Hakim Abdul Aziz

Hakim Abdul Aziz (Muhammad 'Abd al 'Aziz, 1855–1911) was a prominent Unani physician in British India.[1]

Abdul Aziz
Hakim Abdul Aziz.jpeg
Photograph of Hakim Abdul Aziz[citation needed]
Lucknow, India
Lucknow, India
Resting placeJhawai tola, Lucknow
OccupationUnani physician
Years active1877–1911
Known forPhilosophy of Unani medicine, Free treatment, anti-adulteration
StylePuritan Unani system
Board member ofCommittee for Regulation of Medical Formulations
RelativesGrandfather of Mohammad Shakeel and Late Jamila Sultana W/O late Akbar Khan Lodi


Hakim Abdul Aziz was born into a family of Kashmiri migrants, and is regarded as the founder of the Lucknow tradition in Unani medicine.[2] He started practising medicine in 1877. In 1902, he founded the Takmil al Tibb School at Lucknow for research and excellence in Unani Medicine.

The earliest biographical work on Hakim Abdul Aziz and his philosophical approach in Unani medicine was written by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. He wrote memoirs and life history of 'Azizi Family',[3] prescriptions and formulations of Hakim Abdul Waheed,[4] Unani formularies used by Azizi Family of Lucknow.[5]


Abdul Aziz’s approach with regards to Unani medicine was that of a puritan and hence, significantly different from other notable practitioners like Hakim Ajmal Khan who advocated incorporation of concepts from alternative medical systems.[6] Consequently, the Delhi and Lucknow schools of Unani medicine evolved in different directions.[7] Hakim Abdul Aziz wished to systematise Unani instruction at the Lucknow Madrasa around the texts of Ibn Sìnà, supplemented by practical instruction in surgery and anatomy.[8]


Hakim's fame was so widespread that students and practitioners of Unani medicine from as far and wide as the Punjab, Afghanistan, Balochistan, Bukhara and the Hejaz came to study with him. The Takmil al Tibb School (established by him at Lucknow) was instrumental in combating the widespread plague of 1902–03.

Coming to terms with the singular promotion of colonialism to allopathic medicine, in 1910 Hakim Abdul Aziz and Hakim Ajmal Khan and Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya formed the All India Ayurvedic and Unani Tibb Conference to defend traditional forms of healing. In 1904, recognizing the Hakim's stringent attitude towards adulteration in medicine, British India invited him to serve on the board of the Committee for Regulation of Medical Formulations.

Hakim Abdul Aziz did not charge visiting patients, though it is recorded that he solicited fees of 16 rupees for visits within the city, 500 rupees for visits outside the city, and 1000 rupees for visits outside the state. Among his royal patients were Shahjahan Begum of Bhopal and the son of Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda.


In 1910, shortly after returning from Hajj, the Hakim fell ill and died. His death was widely mourned by poets, journalists and commoners. After his death, his two eldest sons took over the maintenance of Takmil al Tibb. A road in Lucknow is named after him (Abdul Aziz Road), and the college is now maintained by the government. The Azizi family is still involved in practice of Unani medicine.[9] The Azizi Family also played a significant role in the Indian independence movement.[10]

Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman published his Tazkirah Khandan Azizi in 1978. The work was widely received and reviewed.[11] Similarly, his earlier Bayaz Wahidi (1974) and Matab Murtaish (1976) were also reviewed in many Urdu journals.[12]

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  1. ^ Alavi, Seema (2008). Islam and Healing: Loss and Recovery of an Indo-Muslim Medical Tradition, 1600–1900. Palgrave Macmillan.
  2. ^ van Alphen, Jan; Anthony Aris (1995). Oriental medicine: an illustrated guide to the Asian arts of healing. Serindia Publications.[page needed]
  3. ^ Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1978) [Second edition 2009], Taz̲kirah-yi k̲h̲āndān-i ʻAzīzī, ʻAlīgaṛh: Shifāʾulmulk Mīmoriyal Kameṭī, OL 19405795M[page needed]
  4. ^ Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1974). Bayaz Waheedi (First edition 1974, Second edition 1991 ed.). Aligarh/India: Shifaul Mulk Memorial Committee and Tibbi Academy. pp. 228–229.
  5. ^ Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1976). Matab Murtaish (2009 revised 2nd ed.). Aligarh/India: Shifaul Mulk Memorial Committee. pp. 230ff.
  6. ^ Alavi, Seema (2008). Islam and Healing: Loss and Recovery of an Indo-Muslim Medical Tradition, 1600–1900. Palgrave Macmillan.[page needed]
  7. ^ Rahman, Hakim Syed Zillur (July–December 2002). "Khandane Azizi ki Tibbi Infradiyat". Jahan-e Tibb (Takmilul Tibb College Special Number). 4 (1&2): 7–14.
  8. ^ Attewell, Guy (2005). "The end of the Line? The Fracturing of Authoritative Tibbi Knowledge in Twentieth-Century India". Asian Medicine. 1 (2): 387–419. doi:10.1163/157342105777996548.
  9. ^ Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (2002). Maqalat Shifaul Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif. Aligarh/India: Publication Division, Aligarh Muslim University. p. 324.
  10. ^ Rahman, Hakim Syed Zillur (August 1978). "Tahreek Azadi Main khandan Azizi Ka Hissa". Naya Daur. 35 (5): 28–32.
  11. ^ Daryabadi, Abdul Majid (9 March 1979). "Tazkira Khandan Azizi". Sidq-i Jadid (in Urdu).[clarification needed]"Tazkira Khandan Azizi". Nida-i-Millat (in Urdu). 11 March 1979. Akbarabadi, Maulana Saeed Ahmad (November 1979). "Tazkira Khandan Azizi". Burhan (in Urdu). Delhi. "Tazkira Khandan Azizi". Al-Jamiat (in Urdu). Delhi. 23 December 1979. Chandpuri, Kausar (28 May 1980). "Tazkira Khandan Azizi". Muharriq (in Urdu). Kolkata.
  12. ^ Matab Murtaish, Shahzad Ahmad, Blitz, Bombay, 20 November 1976. Matab Murtaish, Kausar Chandpuri, Hamdard, 1 December 1976. Matab Murtaish, Editor, Qaumi Awaz, Lucknow, 12 December 1976. Matab Murtaish, Editor, AI Jamiat, Delhi, 13 February 1977. Bayaz Wahidi, Kausar Chandpuri, Hamdard, 1 May 1976. Bayaz Wahidi, Editor, Nida-i Millat Lucknow, 11 July 1976. Bayaz Wahidi, Editor, Siyasat, Kanpur, 25 July 1976.


  • Tazkirah Khandan Azizi by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, (First edition 1978), Shifaul Mulk Memorial Committee, Aligarh, 472 pp; (Second revised edition 2009) ISBN 978-81-906070-6-3, Ibn Sina Academy, Aligarh, 458 pp.
  • The Azizi Family of Physicians by Tazimuddin Siddiqui and Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, (1983), Studies in History of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 93 pp.
  • Bayaz Waheedi by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, (1974), Shifaul Mulk Memorial Committee, Aligarh, 228pp, (Second edition 1991), Tibbi Academy, Aligarh, 224 pp.
  • Matab Murtaish by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, (1976), Shifaul Mulk Memorial Committee, Aligarh, 230 pp.
  • Maqalat Shifaul Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, (2002), Publication Division, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, pp 324.
  • Tajideed-i Tibb by Shifa-al Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif, (1972), Tibbi Academy, Aligarh.
  • Shifaul Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif (Nuqush wa Tassurat) by Hakim Mohammed Aslam Siddiqui (1985), Educational Book House, Aligarh.
  • Listing at the Open Library Archive
  • Shifa-al Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Daily Dawat, Delhi, 24 Jun 1971.
  • Shifa-al Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Fikr-o-Nazar, Namwaran-i Aligarh, Vol. 1, Jan. 1987-Jul. 1988, pp. 361–70.
  • Shifa-al Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif Falsafi by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Bazm-e-Wafa, Aligarh Muslim University Old Boys' Association, Lucknow Branch, 1998, pp. 50–54.

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