List of epidemics

This is a list of the largest known epidemics (including pandemics) caused by an infectious disease. Widespread non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included.

17th-century German "plague panel" depicting the triumph of death. Panels of this kind were placed on the walls of houses to warn against the plague. A plague epidemic raged in Augsburg, Bavaria between 1632 and 1635.

An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.[1]

Emergency hospital during Spanish Influenza epidemic, Camp Funston, Kansas (1918–20)
Emergency hospital during Spanish Influenza epidemic, Camp Funston, Kansas (1918-20)

Events in boldface are ongoing.

Event Date Location Disease Death toll (estimate) Ref.
1200 BC Babylon influenza epidemic 1200 BC Babylon, or Babirus of the Persians, Central Asia, Mesopotamia and Southern Asia Sanskrit scholars found records of a disease resembling the Flu Unknown [2]
Plague of Athens 429–426 BC Greece, Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia Unknown, possibly typhus, typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic fever 75,000–100,000 [3][4][5][6]
412 BC epidemic 412 BC Greece (Northern Greece, Roman Republic) Unknown, possibly influenza Unknown [7]
Antonine Plague 165–180 (possibly up to 190) Roman Empire Unknown, possibly smallpox 5–10 million [8]
Plague of Cyprian 250–266 Europe Unknown, possibly smallpox 1 million+ [9][10]
Plague of Justinian (beginning of First plague pandemic) 541–542 Europe and West Asia Bubonic plague 30–50 million (40–50% of population of Europe) [11][12][13]
Roman Plague of 590 (part of First plague pandemic) 590 Rome, Byzantine Empire Bubonic plague Unknown [14]
Plague of Sheroe (part of First plague pandemic) 627–628 Bilad al-Sham Bubonic plague 25,000+
Plague of Amwas (part of First plague pandemic) 638–639 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa Bubonic plague Unknown [15]
Plague of 664 (part of First plague pandemic) 664–689 British Isles Bubonic plague Unknown [16]
Plague of 698–701 (part of First plague pandemic) 698–701 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Syria, Mesopotamia Bubonic plague Unknown [17]
735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic 735–737 Japan Smallpox 2 million (approx. ​13 of Japanese population) [18][19]
Plague of 746–747 (part of First plague pandemic) 746–747 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa Bubonic plague Unknown [15]
Black Death (start of the Second plague pandemic) 1346–1353 Europe, Asia and North Africa Bubonic plague 75–200 million (10–60% of European population) [20]
Sweating sickness (multiple outbreaks) 1485–1551 Britain (England) and later continental Europe Unknown, possibly an unknown species of hantavirus 10,000+ [21]
1489 Spain typhus epidemic 1489 Spain Typhus 17,000 [22]
1510 influenza pandemic 1510 Asia, North Africa, Europe Influenza Unknown, around 1% of those infected [23]
1520 Mexico smallpox epidemic 1519–1520 Mexico Smallpox 5–8 million (40% of population) [24]
Cocoliztli Epidemic of 1545–1548 1545–1548 Mexico Possibly Salmonella enterica 5–15 million (80% of population) [25][26][27][28]
1557 influenza pandemic 1557–59 Asia, Africa, Europe, and Americas Influenza Unknown
1561 Chile smallpox epidemic 1561–1562 Chile Smallpox Unknown (20-25% of native population) [29]
1563 London plague 1563–1564 London, England Bubonic plague 20,100+ [30]
Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576 1576–1580 Mexico Possibly Salmonella enterica 2–2.5 million (50% of population) [25][26][27][28]
1582 Tenerife plague epidemic 1582–1583 Tenerife, Spain Bubonic plague 5,000–9,000 [31]
1592–1596 Seneca nation measles epidemic 1592–1596 Seneca nation, North America Measles Unknown [32]
1592–93 Malta plague epidemic 1592–1593 Malta Bubonic plague 3,000 [33]
1592–93 London plague 1592–1593 London, England Bubonic plague 19,900+ [34]
1596–1602 Spain plague epidemic 1596–1602 Spain Bubonic plague 600,000–700,000 [35]
1600–1650 South America malaria epidemic 1600–1650 South America Malaria Unknown [36]
1603 London plague epidemic 1603 London, England Bubonic plague 40,000 [37][38][39]
1609 Egyptian plague epidemic 1609 Egypt Bubonic plague 1 million [citation needed]
1616 New England infections epidemic 1616–1620 Southern New England, United States, especially the Wampanoag people Unknown, possibly leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Classic explanations include yellow fever, bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D Unknown (estimated 30–90% of population) [40][41]
1629–1631 Italian plague 1629–1631 Italy Bubonic plague 1 million [42]
1632–1635 Augsburg plague epidemic 1632–1635 Augsburg, Germany Bubonic plague 13,712 [43]
Massachusetts smallpox epidemic 1633–1634 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Thirteen Colonies Smallpox 1,000 [44]
1634–1640 Wyandot people epidemic of infections 1634–1640 Wyandot people, North America Smallpox and Influenza 15,000–25,000 [45]
1637 London plague epidemic 1636–1637 London and Westminster, England Bubonic plague 10,400 [46]
1641–1644 China plague epidemic 1641–1644 China Bubonic plague Unknown [47]
Great Plague of Seville 1647–1652 Spain Bubonic plague 500,000 [48]
1648 Central America yellow fever epidemic 1648 Central America Yellow fever Unknown [49]
Naples Plague 1656 Italy Bubonic plague 240,000–1,250,000 [50][51]
1663–1664 Amsterdam plague epidemic 1663–1664 Amsterdam, Netherlands Bubonic plague 24,148 [52]
Great Plague of London 1665–1666 England Bubonic plague 100,000 [53][54]
1668 France plague 1668 France Bubonic plague 40,000 [55]
1675–76 Malta plague epidemic 1675–1676 Malta Bubonic plague 11,300 [56]
1676–1685 Spain plague 1676–1685 Spain Bubonic plague Unknown [57]
1677–1678 Boston smallpox epidemic 1677–1678 Massachusetts Bay Colony, United States Smallpox 750–1000 [58]
Great Plague of Vienna 1679 Vienna, Austria Bubonic plague 76,000 [59]
1681 Prague plague epidemic 1681 Prague, Czech Kingdom Bubonic plague 83,000 [60]
1687 South Africa Influenza outbreak 1687 South Africa Unknown, possibly Influenza Unknown [61]
1693 Boston yellow fever epidemic 1693 Boston, United States Yellow fever 3,100+ [62]
1699 Charleston and Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic 1699 Charleston and Philadelphia, United States Yellow fever 520 (300 in Charleston, 220 in Philadelphia) [63]
1702 New York City yellow fever epidemic 1702 New York City, United States Yellow fever 500 [64]
1702–1703 St. Lawrence Valley smallpox epidemic 1702–1703 New France, Canada Smallpox 1,300 [65]
1707–1709 Iceland smallpox epidemic 1707–1709 Iceland Smallpox 18,000+ (36% of population) [66]
Great Northern War plague outbreak 1710–1712 Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania Bubonic plague 164,000 [67][68]
1713–1715 North America measles epidemic 1713–1715 Thirteen Colonies and New France, Canada Measles Unknown [69][70]
Great Plague of Marseille 1720–1722 France Bubonic plague 100,000+ [71]
1721 Boston smallpox outbreak 1721–1722 Massachusetts Bay Colony Smallpox 844 [72]
1730 Cádiz yellow fever epidemic 1730 Cádiz, Spain Yellow fever 2,200 [73]
1732–1733 Thirteen Colonies influenza epidemic 1732–1733 Thirteen Colonies Influenza Unknown [74]
1733 New France smallpox epidemic 1733 New France, Canada Smallpox Unknown [75]
1735–1741 Diphtheria epidemic 1735–1741 New England, New York, New Jersey, United States Diphtheria 20,000 [76]
Great Plague of 1738 1738 Balkans Bubonic plague 50,000 [77]
1738–1739 North Carolina smallpox epidemic 1738–1739 Province of Carolina, Thirteen Colonies Smallpox 7,700–11,700 [78]
1739–1740 Thirteen Colonies measles epidemic 1739–1740 Thirteen Colonies Measles Unknown [citation needed]
1741 Cartagena yellow fever epidemic 1741 Cartagena, Colombia Yellow fever 20,000 [79]
1743 Sicily plague epidemic 1743 Messina, Sicily, Italy Bubonic plague 40,000–50,000 [80][81]
1747 Thirteen Colonies measles outbreak 1747 Thirteen Colonies Measles Unknown [citation needed]
1759 North America measles outbreak 1759 North America Measles Unknown [82]
1760 Charleston smallpox epidemic 1760 Charleston, United States Smallpox 730–940 [83][84]
1761 North America and West Indies influenza epidemic 1761 North America, West Indies Influenza Unknown [citation needed]
1762 Havana yellow fever epidemic 1762 Havana, Cuba Yellow fever 8,000 [79]
1763 Pittsburgh area smallpox outbreak 1763 North America, present-day Pittsburgh area Smallpox Unknown [85]
Russian plague of 1770–1772 1770–1772 Russia Bubonic plague 50,000 [86]
1772 North America measles epidemic 1772 North America Measles Unknown [citation needed]
1772–1773 Persian Plague 1772–1773 Persia Bubonic plague 2 million+ [87]
1775–1776 England influenza outbreak 1775–1776 England Influenza Unknown [88]
1775–1782 North American smallpox epidemic 1775–1782 Pacific Northwest, United States Smallpox 11,000+ [89][90]
1778 Spain dengue fever outbreak 1778 Spain Dengue fever Unknown [91]
1788 Pueblo Indians smallpox epidemic 1788 Pueblo Indians, Southwestern United States Smallpox Unknown [92]
1788 United States measles epidemic 1788 United States Measles Unknown [citation needed]
1789–1790 New South Wales smallpox epidemic 1789–1790 New South Wales, Australia Smallpox Unknown (50–70% of native population) [93][94]
1793 United States influenza and typhus epidemic 1793 United States Influenza and epidemic typhus Unknown [citation needed]
1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic 1793 Philadelphia, United States Yellow fever 5,000+ [95]
1800–1803 Spain yellow fever epidemic 1800–1803 Spain Yellow fever 60,000+ [96]
1801 Ottoman Empire and Egypt bubonic plague epidemic 1801 Ottoman Empire, Egypt Bubonic plague Unknown [97]
1802–1803 Saint-Domingue yellow fever epidemic 1802–1803 Saint-Domingue Yellow fever 29,000–55,000 [98]
1812 Egypt bubonic plague epidemic 1812 Egypt Bubonic plague Unknown [citation needed]
1812 Russia Typhus epidemic 1812 Russia Typhus 300,000 [22]
1812–19 Ottoman plague epidemic 1812–1819 Ottoman Empire Bubonic plague 300,000+ [99]
1813–14 Malta plague epidemic 1813–1814 Malta Bubonic plague 4,500 [100]
Caragea's plague 1813 Romania Bubonic plague 60,000 [101]
1817–1819 Ireland typhus epidemic 1817–1819 Ireland Typhus 65,000 [102]
First cholera pandemic 1817–1824 Asia, Europe Cholera 100,000+ [103]
1820 Savannah yellow fever epidemic 1820 Savannah, Georgia, United States Yellow fever 700 [104]
1821 Barcelona yellow fever epidemic 1821 Barcelona, Spain Yellow fever 5,000–20,000 [105][106]
Second cholera pandemic 1826–1837 Asia, Europe, North America Cholera 100,000+ [107]
1828–1829 New South Wales smallpox epidemic 1828–1829 New South Wales, Australia Smallpox 19,000 [108][109]
Groningen epidemic 1829 Netherlands Malaria 2,800 [110]
1829–1833 Pacific Northwest malaria epidemic 1829–1833 Pacific Northwest, United States Malaria, possibly other diseases too 150,000 [111][112]
1829–1835 Iran plague outbreak 1829–1835 Iran Bubonic plague Unknown [113]
1831–1834 Plains Indians smallpox epidemic 1831–1834 Plains Indians Smallpox Unknown [citation needed]
1834–1836 Egypt plague epidemic 1834–1836 Egypt Bubonic plague Unknown [114][115]
1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic 1837–1838 Great Plains, United States and Canada Smallpox 17,000+ [116]
1840 South Africa smallpox epidemic 1840 South Africa Smallpox Unknown [citation needed]
1841 Southern United States yellow fever epidemic 1841 Southern United States (especially Louisiana and Florida) Yellow fever 3,498 [117]
1847 North American typhus epidemic 1847–1848 Canada Typhus 20,000+ [118]
1847 Southern United States yellow fever epidemic 1847 Southern United States (especially New Orleans) Yellow fever 3,400 [119]
1847–1848 influenza epidemic 1847–1848 Worldwide Influenza Unknown [120]
1848–1849 Hawaii epidemic of infections 1848–1849 Hawaiian Kingdom Measles, whooping cough, dysentery and influenza 10,000 [121]
1850–1851 North America influenza epidemic 1850–1851 North America Influenza Unknown [citation needed]
1853 New Orleans yellow fever epidemic 1853 New Orleans, United States Yellow fever 7,970 [105]
Third cholera pandemic 1846–1860 Russia Cholera 1 million+ [122]
1853 Ottoman Empire plague epidemic 1853 Ottoman Empire Bubonic plague Unknown [123]
1853 Copenhagen cholera outbreak 1853 Copenhagen, Denmark Cholera 4,737 [124]
1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak 1854 London, England Cholera 616 [125]
1855 Norfolk yellow fever epidemic 1855 Norfolk and Portsmouth, England Yellow fever 3,000 (2,000 in Norfolk, 1,000 in Portsmouth) [126]
Third plague pandemic 1855–1960 Worldwide Bubonic plague 12 million+ (India and China) [127][128]
1857 Lisbon yellow fever epidemic 1857 Lisbon, Portugal Yellow fever 6,000 [105]
1857 Victoria smallpox epidemic 1857 Victoria, Australia Smallpox Unknown [129]
1857–1859 Europe and the Americas influenza epidemic 1857–1859 Europe, North America, South America Influenza Unknown [130]
1862–1863 British Columbia Smallpox epidemic 1862–1863 British Columbia, Canada Smallpox 32,000 [131][132]
1861–1865 United States typhoid fever epidemic 1861–1865 United States Typhoid fever 80,000 [133]
Fourth cholera pandemic 1863–1875 Middle East Cholera 600,000 [134]
1867 Sydney measles epidemic 1867 Sydney, Australia Measles 748 [135]
1871 Buenos Aires yellow fever epidemic 1871 Buenos Aires, Argentina Yellow fever 13,500–26,200 [136]
1870–1875 Europe smallpox epidemic 1870–1875 Europe Smallpox 500,000 [137][138]
1875 Fiji measles outbreak 1875 Fiji Measles 40,000 [139]
1875–1876 Australia scarlet fever epidemic 1875–1876 Australia Scarlet fever 8,000 [135]
1876 Ottoman Empire plague epidemic 1876 Ottoman Empire Bubonic plague 20,000 [140]
1878 New Orleans yellow fever epidemic 1878 New Orleans, United States Yellow fever 4,046 [98]
1878 Mississippi Valley yellow fever epidemic 1878 Mississippi Valley, United States Yellow fever 13,000 [98]
Fifth cholera pandemic 1881–1896 Asia, Africa, Europe, South America Cholera 298,600 [141]
1885 Montreal smallpox epidemic 1885 Montreal, Canada Smallpox 3,164 [142]
1889–1890 flu pandemic 1889–1890 Worldwide Influenza or HCoV-OC43[143][144] (disputed) 1 million [145]
Bombay plague epidemic 1896–1905 Bombay, India Bubonic plague 20,788 [146]
1896–1906 Congo Basin African trypanosomiasis epidemic 1896–1906 Congo Basin African trypanosomiasis 500,000 [147]
1899 Porto plague outbreak 1899 Porto, Portugal Bubonic plague 132 [148]
Sixth cholera pandemic 1899–1923 Europe, Asia, Africa Cholera 800,000+ [149]
San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 1900–1904 San Francisco, United States Bubonic plague 119 [150]
1900 Sydney bubonic plague epidemic 1900 Australia Bubonic plague 103 [151]
1900–1920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis epidemic 1900–1920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis 200,000–300,000 [147]
Papua New Guinea kuru epidemic 1901–2009 Papua New Guinea Kuru 2,700–3,000+ [152][153]
1903 India plague epidemic 1903 India Bubonic plague 22 [154]
1903 Fremantle plague epidemic 1903 Fremantle, Western Australia Bubonic plague 4 [155]
Manchurian plague 1910–1911 China Pneumonic plague 60,000 [156]
1910 China plague 1910–1912 China Bubonic plague 40,000 [157]
1915 Encephalitis lethargica pandemic 1915–1926 Worldwide Encephalitis lethargica 1.5 million [158]
1916 United States polio epidemic 1916 United States Poliomyelitis 7,130 [159]
1918 influenza pandemic ('Spanish flu') 1918–1920 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
H1N1 virus
50 million+ (17–100 million) — (3–5% world's population) [160][161][162]
1918–1922 Russia typhus epidemic 1918–1922 Russia Typhus 2.5 million [163]
1924 Los Angeles pneumonic plague outbreak 1924 Los Angeles, United States Pneumonic plague 30 [164]
1924–1925 Minnesota smallpox epidemic 1924–1925 Minnesota, United States Smallpox 500 [165]
1927 Montreal typhoid fever epidemic 1927 Montreal, Canada Typhoid fever 538 [166]
1929–1930 Psittacosis Pandemic 1929–1930 Worldwide Psittacosis 100+ [167]
Croydon typhoid outbreak of 1937 1937 Croydon, United Kingdom Typhoid fever 43 [168]
1937 Australia polio epidemic 1937 Australia Poliomyelitis Unknown [169]
1940 Sudan yellow fever epidemic 1940 Sudan Yellow fever 1,627 [170]
1942–1944 Egypt malaria epidemic 1942–1944 Egypt Malaria Unknown [114][115]
1946 China plague epidemic 1946 China Bubonic plague Unknown [citation needed]
1946 Egypt relapsing fever epidemic 1946 Egypt Relapsing fever Unknown [114][115]
1947 Egypt cholera epidemic 1947 Egypt Cholera 10,277 [114][115][171]
1948–1952 United States polio epidemic 1948–1952 United States Poliomyelitis 9,000 [159]
1957–1958 influenza pandemic ('Asian flu') 1957–1958 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 1–4 million [172][173]
1960–1962 Ethiopia yellow fever epidemic 1960–1962 Ethiopia Yellow fever 30,000 [174]
Seventh cholera pandemic 1961–1975 Worldwide Cholera (El Tor strain) Unknown [175]
Hong Kong flu 1968–1970 Worldwide (mainly in Hong Kong) Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
H3N2 virus
1–4 million [172][173]
1971 Staphorst polio epidemic 1971 Staphorst, Netherlands Poliomyelitis 5 [176]
1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak 1972 Yugoslavia Smallpox 35 [177]
London flu 1972–1973 United States Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 1,027 [178]
1973 Italy Cholera El Tor epidemic 1973 Italy Cholera (El Tor strain) 24 [179]
1974 smallpox epidemic of India 1974 India Smallpox 15,000 [180]
Soviet flu 1977–78 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 10,000–30,000 [181][182]
Sverdlovsk anthrax leak 1979 Russia Anthrax 105 [183]
HIV/AIDS pandemic 1981–present (data as of 2018) Worldwide HIV/AIDS 32 million+ (23.6–43.8 million) [184]
1984 Western Sahara plague 1984 Western Sahara Bubonic plague 64 [citation needed]
1986 Oju yellow fever epidemic 1986 Oju, Nigeria Yellow fever 5,600+ [185]
1987 Mali yellow fever epidemic 1987 Mali Yellow fever 145 [186]
1991 Bangladesh cholera epidemic 1991 Bangladesh Cholera 8,410–9,432 [187]
1991 Latin America cholera epidemic 1991–1993 Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala Cholera 8,000 [188][189]
1994 plague in India 1994 India Bubonic plague and Pneumonic plague 56 [190]
United Kingdom BSE outbreak 1996–2001 United Kingdom vCJD 178 [191][192]
1996 West Africa meningitus epidemic 1996 West Africa Meningitis 10,000 [193]
1998–99 Malaysia Nipah virus outbreak 1998–1999 Malaysia Nipah virus infection 105 [194]
2000 Central America dengue epidemic 2000 Central America Dengue fever 40+ [195]
2001 Nigeria cholera epidemic 2001 Nigeria Cholera 400+ [196]
2001 South Africa cholera epidemic 2001 South Africa Cholera 139 [197][198]
2002–04 SARS outbreak 2002–2004 Worldwide Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 774 [199]
2003 Algeria plague outbreak 2003 Algeria Bubonic plague 1 (18 cases) [200]
Avian influenza outbreaks in the 2000s 2003–2019[citation needed] Southeast Asia and Egypt Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 455 [201]
2004 Afghanistan leishmaniasis epidemic 2004 Afghanistan Leishmaniasis 0 (3,958 cases) [202][203]
2004 Indonesia dengue epidemic 2004 Indonesia Dengue fever 658 [204]
2004 Senegal cholera outbreak 2004 Senegal Cholera 2 [205]
2004 Sudan ebola outbreak 2004 Sudan Ebola 7 [206]
2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore 2005 Singapore Dengue fever 27 [207]
2006 Luanda cholera epidemic 2006 Luanda, Angola Cholera 1,200+ [208]
2006 Ituri Province plague epidemic 2006 Ituri Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo Bubonic plague 61 [209][210]
2006 India malaria outbreak 2006 India Malaria 17 [211]
2006 dengue outbreak in India 2006 India Dengue fever 50+ [212]
2006 dengue outbreak in Pakistan 2006 Pakistan Dengue fever 50+ [213]
2006 Philippines dengue epidemic 2006 Philippines Dengue fever 1,000 [214]
2006–07 East Africa Rift Valley fever outbreak 2006–2007 East Africa Rift Valley fever 394 [215]
Mweka ebola epidemic 2007 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola 187 [216]
2007 Ethiopia cholera epidemic 2007 Ethiopia Cholera 684 [217]
2007 Iraq cholera outbreak 2007 Iraq Cholera 10 [218]
2007 Nigeria polio outbreak 2007 Nigeria Poliomyelitis Unknown (69 cases) [219]
2007 Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Mexico dengue fever epidemic 2007 Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico Dengue fever 183 [220]
2007 Uganda ebola outbreak 2007 Uganda Ebola 37 [206]
2007 Vietnam cholera outbreak 2007 Vietnam Cholera 2 [221][222]
2007 Netherlands Q-fever epidemic 2007–2010 Netherlands Q-fever 74 [223]
2008 Brazil dengue epidemic 2008 Brazil Dengue fever 67 [224]
2008 Cambodia dengue epidemic 2008 Cambodia Dengue fever 407 [225]
2008 Chad cholera epidemic 2008 Chad Cholera 123 [226]
2008–2017 China hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic 2008–2017 China Hand, foot, and mouth disease 3,322+ [227]
2008 India cholera epidemic 2008 India Cholera 115 [228]
2008 Madagascar plague outbreak 2008 Madagascar Bubonic plague 18+ [229]
2008 Philippines dengue epidemic 2008 Philippines Dengue fever 172 [230]
2008–09 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak 2008–2009 Zimbabwe Cholera 4,293 [231]
2009 Bolivian dengue fever epidemic 2009 Bolivia Dengue fever 18 [232]
2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak 2009 India Hepatitis B 49 [233]
Queensland 2009 dengue outbreak 2009 Queensland, Australia Dengue fever 1+ (503 cases) [234]
Mumps outbreaks in the 2000s 2009 Worldwide Mumps Unknown [citation needed]
2009–10 West African meningitis outbreak 2009–2010 West Africa Meningitis 1,100 [235]
2009 swine flu pandemic 2009–2010 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 Lab confirmed deaths: 18,449 (reported to the WHO)

Estimated death toll: 284,000 (possible range 151,700-575,400)

[236][237]
2010s Haiti cholera outbreak 2010–2019 Haiti Cholera (strain serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa) 10,075 [238]
2010–2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo measles outbreak 2010–2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo Measles 4,500+ [239][240]
2011 Vietnam hand, foot and mouth disease epidemic 2011 Vietnam Hand, foot and mouth disease 170 [241][242]
2011 dengue outbreak in Pakistan 2011 Pakistan Dengue fever 350+ [243]
2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan 2012 Darfur, Sudan Yellow fever 171 [244]
2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak 2012–present Worldwide Middle East respiratory syndrome / MERS-CoV 935 (as of 4 July 2020) [245]
2013 dengue outbreak in Singapore 2013 Singapore Dengue fever 8 [246]
2013 Vietnam Measles outbreak 2013–2014 Vietnam Measles 142 [247]
Western African Ebola virus epidemic 2013–2016 Worldwide, primarily concentrated in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone Ebola
Ebola virus virion
11,323+ [248][249][250]
2013–14 chikungunya outbreak 2013–2015 Americas Chikungunya 183 [251]
2013–19 Avian influenza epidemic 2013–2019 China Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 616 [252]
2014 Madagascar plague outbreak 2014–2017 Madagascar Bubonic plague 292 [253]
2014 Odisha jaundice outbreak 2014–2015 India Primarily Hepatitis E, but also Hepatitis A 36 [254]
2015 Indian swine flu outbreak 2015 India Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 2,035 [255][256][257]
2015–16 Zika virus epidemic 2015–2016 Worldwide Zika virus 53 [258]
2016 Angola and DR Congo yellow fever outbreak 2016 Angola and DR Congo Yellow fever 498 (377 in Angola, 121 in Congo) [259]
2016–20 Yemen cholera outbreak 2016–present Yemen Cholera 3,886 (as of 30 November 2019) [260]
2017 dengue outbreak in Peshawar 2017 Peshawar, Pakistan Dengue fever 69 [261]
2017 Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis outbreak 2017 India Japanese encephalitis 1,317 [262]
2017–18 United States flu season 2017–2018 United States Seasonal influenza 61,000 (46,000–95,000)[263] [264][265][266]
2018 Nipah virus outbreak in Kerala 2018 India Nipah virus infection 17 [267]
Kivu Ebola epidemic 2018–2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda Ebola 2,280 [268][269][270]
2019 measles outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019–2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo Measles 7,018+ [271]
2019–2020 New Zealand measles outbreak 2019–present New Zealand Measles 2 [272]
2019 Philippines measles outbreak 2019–present Philippines Measles 415 [273]
2019 Kuala Koh measles outbreak 2019 Kuala Koh, Malaysia Measles 15 [274]
2019 Samoa measles outbreak 2019–present Samoa Measles 83 [275]
2019–20 dengue fever epidemic 2019–present Asia-Pacific, Latin America Dengue fever 3,930 [276]
COVID-19 pandemic 2019–present Worldwide COVID-19
1.4 million+ (as of November 2020) [277]
2019 Nigeria Lassa Fever epidemic 2019–present Nigeria Lassa fever 222 (as of 23 August 2020) [278]
2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola outbreak 2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola 55 [279]
2020 novel bunyavirus outbreak 2020–present China Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome 7 (as of 5 August 2020) [280]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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Further readingEdit