High Street (or the High Street, also High Road) is a metonym for the concept (and frequently the street name) of the primary business street of towns or cities, especially in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations. To distinguish it from "centres" of nearby places it is frequently preceded unofficially by the name of its settlement. In a town it implies the focal point for business, especially shops and street stalls (if any) in town and city centres. As a generic shorthand presupposed upon linear settlements it may be used to denote more precise concepts such as the urban retail sector, town centre sectors of employment, all small shops and services outlets and even wider concepts taking in social concepts.[a]
The equivalent in the United States and some parts of Canada, as well as some Northern English and many Scottish towns, is Main Street.
The smallest High Street in Britain is located in the small market town of Holsworthy in Devon. The street itself is no more than 100 yards (100 m) long and there are only three shops located on Holsworthy's High Street.
High Street is the most common street name in the UK, which according to a 2009 statistical compilation has 5,410 High Streets, 3,811 Station Roads and 2,702 Main Streets.
In Middle English the word "high" denoted a metaphorical meaning of excellence or superior rank ("high sheriff", "Lord High Chancellor", "high society"). "High" also applied to roads as they improved: "highway" was a new term taken up by the church and their vestries to during the 17th century as a term for all public roads between settlements.
Following the great fire of London in 1666, the acts governing rebuilding designated four types of street based on the size of their carriageways and the types of buildings. Shops were permitted in the principal street or high street, but not in the by-lanes or back streets. This may have been based on the need for high visibility in order to regulate retail trade, as well as to avoid congestion in the smaller back streets. Accordingly, the term "High Street" gradually assumed a narrower meaning to describe thoroughfares with significant retail in large villages and towns.
Since the 19th-century, which saw the building of more public roads (public highways), in countries using the term motorway, the term highway fell out of common speech as it became more specific to its legal definition, denoting any public road, as in the Highway Code.
In the United Kingdom geographic concentration of goods and services (including at industrial estates and out of town shopping centres) has reduced the share of the economy contributed to by workers in the high street. High street refers to only a part of commerce. The town centre in many British towns combines a group of outdoor shopping streets (one or more of which may be pedestrianised), with an adjacent indoor shopping centre.
Small shop preservationist movementEdit
The House of Commons in 2006 established an All Party Parliamentary Small Shops Group, which published a report titled High Street Britain 2015, warning against trends in high streets that were disadvantageous to small shops. The report warns that the increase in chain stores on high streets contributes to the formation of clone towns, a concept set out by geographical theorists, which "creat[es] a loss of sociability" compared to traditional shopping. Members of the working group generally agreed that: "The demise of the small shop would mean that people will not just be disadvantaged in their role as consumers but also as members of communities – the erosion of small shops is viewed as the erosion of the 'social glue' that binds communities together, entrenching social exclusion in the UK."
Town centre customer experienceEdit
The continued vitality of towns is predicated on a number of different variables. Research into town centre customer experience has highlighted the ongoing challenges faced by towns and cities and suggested that "[t]he town centre serves not only social, utilitarian or hedonic shopping purposes, but also supports out-of-hours entertainment and leisure services. The way that consumers perceive and use town centres has also fundamentally changed" . In order to address the issues threatening the sustainability of towns it is increasingly important to consider consumer behaviour and customer experience. This is in line with research that proposes that for high street retail to thrive in spite of the growth threat of eCommerce, the sensual hedonic experiences (e.g. scent, feel, etc.) need to be presented to visitors while allowing for discovery of hidden experiences in the built environment.
High Streets are less commonly seen in Ireland. Neither of Dublin's two main shopping streets (Grafton Street and Henry Street) carry this name, nor does its main thoroughfare (O'Connell Street). While Dublin has a High Street near Christchurch, it is not a shopping street. The city of Cork's main shopping street is St Patrick's Street. The city's oldest streets are named North Main Street and South Main Street. Limerick's principal thoroughfare, like Dublin, is also O'Connell Street (the name is used in a number of other Irish towns in honour of Daniel O'Connell).
Main Street is used in many smaller towns and villages. For example, the OSI North Leinster Town Maps book lists sixteen "Main Streets" and only two "High Streets" in its thirty-town index of street names. Similarly, the OSI Dublin Street Guide (covering all of Dublin City and County Dublin) lists twenty "Main Streets" and only two "High Streets". Killarney and Galway are two of the few large Irish towns in which the shopping streets are named High Street. Nonetheless, the term "high street" is often used in the Irish media to refer generically to shopping streets.
The term "High Street" is used to describe stores found on a typical high street to differentiate them from more specialised, exclusive and expensive outlets (often independent stores) — for example, "High Street banks" (instead of the less-common private or investment banks) or "High Street shops" (instead of boutiques).
The equivalent in the United States, sometimes in Canada and Ireland is Main Street, a term also used in smaller towns and villages in Scotland and Australia. In Jamaica, North East England and some sections of Canada and the United States, the main commercial district is Front Street (especially in cities located alongside a waterway). In Cornwall, some places in Devon and some places in the north of England, the equivalent is Fore Street; in some parts of the UK Market Street is also used, although sometimes this may be a different area where street markets are currently (or were historically) centred. In Canada, east of Lake Superior, King Street and Queen Street are often major streets; "rue Principale", as the literal French language equivalent of "Main Street" is frequently used in Quebec towns, and "a village where the main street is still Main Street" is a phrase that is used in respect for small towns. The Dutch equivalent is Hoogstraat, of which examples are found in cities such as Brussels, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Bruges, Rotterdam and many towns. In Germany, the equivalent is Hauptstraße (Main Street), though this can also refer to a road with a lot of traffic (i.e., a highway). In Cologne the Hohe Straße (literally, High Street) is the main shopping street, but was named after a gate at its southern end (the Hohe Pforte, or High Gate).
- Expressions include High Street culture and High Street venues or forums.
- "Halifax Estate Agents reveals the UK's Top 50 street names" (PDF). Lloydsbankinggroup.com. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
- Douglas Harper (2001–2012). "highway". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Cox, N., "'Beggary of the Nation': Moral, Economic and Political Attitudes to the Retail Sector in the Early Modern Period", in: John Benson and Laura Ugolini, A Nation of Shopkeepers: Five Centuries of British Retailing, London, I.B. Taurus, 2003, p. 38
- House of Commons, All Party Parliamentary Small Shops Group, High Street Britain 2015, 15 February 2006, via BBC News
- Hart, Cathy (2015). "Town Centres Research Interest Group". Loughborough University. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- Warnaby, Gary; Parker, Christopher J. "12". In Campelo, Adriana. Mobility, Marketing, and the City: The discovery of experience. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 203–217.
- High.St. "Dublin High Street". High St. Solution Management Ltd. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Louise Armitstead (15 December 2010). "Standard of UK high street banks is shocking, says Metro Bank founder Vernon Hill". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- de:Hohe Straße (Köln)