Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite
The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSat), also known as Ibuki (Japanese: いぶき, Hepburn: Ibuki, meaning "breath"), is an Earth observation satellite and the world's first satellite dedicated to greenhouse-gas-monitoring. It measures the densities of carbon dioxide and methane from 56,000 locations on the Earth's atmosphere. The GOSAT was developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and launched on 23 January 2009, from the Tanegashima Space Center. Japan's Ministry of the Environment, and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)  use the data to track gases causing the greenhouse effect, and share the data with NASA and other international scientific organizations.
Model of GOSAT at Tsukuba Space Center Space Dome
|Mission duration||5 years (planned)|
Elapsed: 11 years, 4 months, 5 days
|Launch mass||1,750 kilograms (3,860 lb)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||23 January 2009, 03:54UTC|
|Launch site||Tanegashima, Yoshinobu 1|
|Contractor||Mitsubishi Heavy Industries|
|Perigee altitude||674 kilometres (419 mi)|
|Apogee altitude||676 kilometres (420 mi)|
|Epoch||25 January 2015, 03:12:11 UTC|
|Wavelengths||12900 - 13200 cm−1/ 5800 - 6400 cm−1/ 4800 - 5200 cm−1/ 700 - 1800 cm−1(FTS)|
|Resolution||0.2 cm−1 (FTS)|
|TANSO-FTS - Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer|
TANSO-CAI - Thermal and Near-Infrared Sensor
GOSAT was launched along with seven other piggyback probes using the H-IIA, Japan's primary large-scale expendable launch system, at 3:54 am on 23 January 2009 UTC on Tanegashima, a small island in southern Japan, after a two-day delay due to unfavourable weather. At approximately 16 minutes after liftoff, the separation of Ibuki from the launch rocket was confirmed.
According to JAXA, the Ibuki satellite is equipped with a greenhouse gas observation sensor (TANSO-FTS) and a cloud/aerosol sensor (TANSO-CAI) that supplements TANSO-FTS. The greenhouse gas observation sensor of Ibuki observes a wide range of wavelengths (near-infrared region–thermal infrared region) within the infrared band to enhance observation accuracy. The satellite uses a spectrometer to measure different elements and compounds based on their response to certain types of light. This technology allows the satellite to measure "the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a super-high resolution."
The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite 2 or GOSAT-2, also known as IBUKI-2 (COSPAR 2018-084B) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by a H-IIA rocket on October 29, 2018.
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- "'IBUKI' Chosen as Nickname of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)" (Press release). JAXA. 15 October 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "Japan launches rocket with greenhouse-gas probe". The Associated Press. 23 January 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- Fujioka, Chisa (23 January 2009). "Japan launches satellite to monitor greenhouse gases". Reuters. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- "Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite "IBUKI"(GOSAT)". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- Gerein, Keith (21 January 2009). "Alta. scientists to track greenhouse gases from space". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2009.