bearing the title "Physical Well-being, a necessary preliminary to Moral and Intellectual Progression" emphatically drew attention to the evils arising from lack of sanitation and overcrowding in the homes of the working masses.
The ill effects of poor housing in terms of premature mortality were pointed out and a demand made for better housing.
In the field of education, the Zoist insisted on the need for a national educational system: "Education is the proper remedy for crime, and there ought to be a national system of education, apart from religious belief and sectarian influence." (Rosen (1946), p. 535.)
Unlike France, where the conflict between the conventional medical establishment and the advocates of mesmerism took place in the public/political arena, the British debate between the conventional medical establishment and the scientific advocates of mesmerism, such as Elliotson and Engledue, took place mainly in the medical literature on the one hand (such as Wakley's Lancet), and The Zoist on the other.
Given Wakley's implacable opposition to Elliotson, it is not surprising that, from time to time, "The Lancet continued to fulminate against the mesmerists" maintaining that "all those connected with The Zoist were 'lepers', and doctors who practised mesmerism, traitors …".
Stress on the power of the imaginationEdit
A constant aspect of The Zoist's rational approach was its stress on the power of the imagination. In January 1855, in an article summarizing the Zoist's extensive coverage of the issue over more than a decade, Elliotson wrote of how, "in mesmeric states the effect of imagination is far greater than in the ordinary state, and we suspect that in persons not in the mesmeric state, but who have been formerly mesmerised, the power is far greater than in those who have never been mesmerised".
Apart from Elliotson, Engledue, and an otherwise (at the time) unidentified constant contributor, operating under the nom de guerre of "L.E.G.E.", and apart from its exhaustive reports of the clinical and social applications of mesmerism and phrenology, and pain-free medical and dental surgery, and progress reports from the London mesmeric Infirmary, The Zoist featured an exceptionally wide range of items contributed by a wide range of contributors (many of whom remained anonymous) from Britain, the colonies, and the United States. For example:
- Three phrenological articles by Herbert Spencer: "A New View of the Functions of Imitation and Benevolence", "On the Situation of the Organ of Amativeness", and "A Theory concerning the Organ of Wonder".
- A poem written by Miss Anna Savage, reprinted from her recently released collection, Angel Visits (1845): "The Magnetic Sleeper".
- The publication of a previously unpublished paper, written by Thomas Symes Prideaux, esq. of Southampton in June 1839, which advocated using phrenology to select members of parliament (originally written for a "best essay" competition conducted in 1839 by the Phrenological Journal): "On the Application of Phrenology in the Choice of Parliamentary Representatives".
- Another poem from Miss Anna Savage, "suggested by the reply of a slave, who, on being asked to describe his feelings in the mesmeric state, answered, 'As I never felt before—free'.": "Verses by Miss Savage".
- A letter from Harriet Martineau describing her mesmeric treatment of a cow: "Mesmeric Cure of a Cow".
- A second letter from Harriet Martineau describing the angry visit of the veterinarian who had previously tried, in vain, to treat her dangerously ill cow (which was now quite well), on his hearing the news of its recovery: "Distressing effects in a Doctor upon the removal of a Disease from a Cow with Mesmerism".
- A contribution by Lieutenant Richard F. Burton, of Bombay: "Remarks upon a form of Sub-mesmerism, popularly called Electro-Biology, now practised in Scinde and other Eastern Countries".
- A communication from William John Tubbs, L.S.A. (London), M.R.C.S. (England), surgeon and mesmerist, of Upwell, Cambridgeshire to the effect that the son of John Tuck, labourer of Norfolk, and Elizabeth Tuck (née Rollins) had been christened "Mesmer":
Mr. Tubbs prevailed upon the parents of a baby to have it christened Mesmer.
"This is to certify that Mesmer, son of John and Elizabeth Tuck, of Outwell,
in the parish of Outwell, in the county of Norfolk, was born Dec. 18, 1850, and
baptized Feb. 3, 1851, by Thomas Charlton, minister of the Gospel.
"Given under my hand this 4th day of February, 1851."
- In response to a query from "A Patient", the editors of The Zoist, whilst assuring the enquirer that "we feel as much as he does the difficulty of procuring good mesmerisers", proceeded to set down a set of positive and negative selection criteria: "Choice of a Mesmeriser".
- Yet another poem, this time from Mrs Maria Abdy, widow of the late Rev. John Channing Abdy, M.A., of St. John's, Southwark: "The Mesmerist".
The end of The ZoistEdit
In a parting address to their journal's readers and subscribers written on 31 December 1855, the editors of The Zoist, reminded their readers that they had sought "neither pecuniary gain nor worldly reputation", and had willingly undertaken the enterprise despite the fact that "loss was nearly certain", and that "contempt, ridicule, virulent abuse, and serious injury, were all inevitable".
Yet, they assured their readers, "the object for which The Zoist was undertaken"—namely, "the establishment of truths, splendid, exquisite, extensive in their bearings, and of the highest importance to the moral and corporeal well-being of mankind"—had been attained; and that it was their hope that it would "be regarded as a complete work which has come out in fifty-two numbers", and be recognized as "a rich store", and would be used as "a solid work of reference for years to come": see Gallery.
- Godwin (1994), p. 213.
- Such as that maintained by William Scott, President of the Edinburgh Phrenological Society, in his The Harmony of Phrenology with Scripture: Shewn in a Refutation of the Philosophical Errors contained in Mr Combe's "Constitution of Man" (1837); and by Mrs John Pugh (S.D. Pugh) in her Phrenology considered in a religious light; or, Thoughts and readings consequent on the perusal of [G. 'Combe's Constitution of man'.] Phrenology Considered in a Religious Light; or, Thoughts and Readings Consequent on the Perusal of "Combe's Constitution of Man" (1846)], etc.
- Cooter (1984), p. 94.
- Ruth (1999), p. 305.
- The thirteen volumes were:
- Volume One, No. 1 (March 1843) to No. 4 (January 1844)
- Volume Two, No. 5 (April 1844) to No. 8 (January 1845).
- Volume Three, No. 9 (March 1845) to No. 12 (January 1846).
- Volume Four, No. 13 (March 1846) to No. 16 (January 1847).
- Volume Five, No. 17 (March 1847) to No. 20 (January 1848).
- Volume Six, No. 21 (March 1848) to No. 24 (January 1849).
- Volume Seven, No. 25 (March 1849) to No. 28 (January 1850).
- Volume Eight, No. 29 (March 1850) to No. 32 (January 1851).
- Volume Nine, No. 33 (March 1851) to No. 36 (January 1852).
- Volume Ten, No. 37 (March 1852) to No. 40 (January 1853).
- Volume Eleven, No. 41 (March 1853) to No. 44 (January 1854).
- Volume Twelve, No. 45 (April 1854) to No. 48 (January 1855).
- Volume Thirteen, No. 49 (April 1855) to No. 52 (January 1856).
- Cooter (1984), p. 394; Kurshan (2006), pp. 20–21.
- Although there was no "truth" ever reliably established for phrenology, its (internally consistent) concept of "Phrenological Organs" (which were responsible for various "mental faculties", such as "tune", "language", "amativeness", "philoprogenitiveness", etc.) located beneath particular areas of the skull—and, thus, external craniological means could be used to diagnose the internal states of the mental characters—was the basis for the creation of a mind-set, generated by analogy, from which today's scientific understanding of the functional specialization of the brain eventually emerged.
- Gauld (1992), p. 207.
- See Elliotson's synopsis of Esdaile's report.
- Dr. Robert Hanham Collyer (1814–1891), M.D. (1839, Berkshire Medical College, Pittsfield, Massachusetts) was a (medical) pupil of Elliotson. In May 1841 he claimed to have discovered a new science, "Phreno-Mesmerism", in November 1839, which combined phrenology and mesmerism. He wrote an influential pamphlet on the subject – see Psychography, etc. (1843) – however, by October 1842, he no longer believed in phreno-mesmerism, and publicly retracted his views.
- In his extended discussion of phrenology, in Chapter 6, of his Neurypnology (1843, pp. 79–149), James Braid clearly states (p. 105) that he began his investigations of phreno-mesmerism—which he deals with at pp. 105–149 – in April 1842 (just six weeks before Neurypnology was sent to the printer); and, it also extremely clear that, as a result of the researches and experiments undertaken over an extended period of time, Braid became convinced that there was no justification in the claims of the phreno-mesmerists (see Braid, !844).
- e.g., Elliotson, (1844).
- "Reichenbach's odic force - The Skeptic's Dictionary". www.skepdic.com.
- Articles on these topics included: "Our Criminal Code", Vol, 1, No. 2, (July 1843), pp. 101–110; Dr. Davey's paper to the Phrenological Association on "Criminal Insanity", Vol. 1, No. 3, (October 1843), pp. 253-262; "Capital Punishment; or, Killing according to Law", Vol. 7, No. 28, (January 1850), pp. 331-353; "Insanity" (Reviews of Remarks on the Plea of Insanity, and on the management of Criminal Lunatics, by Wm. Wood, M.D., and Crime and Insanity, their causes, connexion, and consequences, &c., by C. M. Burnett, M.D.), Vol. 10, No. 38, (July 1852) pp. 103-115; and "A Visit to the Great Prison in Munich", by the Rev. Chauncey Hare Townshend, A.M. Cantab., in a letter to Dr. Elliotson, Vol. 13, No. 52, (January 1856), pp. 419–440.
- Vol. 5, No. 17, (April 1847), pp. 81–101.
- "Education as it is, and as it ought to be", Vol. 2, No. 5 (April 1844), pp. 1-20.
- See Darnton (1968).
- Inglis (1992), p. 175.
- Elliotson (1855).
- Both George Holyoake, editor of the secular journal, The Reasoner: A Weekly Journal, Utilitarian, Republican, & Communist (See The Reasoner, Vol. 6, No. 15, (11 April 1849), p. 237), and the medical historian and phrenology scholar, Roger Cooter (see Cooter, 1976, Part I, p. 14), have identified "L.E.G.E." as Engledue.
- Vol. 1, No. 4, (January 1844), pp. 369–385.
- "The Zoist". H. Baillière. 19 June 1845 – via Google Books.
- "The Zoist". H. Baillière. 19 June 1845 – via Google Books.
- Vol. 3, No. 9, (April 1845), p. 120.
- Vol. 3, No. 12 (January 1846), pp. 399–416.
- Prideaux appended the following note to the publication: "It must be remembered that this was written nearly seven years ago. Phrenology since this period has made rapid strides towards being regarded as an accepted science. A phrenological chair has lately been instituted in one of our universities. The subject has been popularized by the allusions of writers of fiction and others, and an expression of disbelief in the science would not be considered a mark of ignorance by most persons having any pretension to keep pace with the knowledge of the day." (p. 416)
- Vol. 4, No. 13, (April 1846), pp. 100–102.
- Vol. 8, No. 31 (October 1850), pp. 300–303.
- Vol. 8, No. 32 (January 1851), pp. 333–337.
- Vol. 10, No. 38, (July 1852), pp. 177–181.
- Vol. 10, No. 38, (July 1852), p. 227.
- Vol. 10, No. 40, (January 1852), p. 377.
- "The Zoist". H. Baillière. 19 June 1856 – via Google Books.
- Braid, J., "Experimental Inquiry, to Determine whether Hypnotic and Mesmeric Manifestations can be Adduced in Proof of Phrenology", The Medical Times, Vol. 11, No. 271, (30 November 1844), pp. 181–182.
- Braid, J., Neurypnology or the Rationale of Nervous Sleep Considered in Relation with Animal Magnetism Illustrated by Numerous Cases of its Successful Application in the Relief and Cure of Disease, John Churchill, (London), 1843.
N.B. Braid's Errata, detailing a number of important corrections that need to be made to the foregoing text, is on the un-numbered page following p. 265.
- Carpenter, W.B., Principles of Mental Physiology: With their Chief Applications to the Psychology, Pathology, Therapeutics, Hygiene, and Forensic Medicine (Fifth Edition), John Churchill, (London), 1855.
- Carpenter, W.B., "On the Influence of Suggestion in Modifying and directing Muscular Movement, independently of Volition", Royal Institution of Great Britain, (Proceedings), 1852, (12 March 1852), pp. 147–153.
- Clarke, J.F., "A Strange Chapter in the History of Medicine", pp. 155–169 in , Clarke, J.F., Autobiographical Recollections of the Medical Profession, J. & A. Churchill, (London,), 1874.
- Collyer, R.H., Psychography, or, The Embodiment of Thought: With an Analysis of Phreno-magnetism, "Neurology", and Mental Hallucination, Including Rules to Govern and Produce the Magnetic State, Zeiber & Co., (Philadelphia), 1843.
- Cooter, R J., "Phrenology and British Alienists, c. 1825–1845, Part I: Converts to a Doctrine", Medical History, Vol. 20, No. 1, (January 1976), pp. 1–21. doi:10.1017/S0025727300021761
- Cooter, R J., "Phrenology and British Alienists, c. 1825–1845, Part II: Doctrine and Practice", Medical History, Vol. 20, No. 2, (April 1976), pp. 135–151. doi:10.1017/S0025727300022195
- Cooter, R.J., The Cultural Meaning of Popular Science: Phrenology and the Organization of Consent in Nineteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge University Press, (Cambridge), 1984.
- Darnton, R., Mesmerism, and the End of the Enlightenment in France, Harvard University Press, (Cambridge), 1968.
- Elliotson, J., The Harveian Oration, Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians, London 1846, by John Elliotson, M.D. Cantab. F.R.S., Fellow of the College, With an English Version and Notes, (1846).
- Elliotson, J., "The Use of the Sulphate of Copper in Chronic Diarrhoea, to which are added some Observations on the use of Acupuncture in Rheumatism", Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, Vol. 13, Part 2, (1827), pp. 451–468.
- Forster, T., "Observations on a New System of Phrenology, or the Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain, of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim", Philosophical Magazine and Journal, Vol. 45, No. 201, (January 1815), pp. 44–50.
- Gauld, A., A History of Hypnotism, Cambridge University Press, (Cambridge), 1992
- Inglis, B., Natural and Supernatural: A History of the Paranormal (Revised Edition), Prism Press, (Bridport), 1992.
- Kurshan, I., "Mind Reading: Literature in the Discourse of Early Victorian Phrenology and Mesmerism", pp. 17–38 in Willis, M. and Wynne, C. (eds), Victorian Literary Mesmerism, Rodopi, (Amsterdam), 2006.
- "Mesmeric Amputation", Medico-Chirurgical Review, and Journal of Practical Medicine, No. 75, (1 January 1843), pp. 280–282.
- Moore, W., The Mesmerist: The Society Doctor Who Held Victorian London Spellbound, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, (London), 2017. ISBN 978-1-4746-0229-7
- Rosen, G., "Mesmerism and Surgery: A Strange Chapter in the History of Anesthesia", Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 4, (October 1946), pp. 527–550. doi:10.1093/jhmas/1.4.527
- Ruth, J., "'Gross Humbug' or 'The Language of Truth'? The Case of the Zoist", Victorian Periodicals Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, (Winter 1999), pp. 299–323.
- Stephen, L., "Combe, George (1788–1858)", pp. 427–429 in Stephen, L. (ed), Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XI: Clater-Condell, Smith, Elder, & Co., (London), 1887.
- Topham, W. & Ward, W.S., Account of a Case of Successful Amputation of the Thigh, During the Mesmeric State, Without the Knowledge of the Patient. Read to the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London on Tuesday 22nd November, 1842, H. Baillière, (London), 1842.
- University of Edinburgh, List of the Graduates in Medicine in the University of Edinburgh from MDCCV to MDCCCLXVI, Neill & Company, (Edinburgh), 1867.
- Winter, A., Mesmerized: Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain, The University of Chicago Press, (Chicago), 1998.
- Student Record for John Elliotson – University of Edinburgh, Centre for Research Collections, Individual Records, Students of Medicine (1762–1826)
- Elliotson's (1810) M.D. graduation record: "Jo. Elliotson, Anglus. De inflammation" ("John Elliotson, England. [Title of inaugural dissertation]: Inflammation") – University of Edinburgh (1867), p. 42.
- Elliotson's entry in the first edition of the British Medical Directory (1853) – The Lancet (1853)
- Elliotson's (greatly diminished in size) entry in the second edition of the British Medical Directory (1854) – The Lancet (1854)
- Elliotson's entry in the first edition of The Medical Register (1860) – The General Medical Council (1859): This entry verifies that Elliotson was registered (as of 1 January 1859, the first day of the registration system) as a practitioner under the Medical Act 1858 (an Act to Regulate the Qualifications of Practitioners in Medicine and Surgery), which took effect on 1 October 1858: the Act's official date of commencement.
- Engledue’s (1835) M.D. graduation record: "Gulielmus C. Engledue, Anglus. What evidence do we have that the External Senses can be transferred to other parts of the body, as is said to occur in Somnambulism?" ("William C. Engledue, England") – University of Edinburgh (1867), p. 103: From 1834 onwards, English titles of inaugural M.D. dissertations were permitted.
- Engledue's entry in the first edition of the British Medical Directory (1853) – The Lancet (1853)
- Engledue's entry in the second edition of the British Medical Directory (1854). – The Lancet (1854)
- Doctor W. C. Engledue, Chairman at the Banquet Held in September 1856 to Welcome Home Other Ranks from the Crimea, Proposing the Royal Toast: an 1856 painting by Portsmouth artist and photographer Richard Poate (1811–1878) – in the Collection of the Portsmouth City Museum
- The banquet was held on Tuesday, 16 September 1856: see The Spectator, Vol. 29, No. 1473, (Saturday, 20 September 1856), p. 991; and "Crimean Banquet at Portsmouth", The Times, No. 22475, (Wednesday, 17 September 1856), p. 9, col. B.