Heimskringla (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈheimsˌkʰriŋla]) is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas. It was written in Old Norse in Iceland. While authorship of Heimskringla is nowhere attributed, some scholars assume it is written by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1178/79–1241) c. 1230. The title Heimskringla was first used in the 17th century, derived from the first two words of one of the manuscripts (kringla heimsins, "the circle of the world").

The single surviving page of the c. 1260 Kringla manuscript, known as the Kringla leaf (Kringlublaðið) is kept in the National and University Library of Iceland in Reykjavík.

Heimskringla is a collection of sagas about Swedish and Norwegian kings, beginning with the saga of the legendary Swedish dynasty of the Ynglings, followed by accounts of historical Norwegian rulers from Harald Fairhair of the 9th century up to the death of the pretender Eystein Meyla in 1177.

Some of the exact sources of Heimskringla are disputed, but they include earlier kings' sagas, such as Morkinskinna, Fagrskinna and the 12th-century Norwegian synoptic histories and oral traditions, notably many skaldic poems. The author or authors explicitly name the now lost work Hryggjarstykki as their source for the events of the mid-12th century.



No known manuscript attributes authorship to Heimskringla. The matter is summarized as follows by Anthony Faulkes:

The authorship of Heimskringla is not referred to within the text or in any surviving manuscript—as is usually the case for a medieval work—and its attribution to Snorri has been questioned. The first surviving works in which he is credited as author are the sixteenth-century translations of Heimskringla into Danish by the Norwegians Peder Claussøn Friis and Laurents Hanssøn ... who are generally believed to have used at least one now lost manuscript of Heimskringla that gave authority for their naming of Snorri.[1]



The title Heimskringla comes from the first words of the first saga in the compilation (Ynglinga saga), Kringla heimsins, "the orb of the Earth".[2]

Manuscript history


The earliest parchment copy of the work is Kringla, now in the National and University Library of Iceland, catalogued as Lbs fragm 82. It is a single vellum leaf from c. 1260, a part of the Saga of St. Olaf; the rest of the manuscript was lost to fire in 1728.[3]


Gerhard Munthe, Kringla Heimsins, illustration for Ynglinga Saga

Heimskringla consists of several sagas, often thought of as falling into three groups, giving the overall work the character of a triptych.[4] The saga narrates the contests of the kings, the establishment of the kingdom of Norway, Norse expeditions to various European countries, ranging as far afield as Palestine in the saga of Sigurd the Crusader, where the Norwegian fleet is attacked by Arab Muslim pirates, referred to as Vikings.[5] The stories are told with energy, giving a picture of human life in all its dimensions. The saga is a prose epic, relevant to the history of not only Scandinavia but the regions included in the wider medieval Scandinavian diaspora. The first part of the Heimskringla is rooted in Norse mythology; as the collection proceeds, fable and fact intermingle, but the accounts become increasingly historically reliable.

The first saga tells of the mythological prehistory of the Swedish and Norwegian royal dynasty, the Ynglings, tracing their lineage to Freyr (Yngve) of the Vanaland people, who arrived in Scandinavia with Odin from the legendary Asgard. The subsequent sagas are (with few exceptions) devoted to individual rulers, starting with Halfdan the Black.

A version of Óláfs saga helga, about the saint Olaf II of Norway, is the main and central part of the collection: Olaf's 15-year-long reign takes up about one third of the entire work.

Thereafter, the saga of Harald Hardrada narrates Harald's expedition to the East, his brilliant exploits in Constantinople, Syria, and Sicily, his skaldic accomplishments, and his battles in England against Harold Godwinson, the son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, where he fell at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, only a few days before Harold fell at the Battle of Hastings. After presenting a series of other kings, the saga ends with Magnus V of Norway.



Heimskringla contains the following sagas (see also List of Norwegian monarchs):

  1. Ynglinga saga
  2. Saga of Halfdanr svarti ("the Black")
  3. Saga of Haraldr hárfagi ("Finehair") (died c. 931)
  4. Saga of Hákon góði ("the Good") (died 961)
  5. Saga of King Haraldr gráfeldr ("Greycloak") (died 969)
  6. Saga of King Óláfr Tryggvason (died 1000)
  7. Saga of King Óláfr Haraldsson (died 1030), excerpt from conversion of Dale-Gudbrand
  8. Saga of Magnús góði ("the Good") (died 1047)
  9. Saga of Haraldr harðráði ("Hardruler") (died 1066)
  10. Saga of Óláfr Haraldsson kyrri ("the Gentle") (died 1093)
  11. Saga of Magnús berfœttr ("Barefoot") (died 1103)
  12. Saga of Sigurðr Jórsalafari ("Jerusalem-traveller") (died 1130) and his brothers
  13. Saga of Magnús blindi ("the Blind") (dethroned 1135) and of Haraldr Gilli (died 1136)
  14. Saga of Sigurðr (died 1155), Eysteinn (died 1157) and Ingi (died 1161), the sons of Haraldr
  15. Saga of Hákon herðibreiðs ("the Broadshouldered") (died 1162)
  16. Saga of Magnús Erlingsson (died 1184)



Heimskringla explicitly mentions a few prose sources, now mostly lost in then-contemporary forms: Hryggjarstykki ('spine pieces') by Eiríkr Oddsson (covering events 1130–61), Skjǫldunga saga, an unidentified saga about Knútr inn gamli, and a text called Jarlasǫgurnar ('sagas of the jarls', which seems to correspond to the saga now known as Orkneyinga saga).[6]

The author may have had access to a wide range of the early Scandinavian historical texts known today as the 'synoptic histories', but made most use of:[7]

The author also made extensive use of skaldic verse which he believed to have been composed at the time of the events portrayed and transmitted orally from that time onwards, and clearly made use of other oral accounts, though it is uncertain to what extent.[8][9][10]

Historical reliability


Up until the mid-19th century, historians put great trust in the factual truth of Snorri's narrative, as well as other old Norse sagas. In the early 20th century, this trust was largely abandoned with the advent of saga criticism, pioneered by the Swedish historians Lauritz and Curt Weibull. These historians pointed out that Snorri's work had been written several centuries after most of the events it describes. In Norway, the historian Edvard Bull famously proclaimed that "we have to give up all illusions that Snorri's mighty epic bears any deeper resemblance to what actually happened" in the time it describes.[11] A school of historians has come to believe that the motives Snorri and the other saga writers give to their characters owe more to conditions in the 13th century than in earlier times.

Heimskringla has, however, continued to be used as a historical source, though with more caution. It is not common to believe in the detailed accuracy of the historical narrative and historians tend to see little to no historical truth behind the first few sagas, however, they are still seen by many as a valuable source of knowledge about the society and politics of medieval Norway.[12] The factual content of the work tends to be deemed more credible where it discusses more recent times, as the distance in time between the events described and the composition of the saga was shorter, allowing traditions to be retained in a largely accurate form, and because in the twelfth century the first contemporary written sources begin to emerge in Norway.



Whereas prior to Heimskringla there seems to have been a diversity of efforts to write histories of kings, Heimskringla seems thereafter to have been the basis for Icelandic writing about Scandinavian kings, and was expanded by scribes rather than entirely revised. Flateyjarbók, from the end of the fourteenth century, is the most extreme example of expansion, interweaving Heimskringla text with many þættir and other whole sagas, prominently Orkneyinga saga, Færeyinga saga, and Fóstbrœðra saga.[13]

The text is also referenced in Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne; the work is the one Professor Liedenbrock finds Arne Saknussem's note in.

Editions and translations


History of translations


By the mid-16th century, the Old Norse language was unintelligible to Norwegian, Swedish or Danish readers. At that time several translations of extracts were made in Norway into the Danish language, which was the literary language of Norway at the time.[citation needed] The first complete translation was made around 1600 by Peder Claussøn Friis, and printed in 1633. This was based on a manuscript known as Jofraskinna.[citation needed]

Subsequently, the Stockholm manuscript was translated into Swedish and Latin by Johan Peringskiöld (by order of Charles XI) and published in 1697 at Stockholm under the title Heimskringla, which is the first known use of the name. This edition also included the first printing of the text in Old Norse. A new Danish translation with the text in Old Norse and a Latin translation came out in 1777–83 (by order of Frederick VI as crown prince). An English translation by Samuel Laing was finally published in 1844, with a second edition in 1889. Starting in the 1960s English-language revisions of Laing appeared, as well as fresh English translations.[14]

In the 19th century, as Norway was achieving independence after centuries of union with Denmark and Sweden, the stories of the independent Norwegian medieval kingdom won great popularity in Norway. Heimskringla, although written by an Icelander, became an important national symbol for Norway during the period of romantic nationalism.[15] In 1900, the Norwegian parliament, the Storting, subsidized the publication of new translations of Heimskringla into both Norwegian written forms, landsmål and riksmål, "in order that the work may achieve wide distribution at a low price".[16]


  • Sturlusonar, Snorra (1869–1872). Linder, N.; Haggson, H. A. (eds.). Heimskringla eða Sögur Noregs konunga. Uppsala: W. Schultz. Google Books vols 1–2, Google Books vol. 3
  • Sturluson, Snorri (1941–1951). Aðalbjarnarson, Bjarni (ed.). Heimskringla. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag.



The most recent English translation of Heimskringla is by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes and is available open-access.

  • Sturluson, Snorri (1844). The Heimskringla: or, Chronicle of the Kings of Norway. Translated by Laing, Samuel. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. HTML (repr. Everyman's Library, 717, 722, 847).
  • Sturluson, Snorri (1891–1905). The Saga Library: Done into English out of the Icelandic. Vol. 3–6. Translated by Morris, William; Magnússon, Eiríkr. London: Quaritch.
  • Sturluson, Snorri (1964). Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway. Translated by Hollander, Lee M. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Sturluson, Snorri (2000). Histoire des rois de Norvège, première partie: des origines mythiques de la dynastie à la bataille de Svold. Translated by Dillmann, François-Xavier. Paris: Gallimard.
  • Sturluson, Snorri (2011–2016). Heimskringla. Translated by Finlay, Alison; Faulkes, Anthony. London: Viking Society for Northern Research. vol 1 (1st edn); vol 1 (2nd edn); vol 2; vol. 3.




  1. ^ Faulkes (2011: vii).
  2. ^ Geir T. Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (Oxford: Clarendon, 1910), s.vv. kringla Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, "disk, circle, orb" and heimr.
  3. ^ "Manuscript Details: Ólafs saga helga — Heimskringla". handrit.is. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018.
  4. ^ Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla, trans. by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes, 3 vols (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2011–15) (second edition 2016–), vol 1 (2nd edn) Archived 7 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine (p. vii).
  5. ^ Heimskringla/Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and His Brothers Eystein and Olaf
  6. ^ Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla, trans. by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes, 3 vols (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2011–15) (second edition 2016–), vol 1 (2nd edn) Archived 7 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine (p. xi).
  7. ^ Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla, trans. by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes, 3 vols (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2011–15) (second edition 2016–), vol 1 (2nd edn) Archived 7 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine (pp. xii–xiii).
  8. ^ Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla, trans. by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes, 3 vols (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2011–15) (second edition 2016–), vol 1 (2nd edn) Archived 7 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine (pp. ix–xi).
  9. ^ Thunberg, Carl L. Särkland och dess källmaterial [Serkland and its Source Material]. (Göteborgs universitet. CLTS, 2011). pp 67–68. ISBN 978-91-981859-3-5.
  10. ^ Thunberg, Carl L. Att tolka Svitjod [To interpret Svitjod]. (Göteborgs universitet. CLTS, 2012). pp 7–53. ISBN 978-91-981859-4-2.
  11. ^ Edvard Bull, Det norske folks liv og historie gjennom tidene bd. 2 (Oslo, 1931)
  12. ^ e.g. Sverre Bagge, Society and Politics in Snorri Sturlusons Heimskringla (Berkeley, 1991).
  13. ^ Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla, trans. by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes, 3 vols (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2011–15) (second edition 2016–), vol 1 (2nd edn) Archived 7 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine (p. xiii).
  14. ^ Snorri Sturluson, trans. Samuel Laing, ed. Rasmus Björn Anderson, The Heimskringla: Or, The Sagas of the Norse Kings from the Icelandic of Snorre Sturlason (NY: Scribner & Wellford, 1889). Snorri Sturluson, Peter Foote revised edition of Laing 1844, Heimskringla: Sagas of the Norse Kings (London: Dent, 1961). Snorri Sturluson, Jacqueline Simpson revised edition of Laing 1844, Heimskringla: The Olaf Sagas, 2 vols. (London: Dent, 1964). Snorri Sturluson, trans. Lee Hollander, Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway (Austin TX: American-Scandinavian Foundation and University of TX Press, 1964). Snorri Sturluson, trans. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson, King Harald's Saga: Harald Hardradi of Norway (NY: Penguin, 1966).
  15. ^ Straubhaar, Sandra Ballif (1999). "Gustav Storm's Heimskringla as a Norwegian Nationalist Genesis Narrative". Tijdschrift voor Skandinavistiek. 20 (2): 115. ISSN 1875-9505. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  16. ^ "forat verket ved en lav pris kan faa almindelig udbredelse". Snorre Sturlason, Kongesagaer (Kristiania, 1900).