The eldest son of the Rev. James Esdaile, D.D. (1775–1854), a minister of the Church of Scotland, and Margaret Blair (1781–1843), he was born in Montrose, Angus, Scotland on 6 February 1808. He died in Sydenham, Kent on 10 January 1859.
He had three brothers, David Esdaile, D.D. (1811–1880) — an ordained cleric, who, along with James Esdaile (his brother), founded Edinburgh’s Ministers’ Daughters’ College (later known as Esdaile School), dedicated to the education of the daughters of Ministers of the Church of Scotland, and of Professors in the Universities of Scotland — John Esdaile (1813–1877) and Robert Esdaile (1816–1882), both of whom migrated to Canada, and one sister, Janet (1818–1819).
He married three times.
- His first wife, Mary Ann Christie, whom he had married on 6 June 1838, whilst on furlough in Scotland, died on 9 November 1838, "in her 18th year", on their voyage to India (they left England on 24 July 1838).
- His second wife, Sophia Ullmann — daughter of the Delaware banker, John James Ullmann (1754–1811) and Jeanne F. Ullmann (née LeFranc), and the sister of lawyer and, later, (Union) General Daniel Ullmann (1810–1892) — whom he married on 17 November 1842 at Chinsurah, while stationed at Hooghly, died in Calcutta on 27 July 1850, aged 44.
- He married his third wife, Eliza Morton (1807–1862) (née Weatherhead) in Calcutta on 3 February 1851.
Having suffered from chronic bronchitis and asthma since his adolescence, Esdaile thought that India's different climate would be of benefit. Five years later, he suffered a total breakdown while working at Azamgarh, in Uttar Pradesh, and, later, was given an extended furlough from 1836 to 1838. During this time he travelled extensively; and his 1839 work, Letters from the Red Sea, Egypt, and the Continent, was written as a result of these travels.
He returned from his furlough to Calcutta, and was soon appointed as Civil Surgeon to the small Hooghli Imambara Hospital; and, through this appointment, he was also responsible for the hospital at Hooghly Jail.
From November 1839 to December 1841 Esdaile also served as the Principal of the prestigious Hooghly College, located in the palladian mansion in Chinsurah that had been originally designed and built for "General Perron". The College had been founded in August 1836 by the Bengali philanthropist Haji Muhammad Mohsin, and Esdaile replaced the College's original principal — another surgeon, Thomas Alexander Wise, M.D. (1802–1889) — who had been promoted to the position of Principal at the Dacca College.
On 4 April 1845, Esdaile performed his first mesmeric procedure:
- On 4 April 1845, [Esdaile] was treating a convict afflicted with double hydrocele. The drainage and injection of one side of the scrotum caused the patient such pain that Esdaile determined to try mesmerism upon him for the second operation…
- he was successful in rendering the convict analgesic, and at once began to experiment with mesmerism both as a means of producing analgesia in surgical cases, and as a method of treatment for medical ones.
By his own admission, Esdaile had never seen a mesmeric act; but, given the level of pain of this specific patient, and the understanding that he had gained from what he had read, it occurred to him that mesmerism might be of great value:
- Seeing him [the patient] suffering in this way, I turned to the native sub-assistant surgeon, an élève [student] of the medical college, and asked him if he had ever seen Mesmerism? He said, that he had seen it tried at the medical college, but without effect. Upon which I remarked, "I have a great mind to try it on this man, but as I never saw it practised, and know it only from reading, I shall probably not succeed."
Esdaile did succeed.
As performed by Esdaile, the mesmeric act was an exhausting procedure:
- Esdaile's method was to make the patient lie down in dark room, wearing only a loin cloth, and [Esdaile would] repeatedly pass the hands in the shape of claws, slowly over the [patient's] body, within one inch of the surface, from the back of the head to the pit of the stomach, breathing gently on the head and eyes all the time [and] he seems to have sat behind the patient, leaning over him almost head to head and to have laid his right hand for extended periods on the pit of the stomach.
As a consequence, Esdaile, whose own health was far from good, soon began to delegate this exhausting work which, when necessary, would involve "[having] a patient magnetized for hours each day for ten or twelve days [to his] native assistants, saving his own strength for the performance of surgery".
In a short time, Esdaile had gained a wide reputation amongst the European and indigenous communities for painless surgery, especially in cases of the scrotal "tumours" that were endemic in Bengal at that time due to filariasis (similar to elephantiasis) that was transmitted by mosquitoes. Esdaile's mesmeric anaesthesia was extremely safe:
- I beg, to state, for the satisfaction of those who have not yet a practical knowledge of the subject, that I have seen no bad consequences whatever arise from persons being operated on when in the mesmeric trance.
Cases have occurred in which no pain has been felt subsequent to the operation even; the wounds healing in a few days by the first intention; and in the rest, I have seen no indications of any injury being done to the constitution.
On the contrary, it appears to me to have been saved, and that less constitutional disturbance has followed than under ordinary circumstances.
There has not been a death among the cases operated on.
However, despite the successes with anaesthesia and his impressive surgical outcomes (exclusively with "native" patients), Esdaile was at a loss to explain these events in the light of his earlier (pre-mesmeric) six years' experience:
- Since [my first use of mesmerism in April 1845,] I have had every month more operations of this kind than take place in the native hospital in Calcutta in a year, and more than I had for the six years previous.
There must be some reason for this, and I only see two ways of accounting for it: my patients, on returning home, either say to their friends similarly afflicted, "Wah! brother, what a soft man the doctor Sahib is! He cut me to pieces for twenty minutes, and I made him believe that I did not feel it. Isn't it a capital joke? Do go and play him the same trick ; you have only to laugh in your elbow, and you will not feel the pain."
Or they say to their brother sufferers, — " Look at me ; I have got rid of my burthen, (of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, or 80 lbs., as it may be,) am restored to the use of my body, and can again work for my bread: this, I assure you, the doctor Sahib did when I was asleep, and I knew nothing about it;—you will be equally lucky, I dare say; and I advise you to go and try; you need not be cut if you feel it."
Which of these hypotheses best explains the fact my readers will decide for themselves.
It ought to be added, that most of these persons were not paupers, but people in comfortable circumstances, whom no inducement short of painless operations could tempt to enter a charity, or any other hospital; and all who know the natives are aware of this.
In 1846, Esdaile's work with mesmerism-assisted painless surgery at Hoogly had come to the attention of the Deputy Governor of Bengal, Sir Herbert Maddocks. Maddocks appointed a committee of seven reputable (medical and non-medical) officials to investigate Esdaile's claims. They submitted a positive report (on 9 October 1846), and a small hospital in Calcutta was put at his disposal in November 1846.
By 1848, a mesmeric hospital supported entirely by public subscription was opened in Calcutta especially for Esdaile's work. It was closed 18 months later by the Deputy Governor of Bengal, Sir John Littler: according to Cotton (1931, p. 170), although the Mott's Lane Mesmeric Hospital, opened in 1846, was permanently closed in 1848, Elliotson "continued to practise mesmerism at the Sukeas' Street Dispensary until he left India in 1851".
In 1848, Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India, appointed Esdaile to the position of Presidency Surgeon; and, in 1849, whilst not supporting the continuation of the mesmeric hospital in Calcutta, Dalhousie had so much respect for Esdaile and his work, that he appointed him to the position of Marine Surgeon.
Esdaile retired from the British East India Company in 1853, upon the expiration of his 20 years' contract. He became a Vic-President of the London Mesmeric Infirmary, and a Vice-President of the Scottish Curative Mesmeric Association (). After briefly returning to Perth in Scotland he settled in Sydenham where he died on 10 January 1859. He is buried at West Norwood Cemetery.
Connection with hypnotismEdit
Esdaile is thought by many to have been a pioneer in the use of hypnosis for surgical anaesthesia in the era immediately prior to James Young Simpson's discovery of chloroform. However, Esdaile had studied neither hypnotism nor Mesmerism himself.
Although some would trace the practice of hypnotherapy back to Faria, Gassner, and Hell, it is conventional to trace what we now know as hypnotism back to the Scottish surgeon James Braid's reaction to a public exhibition of mesmeric techniques given by Charles Lafontaine in Manchester on 13 November 1841
There are some similarities between both the theory and practice of Victorian Mesmerism and hypnotism. Braid viewed the Bengal Government's report (i.e., Atkinson & O’Shaughnessy (1846)), on Esdaile's use of Mesmerism in an Indian hospital favourably, although only 30% of Esdaile's clients were entirely pain-free during their operations. Yet, Braid also expressed reservations about Esdaile's claims of supernatural powers possessed by certain subjects, and noted that Esdaile's operations were yet to be demonstrated in British hospitals on British patients.
In theory I entirely differ from Dr. Esdaile. He is a Mesmerist – that is, he believes in the transmission of some peculiar occult influence from the operator to the patient, as the cause of the subsequent phenomena.
In fact, as this report shows, Esdaile did not generally "Mesmerise" the patients himself but employed native Indian boys to spend 2–8 hours per day with each patient in a darkened room, employing a technique that involved breathing on the patient's body. The resemblance to the conventional techniques of Mesmerism is therefore minimal.
The artificial propagation of salmonEdit
Esdaile was a keen salmon fisherman, and it was "at [his] instigation that the proprietors of salmon-fishings on the Tay constructed the artificial breeding beds at Stormontfield" (Esdaile, 1857), when a letter, written by Esdaile, on the artificial propagation of salmon, "A Plan for Replenishing the River Tay with Salmon", was submitted to a meeting of the proprietors on the Tay on 19 July 1852.
- Scott, H., Fasti Ecclesiæ Scoticanæ: The Succession of Ministers in the Church of Scotland from the Reformation, New Edition, Volume IV: Synods of Argyll, and of Perth and Stirling, Oliver and Boyd (Edinburgh), 1923, p. 232.
- Scott, H., Fasti Ecclesiæ Scoticanæ: The Succession of Ministers in the Church of Scotland from the Reformation, New Edition, Volume V: Synods of Fife, and of Angus and Mearns, Oliver and Boyd (Edinburgh), 1925, p. 303.
- Marriages, The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 26, No. 104, (August 1838), p. 285.
- Deaths, The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 28, No. 110, (February 1839), p. 142.
- Passengers to India: Per Duke of Bedford, The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 26, No. 104, (August 1838), p. 284.
- Montgomery, E., Reminiscences of Wilmington, in Familiar Village Tales, Ancient and New, Johnston & Bogia, (Wilmington), 1872, pp. 200–201.
- "Daniel Ullmann", Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Academic Year Ending in June, 1893, p. 147.
- Originally two adjacent settlements on the west bank of the Hooghly River, Chinsurah (a.k.a. Chuchura) and Hoohghly were merged into a single municipality, now known as Hooghly-Chinsura, in 1865.
- Marriages, The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 40, No. 157, (January 1843), p. 70.
- Esdaile's colleague, James Sutherland, the (at the time) Principal of Hooghly College, married Sophia's sister, Eliza Ullman, also at Chinsurah, a month later, on 26 December 1842. (Marriages, The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 40, No. 159, (March 1843), p. 312).
- Bengal, Past & Present: Journal of the Calcutta Historical Society, Volume 5, Part 1, p. 55; Deaths, The India News, No. 194, (24 September 1850), p. 399.
- Marriages, The Indian News, No. 207, (2 April 1851), p. 153.
- The University of Edinburgh was also the alma mater of John Elliotson and James Braid.
- Student Record for James Esdaile -- University of Edinburgh, Centre for Research Collections, Individual Records, Students of Medicine.
- His 1829 dissertation was titled De Narcoticis ("On Narcotics") (see List of the Graduates in Medicine in the University of Edinburgh from MDCCV to MDCCCLXVI, Neill & Company, (Edinburgh), 1867, p. 87).
- He was appointed on 10 February 1831 (see "1193. Esdaile, James", p. 103, in Crawford, D.G., Roll of the Indian Medical Service 1615–1930, Volume 1, London), 1930), and was taken on strength as an Assistant Surgeon on 20 July 1831 (see The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 6, No. 24, (December 1831), p. 189).
- 27 May (1835), The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 18, No. 72, (December 1835), p. 241.
- 2 January 1836: "Assist. Surg. James Edaile, M.D., for health" (Furloughs: To Europe, The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia, Vol. 20, No. 78, (June 1836), p. 105).
- Described as "a very entertaining, graphic and lively volume of letters" (Miscellaneous Critical Notices, The Calcutta Review, Vol. 6, No. 12, (1846), p. viii).
- "Military: By the President in Council", Calcutta Monthly Journal and General Register, (November 1839), p. 26: No. 16 of 1839.
- "The Hooghly Imambara Hospital … first established as an experimental measure in 1836 … derives its name from the fact that it originally formed a part of the Hooghly Imambara created out of the Trust Fund left by Haji Muhammad Mohsin": Banerji (1972), p. 610.
- Although he was unable to establish whether (or not) "the lectures were actually given", Zachariah (1936, p. 25) noted that, "in 1842, Dr. Esdaile, although no longer Principal, proposed to give some lectures on Chemistry and Physiology" — Zachariah was citing (see pp. 1 33, fn.85) "Extract from Proceedings of the Honorable the Vice President in Council in the Revenue Department under the date of 20th September 1831".
- Zachariah, K., History of Hooghly College, 1836–1936, Bengal Government Press, (Alipore), 1936 Archived 12 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 14; Annual Report of the College of Hadji Mohammud Moshin with its Subordinate Schools; and of the Colleges of Dacca and Kishnaghur, for 1850–51, F. Carbery, Military Orphan Press, (Calcutta), 1851, p. 42.
- See Dey (1893: 96/192) pp. 286–287, and (1893: 97/194), pp. 354–366; also Chaudhury (2012), pp. 55–59
- In the (30 June 1853) evidence that Wise provided to the House of Lords' Select Committee inquiry into "the Government of the Indian Territories", he provided extensive details of the structure, function, and operation of the Hooghly College (see Sessional Papers, (1852–3), pp. 221–234).
- Crawford (1914), pp. 137, 153–156.
- Horticultural Exhibition at Hooghly, Journal of the Agricultural & Horticultural Society of India, Vol. 2, Part 1, No. 8, (August 1843), p. 191.
- Medical: Appointments, Allen's Indian Mail, and Register of Intelligence for British and Foreign India, China, and All Parts of the East, Volume 6, No. 103, (22 June 1848), p. 361; Letter from the Marquis of Dalhousie to The Poor Law Guardians of Exeter, 27 June 1856 (Esdaile, 1856, p. 4).
- A Presidency Surgeon "under[took] the duty of attending all sick officers, military or civil, stationed at or on leave at the Presidency (viz., the administrative compound of the Bengal Presidency)" (Crawford, 1914, p. 10).
- Government Notifications: Civil and Eccesiastical: Appointments—Permanent, The Indian News, No. 167, (31 July 1849), p. 226.
- Gauld (1992), p. 223.
- Esdaile (1846), p. 43.
- Gauld (1992), p. 257.
- Gauld (1992), p. 223. Esdaile himself speaks of how "it is exacting too much of human nature to expect people to sweat for hours pawing the air (1846, p. 11, emphasis added).
- Some of these massive scrotal growths were as large as 112lbs/51kg (Gauld, 1992, p. 222).
- Esdaile (1846), p.xxiv.
- Esdaile (1846), pp. 218–219.
- See also Webb (1850), pp. 26–28.
- See, for example Report of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the London Mesmeric Infirmary, Walton & Mitchell, (London), 1855.
- Braid, "Facts and Observations, etc." (1847).
- See, for example, Mesmerism in India, pp. 40–41.
- Carnie (2008/2009), p. 19.
- "Propagation of Salmon", The (Hobart) Courier, (Friday, 21 October 1853), p. 3.
- Brown (1862), especially pp. 23–24, 44–47.
- Also, see Esdaile, D. (1865), especially 141–153,
- Buist (1866), pp. 4–6.
- Ashworth (1875), pp. 7.
- Stewart (1875).
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- "Human Magnetism in Hindostan", The Univercœlum and Spiritual Philosopher, Vol. 3, No. 24, (12 May 1849), pp. 378–379: includes a letter, written from Calcutta on 6 November 1848, from an American correspondent, "N.C.".
- "James Esdaile", in Helene Pleasants, H. (ed.), Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology: A Comprehensive International Who's Who of Men and Women who Investigate Clairvoyance, Telepathy, "Ghosts", Mediums, Survival after Death, and other Types of Psychic Phenomena, Helix Press (New York), 1964.
- "Painless Operations", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Tuesday, 7 March 1848), p. 3.
- Ashworth, E., Propagation of Salmon: Remarks on the Artificial Propagation of Salmon at Stormontfield, near Perth, Hasler & Co., (Bolton), 1875.
- Atkinson, J. & O’Shaughnessy (1846), Report of the Committee appointed by the Bengal Government to examine the Mesmeric Experiments and Surgical Operations of Dr Esdaile, Calcutta, 9th October 1846: reprinted in The Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 67, No. 171 (April 1847), pp. 581–588; also see comments at: The Zoist, Vol. 5, No. 18, (April 1847). pp. 50–69.
- Banerji, A.K., "Medical and Public Health Services", pp. 570–621 in Banerji, A.K., West Bengal District Gazetteers: Hooghly, The State Editor, West Bengal District Gazetteer, (Calcutta), 1972.
- Bhattacharya, S., "Chapter Eleven: Mesmerism and Surgery in Bengal: James Esdaile", pp. 215–240 in Bhattacharya, S., Unseen Enemy: The English, Disease, and Medicine in Colonial Bengal, 1617–1847, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, (Newcastle upon Tyne), 2014.
- Braid, J., "Facts and Observations as to the Relative Value of Mesmeric and Hypnotic Coma, and Ethereal Narcotism, for the Mitigation or Entire Prevention of Pain during Surgical Operations", The Medical Times, Vol. 15, No. 385, (13 February 1847), pp. 381–382, Vol. 16, No. 387, (27 February 1847), pp. 10–11.
- Brown, W., The Natural History of the Salmon, as Ascertained by the Recent Experiments in the Artificial Spawning and Hatching of the Ova and Rearing of the Fry, at Stormontfield on the Tay, Thomas Murray and Son, (Glasgow), 1862.
- Buist, R., The Stormontfield Piscicultural Experiments, 1853–1866, Edmonston and Douglas, (Edinburgh), 1866.
- Carnie, C., "An Historical Perspective of Salmon Management", Atlantic Salmon Trust Journal, (Winter 2008/2009), pp. 18–20.
- Chaudhury, S.R., "Corporal Contestations: A Fragmentary History of British Indian Medical Improvement, 1836–1913", pp. 51–68 in Bala, P.(ed.), Contesting Colonial Authority: Medicine and Indigenous Responses in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century India, Lexington Books, (Lanham), 2012.
- Cotton, E., "The Indian Medical Service", Bengal, Past & Present: Journal of the Calcutta Historical Society, Vol. 41, No. 82, (April–June 1931), pp. 165–173.
- Crawford, D.G., A History of the Indian Medical Service, 1600–1913: Volume II, W. Thacker & Co., (London), 1914.
- Dey, S.C., "Hooghly Past and Present", The Calcutta Review, Vol. 96, No. 191, (January 1893), pp. 22–42; No. 192, (April 1893), 276–288; Vol. 97, No. 193, (July 1893), pp. 71–81; No. 194, (October 1893), 340–366;Vol. 98, No. 195, (January 1894), pp. 152–170; Vol. 99, No. 197, (July 1894), pp. 153–164; Vol. 104, No. 208, (April 1897), pp. 355–373.
- Elliotson, J. (1843), Numerous Cases of Surgical Operations without Pain in the Mesmeric state, with Remarks upon the Opposition of many Members of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society and others to the Reception of the Inestimable Blessings of Mesmerism, H. Ballière, (London), 1843.
- Elliotson, J. (1845), "More painless Amputations and other Surgical Operations in the Mesmeric State", The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Application to Human Welfare, Vol. 3, No. 12, (January 1846), pp. 490–508. (Includes (at pp. 498–508), "Mesmeric Facts, reported by James Esdaile, M.D., Civil Assistant-Surgeon, Hooghly", reprinted from the India Journal of Medical and Physical Science, Vol. 3, No. 6 (June 1845).)
- Elliotson, J. (1852), "An Account of the Mesmeric Hospital in Bengal since Dr. Esdaile's departure from India", The Zoist, Vol. 10, No. 39, (October 1852), pp. 278–293.
- Ernst, W. Esdaile, James (1808–1859), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2004 (Subscription required)
- Ernst, W., "'Under the Influence' in British India: James Esdaile's Mesmeric Hospital in Calcutta, and its Critics", Psychological Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 6, (November 1995), pp. 1113–1123.
- Ernst, W., "Colonial Psychiatry, Magic and Religion. The Case of Mesmerism in British India", History of Psychiatry, Vol. 15, No. 57, Part 1, (March 2004), pp. 57–71.
- Esdaile, D., Contributions to Natural History, Chiefly in Relation to the Food of the People, William Blackwood and Sons (Edinburgh) 1865.
- Esdaile, J. (1839), Letters from the Red Sea, Egypt, and the Continent, (Calcutta), 1839.
- Esdaile, J. (1845), "Non-Secretion of Bile for a Long Period", The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 11, (16 April 1845), pp. 221–222.
- Esdaile, J. (1846), Mesmerism in India, and its Practical Application in Surgery and Medicine, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, (London), 1846. – Often reprinted under the misleading, inappropriate, and inaccurate title "Hypnotism in India".
- Esdaile, J. (1846a,b,c), "Alleged Painless Operation by Mesmerism", The Medical Times, Vol. 15, No. 368, (10 October 1846), pp. 32–33; No. 369, (24 October 1846), pp. 68–69; No. 373, (21 November 1846), pp. 145–147.
- Esdaile, J. (1847), Record of Cases treated in the Mesmeric Hospital, from November 1846 to May 1847: With Reports of the Official Visitors, Printed by Order of the Government, W. Ridsdale, Military Orphan Press, (Calcutta), 1847.
- Esdaile, J. (1849), "The Reality of Clairvoyance", The Zoist, Vol. 7, No. 27, (October 1849), pp. 213–224.
- Esdaile, J. (1851), (Letter from James Esdaile to James Braid, October 1851) reprinted in Braid, J., Magic, Witchcraft, Animal Magnetism, Hypnotism, and Electro-Biology; Being a Digest of the Latest Views of the Author on these Subjects By James Braid, M.R.C.S., Edin., C.M.W.S. &c.; Third Edition, Greatly Enlarged, Embracing Observations on J. C. Colquhoun’s “History of Magic”, &c., John Churchill, (London), 1852, pp. 78–80.
- Esdaile, J. (1852a), The Introduction of Mesmerism as an Anaesthetic and Curative Agent into the Hospitals of India, Dewar and Son, (Perth), 1852.
- Esdaile, J. (1852b), Natural and Mesmeric Clairvoyance, With the Practical Application of Mesmerism in Surgery and Medicine, Hippolyte Bailliere, (London), 1852.
- Esdaile, J. (1853), "The Protest and Petition of James Esdaile, M.D., Surgeon H.E.I.C.S., to the Members of the American Congress", The Zoist: A Journal of Cerebral Physiology & Mesmerism, and Their Application to Human Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 43, (October 1853), pp. 294–297.
- Esdaile, J. (1856), The Introduction of Mesmerism (with the Sanction of the Government) as an Anaesthetic and Curative Agent into the Hospitals of India (Second Edition), W. Kent and Co., (London), 1856.
- Esdaile, J (1857), "The Destruction Of Young Salmon (Letter to the Editor)", The Times, (Monday, 4 May 1857), p. 12.
- Gauld, A., A History of Hypnotism, Cambridge University Press, (Cambridge), 1992.
- Harte, R., Hypnotism and the Doctors, Volume II: The Second Commission; Dupotet And Lafontaine; The English School; Braid's Hypnotism; Statuvolism; Pathetism; Electro-Biology, L.N. Fowler & Co., (London), 1903.
- Higginbotham, J.J., "Esdaile, Dr. James", Men Whom India Has Known: Biographies of Eminent Indian Characters (Second Edition), Higginbotham and Co., (Madras), p. 130.
- Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1889). . Dictionary of National Biography. 18. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Pulos, L., "Mesmerism Revisited: The Effectiveness of Esdaile's Techniques in the Production of Deep Hypnosis and Total Body Hypnoanaesthesia", American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Vol. 22, No. 4, (April 1980), pp. 206–211. doi=10.1080/00029157.1980.10403229
- Schneck, J.M., "James Esdaile, Hypnotic Dreams, and Hypnoanalysis", Journal of the History of Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 4, (Autumn 1951), pp. 491–495. doi=10.1093/jhmas/VI.Autumn.491
- Stewart, J., "Notes on the Introduction and Acclimatization of the Salmon", Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, Vol. 8, (1875), pp. 205–209.
- Webb, A., The Historical Relations of Ancient Hindu with Greek Medicine in Connection with the Study of Modern Medical Science in India: Being a General Introductory Lecture Delivered June 1850, at the Calcutta Medical College, J.C. Sherriff, Military Orphan Press, (Calcutta), 1850.
- Yeates, L.B., James Braid: Surgeon, Gentleman Scientist, and Hypnotist, Ph.D. Dissertation, School of History and Philosophy of Science, Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences, University of New South Wales, January 2013.