Hasan Zvizdić

Hasan Zvizdić (1892–1980)[1] was a Sandžak Muslim commander of a detachment of the collaborationist Muslim militia from Sjenica during the Second World War.[2] He was the main livestock wholesaler in the region which depended on animal husbandry, thus his influence in Sandžak was strong.[3]

Hasan Zvizdić

Born1892
Sjenica, Ottoman Empire (modern Serbia)
Died1980 (aged 87–88)
Adapazarı, Turkey
Allegiance
Unitdetachment of Sandžak Muslim militia from Sjenica
Battles/warsWorld War II in Yugoslavia

Zvizdić was one of the commanders of the Muslim militia, who was especially in favor of the annexation of the eastern part of Sandžak into the Kingdom of Albania.[4]

Early lifeEdit

Zvizdić was born into a family that originally came from Gacko in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1917 the house of his family was attacked by Serb resistance who killed his mother and two sisters while his father and many other family members were wounded. This event had a significant influence on his later political and military career. In 1917 he became a member of council of Zeta Banovina.[5]

Zvizdić was a wealthy Muslim whole-trader in Sjenica. He became a city governor and armed many local Muslims organizing them as militia during the war.[6]

During World War IIEdit

In December 1941 Zvizdić refused to allow Partisans to capture Sjenica because he was afraid that Chetniks, German and Italian forces would attack Partisans in Sjenica and kill many of its population as well. He explained to Partisans that he had around 5,000 members of Muslim militia under his command and that he will used them against Partisans or Chetniks if they try to capture Sjenica.[7] According to historian Živković, Zvizdić was actually concerned that his lucrative contracts to supply Italian and German army with livestock would be cancelled if Partisans capture the city.[8]

On 22 December 1941 forces of Muslim militia from Prijepolje, commanded by Sulejman Pačariz, and from Sjenica commanded by Zvizdić successfully repelled the attack of Partisans who tried to capture Sjenica.[9] They were supported by one company from Tutin, commanded by Džemail Koničanin, who joined them based on invitation of Zvizdić.[10] Under orders from Italians, Zvizdić send them Partisan PoWs through Sulejman Pačariz to Prijepolje, 17 of them would be executed by Italians and 4 exchanged with partisans.[11]

At the beginning of February 1942 detachments of Muslim militia from Sjenica under command of Zvizdić, together with Prijepolje, Brodarevo and Komaran militia detachments in cooperation with Chetniks under command of Pavle Đurišić and with Italian forces, were planned to attack Partisans who were retreating through Sandžak after their defeat in Užice. When Pačariz realized that Partisans managed to defeat Chetniks, he did not dare to attack Partisans, but decided to move his forces to Sjenica to help Zvizdić in case Partisans decide to attack the town again.[12]

Zvizdić was very influential not only in Sjenica and Tutin, but also in wider region. He thought that it is useful to visit Chetnik headquarter and to negotiate with Draža Mihailović.[13] On 27 June Zvizdić and other Muslim and Albanian leaders (including Aćif Hadžiahmetović, Xhafer Deva, Ferhat Bey Draga and Ahmet Daca) negotiated with representatives of Mihailović's Chetniks. The negotiations ended with agreement on cooperation in the joint struggle against Communists.[14] Milorad Ekmečić refer to Zvizdić as Muslim Chetnik leader.[15] In 1943 Zvizvić organized revenge to Serbs that killed members of his family, with support of Muslims from Kladnica.[16]

Karl von Krempler planned to establish Sandžak as separate political entity and offered to Zvizdić a position of its governor. Zvizdić refused Krempler's offer.[17] When Germans took control over Montenegro after the capitulation of Italy at the end of 1943 they established a puppet Government with Hasan Zvizdić as its minister without portfolio.[18]

After the war he emigrated from Yugoslavia to avoid being captured and executed by Partisans. He died in 1980 in Adapazarı, Turkey. In 2012 a commemorative plaque was revealed in front of the house in which Zvizdić lived.[19]

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Crnovršanin 1996: "Hasan je rodjen 1892. godine .... Hasan-aga Zvizdic umro je 1980. godine u Adapazaru"
  2. ^ Bojović, Jovan R.; Šibalić, Mijuško (1979). Durmitorska partizanska republika: materijali sa naučnog skupa održanog u Žabljaku 24, 25 i 26, avgusta 1977. godine. Istorijski in-t SR Crne Gore. p. 382.
  3. ^ Živković 2011, p. "Kako se kasnije ispostavilo, Zvizdić je još desetak dana ranije pozvao muslimane iz okoline Sjenice da pomognu odbranu grada, što su ovi prihvatili s obzirom na njegov uticaj kao glavnog trgovca mesom i stokom u jednoj stočarskoj regiji.".
  4. ^ Милутин Живковић - НДХ У СРБИЈИ Усташки режим у Прибоју, Пријепољу, Новој Вароши и Сјеници(април–септембар 1941, Последице усташке управе НДХ и рецидиви њене политике према муслиманима, Publishers: ДРУШТВО ИСТОРИЧАРА СРБИЈЕ „СТОЈАН НОВАКОВИЋ“, ИНСТИТУТ ЗА СРПСКУ КУЛТУРУ ПРИШТИНА-ЛЕПОСАВИЋ, Belgrade 2017 p.857
  5. ^ Милутин Живковић - НДХ У СРБИЈИ Усташки режим у Прибоју, Пријепољу, Новој Вароши и Сјеници(април–септембар 1941, Последице усташке управе НДХ и рецидиви њене политике према муслиманима, Publishers: ДРУШТВО ИСТОРИЧАРА СРБИЈЕ „СТОЈАН НОВАКОВИЋ“, ИНСТИТУТ ЗА СРПСКУ КУЛТУРУ ПРИШТИНА-ЛЕПОСАВИЋ, Belgrade 2017 p.290
  6. ^ Djurašinović-Kostja, Vojin (1961). Stazama proleterskim. Prosveta. p. 279.
  7. ^ Ćuković, Mirko (1964). Sandžak: Na osnovu sakupljenog i obrađenog materijala knjigu napisao Mirko Ćuković. Nolit. pp. 196, 197.
  8. ^ Živković 2011, p. "To je bilo opravdanje za javnost, dok je stvarni razlog ležao u tome što je Zvizdić kao trgovac stokom imao ugovor o snabdevanju italijanskih i nemačkih vojski mesom, koji bi verovatno bio ugrožen ukoliko bi se pročulo da je pustio partizane u grad.".
  9. ^ Radaković, Petko (1981), "Muslimanska milicija u službi okupatora", Užička Republika, Zapisi i sećanja – I (in Serbian), Užice: Muzej ustanka 1941, p. 662
  10. ^ Ćuković, Mirko (1964). Sandžak: Na osnovu sakupljenog i obrađenog materijala knjigu napisao Mirko Ćuković. Nolit. p. 209. Убрзо се појавила и друга непријатељска колона од села Медаре, под командом Џема Коничанина. Ова група је на позив Хасана Звиздића ститла два дана раније као помоћ са Пештера из нггавичког среза
  11. ^ Живковић 2017, p. 362.
  12. ^ Ćuković, Mirko (1964). Sandžak: Na osnovu sakupljenog i obrađenog materijala knjigu napisao Mirko Ćuković. Nolit. p. 247.
  13. ^ Spasoje Đaković (1986). Sukobi na Kosovu. Narodna knjiga. p. 139. ISBN 9788633100854.
  14. ^ Ćuković, Mirko (1964). Sandžak: Na osnovu sakupljenog i obrađenog materijala knjigu napisao Mirko Ćuković. Nolit. p. 526.
  15. ^ Ekmečić, Milorad (2007). Dugo kretanje između klanja i oranja: Istorija Srba u Novom Veku 1492-1992. Zavod za udžbenike. p. 569. ISBN 9788617145147. Звиздић Хасан, вођа муслиманске чет- ничке групе
  16. ^ Милутин Живковић - НДХ У СРБИЈИ Усташки режим у Прибоју, Пријепољу, Новој Вароши и Сјеници(април–септембар 1941, Последице усташке управе НДХ и рецидиви њене политике према муслиманима, Publishers: ДРУШТВО ИСТОРИЧАРА СРБИЈЕ „СТОЈАН НОВАКОВИЋ“, ИНСТИТУТ ЗА СРПСКУ КУЛТУРУ ПРИШТИНА-ЛЕПОСАВИЋ, Belgrade 2017 p.254
  17. ^ Ćuković, Mirko (1964). Sandžak: Na osnovu sakupljenog i obrađenog materijala knjigu napisao Mirko Ćuković. Nolit. p. 525.
  18. ^ Pajović, Radoje (1977). Kontrarevolucija u Crnoj Gori: četnički i federalistički pokret 1941-1945. p. 423.
  19. ^ "Otkrivena tabla Hasan-agi Zvizdiću". Centar za bošnjačke studije. Retrieved 2 June 2014.

SourcesEdit

  • Crnovršanin, Harun (1996). Sinovi Sandžaka. Izd. autora.
  • Živković, Milutin (2011). "Dešavanja u Sandžaku od julskog ustanka do kraja 1941 godine" (PDF). Baština (in Serbian). Priština, Leposavić: Institute for Serbian Culture. 31. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  • Живковић, Милутин Д. (2017). Санџак 1941–1943. Филозофски Фалултет, Универзитет у Београду.