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Hirado Island (平戸島, Hiradoshima) (also previously named Hiranoshima and Firando Island) is the 4th largest island in the Nagasaki prefecture. Its coasts are washed by East China Sea. The entire island and the part of the nearby Kyushu mainland is administered as part of Hirado city. The island's highest peak is Mount Yasumandake [ja] 535 m (1,755 ft). The Saikai National Park comprise 24% of the island`s total area.

Hirado Island
Native name:
平戸島 Hiradoshima
Hirado Island is located in Japan
Hirado Island
Hirado Island
Location in Japan
Geography
LocationEast China Sea
Coordinates33°22′5″N 129°33′13″E / 33.36806°N 129.55361°E / 33.36806; 129.55361Coordinates: 33°22′5″N 129°33′13″E / 33.36806°N 129.55361°E / 33.36806; 129.55361
Area163.42 km2 (63.10 sq mi)
Length32 km (19.9 mi)
Width10 km (6 mi)
Coastline203.5 km (126.45 mi)
Highest elevation535 m (1,755 ft)
Highest pointmount Yasumandake [ja]
Administration
Japan
PrefectureNagasaki Prefecture
cityHirado
Demographics
Population21355 (2005)
Pop. density131 /km2 (339 /sq mi)
Ethnic groupsJapanese

Contents

GeologyEdit

The Hirado island has formed as a horst elevated from the sea in Pliocene period. Its bedrock features a mixture of the sea sedimentary rocks of Tertiary period, mixed and overlaid by the recent Igneous rock. Due to being relatively young, the island is very hilly with large fraction of area over 200 meters elevation, and flat land is limited to marginal coastal plains. The coastline is highly indented and feature a large cliffs along the entire north-west coast facing East China Sea, except for river mouths.[1]

HistoryEdit

The Hirado Island port was the primary departure point for the Japanese missions to Sui China and Japanese missions to Tang China in 7th-9th centuries.

16 October 1274, the Hirado Island was invaded by the detachment of the Mongol army as the part of Mongol invasions of Japan. During the 2nd invasion of 1281, the island was an important rear base for the Mongols until been abandoned after the invasion failed.

Since Muromachi period in 14th century, the island had become the hub for the Wokou pirates. In the development of the Nanban trade with Europe, the Portuguese trade station was operational on the island in 1550-1561 period. In 1584, the Spanish, British and Dutch traders started visiting the island once again.

The Hirado Domain was established and Hirado Castle built under leadership of the Matsuura clan in 1599. The castle was razed in 1613 and re-built in 1704.

In 1609-1641, a Dutch trading factory was established in Hirado Island before been transferred to Dejima.[2] From 1613, the ships of William Adams started operating from Hirado Island too, but the British trade mission was closed in 1623.

From 1955 to 2005, after a series of the municipal mergers, the Hirado city comprising the entire island was established.

TransportationEdit

The Hirado Bridge over 570 meters wide strait connects the Hirado Island to the Kyushu. The bridge was completed in 1977 and the transit fee was cancelled in 2010. Also, Ikitsuki Bridge (completed in 1991) connects Hirado Island to the Ikitsuki Island. The island is served by the national Route 383. Ferries are available for transfer to the lesser inhabited islands nearby.

ClimateEdit

Hirado Island is located in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa), with four distinct seasons. The island rarely sees snowfall during the winter. Spring in Hirado Island starts off mild, but ends up being very humid. The summer tends to be Hirado's wettest season, with the tsuyu (梅雨, tsuyu, "plum rain") — the rainy season — occurring between early June (average:Jun.7) to late July (average:Jul.21). The island's weather is affected by the nearby Liman current [ja] while being shielded from the warm Kuroshio Current by the Kyushu island, resulting in wetter and colder climate than should be expected at lower 30`s latitudes. The climate of Hirado Island is greatly moderated by the surrounding sea, resulting in reduced seasonal and diurnal temperature variations.

Climate data for Hirado weather station[3](1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
10.2
(50.4)
13.0
(55.4)
17.4
(63.3)
21.2
(70.2)
24.0
(75.2)
27.6
(81.7)
29.4
(84.9)
22.2
(72.0)
21.9
(71.4)
16.9
(62.4)
11.9
(53.4)
19.9
(67.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.3
(45.1)
9.9
(49.8)
14.0
(57.2)
17.7
(63.9)
21.0
(69.8)
24.9
(76.8)
26.3
(79.3)
23.4
(74.1)
18.9
(66.0)
13.9
(57.0)
9.2
(48.6)
16.1
(61.0)
Average low °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
4.5
(40.1)
6.9
(44.4)
10.8
(51.4)
14.8
(58.6)
18.7
(65.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.9
(75.0)
21.1
(70.0)
16.0
(60.8)
11.0
(51.8)
6.3
(43.3)
13.4
(56.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 81.5
(3.21)
92.5
(3.64)
156.0
(6.14)
184.8
(7.28)
205.4
(8.09)
310.6
(12.23)
362.3
(14.26)
215.5
(8.48)
233.4
(9.19)
94.6
(3.72)
104.4
(4.11)
68.3
(2.69)
2,109.3
(83.04)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 3
(1.2)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
6
(2.4)
Average relative humidity (%) 64 66 68 76 79 86 88 84 79 70 67 65 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.9 114.3 147.3 175.4 188.3 133.2 154.0 200.0 160.1 178.1 131.8 108.5 1,783.8
Source #1: Japan Meteorological Agency[4]
Source #2: NOAA (1961-1990)[5]

AttractionsEdit

Notable residentsEdit

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • This article incorporates material from Japanese Wikipedia page 平戸島, accessed 4 August 2017
  1. ^ Fuyuji Takai, Tatsuro Matsumoto and Ryuzo Toriyama, "Geology of Japan", p. 166
  2. ^ Internet archive of 2012 - Van hier tot Tokio. 400 jaar handel met Japan
  3. ^ Hirado weather station homepage
  4. ^ "平戸 平年値(年・月ごとの値) 主な要素". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  5. ^ "Hirado Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  6. ^ Boero, Giuseppe. (1868) Les 205 martyrs du Japon, béatifiés par Pie IX en 1867, p. 249.