Great Green Wall (China)
Parts of this article (those related to new phases) need to be updated.(January 2021)
The Great Green Wall, officially known as the Three-North Shelter Forest Program (simplified Chinese: 三北防护林; traditional Chinese: 三北防護林; pinyin: Sānběi Fánghùlín), also known as the Three-North Shelterbelt Program, is a series of human-planted windbreaking forest strips (shelterbelts) in China, designed to hold back the expansion of the Gobi Desert, and provide timber to the local population. The program started in 1978, and is planned to be completed around 2050, at which point it will be 4,500 kilometres (2,800 mi) long.
The project's name indicates that it is to be carried out in all three of the northern regions: the North, the Northeast and the Northwest. This project has historical precedences dating back to before the Common Era. However, in premodern periods, government sponsored afforestation projects along the historical frontier regions were mostly for military fortification.
Effects of the Gobi DesertEdit
China has seen 3,600 km2 (1,400 sq mi) of grassland overtaken every year by the Gobi Desert. Each year, dust storms blow off as much as 2,000 km2 (800 sq mi) of topsoil, and the storms are increasing in severity each year. These storms also have serious agricultural effects for other nearby countries, such as Japan, North Korea, and South Korea. The Green Wall project was begun in 1978, with the proposed end result of raising northern China's forest cover from 5 to 15 percent, thereby reducing desertification.
Methodology and progressEdit
The fourth and most recent phase[when?] of the project, started in 2003, has two parts: the use of aerial seeding to cover wide swathes of land where the soil is less arid, and the offering of cash incentives to farmers to plant trees and shrubs in areas that are more arid. A $1.2 billion oversight system (including mapping and surveillance databases) is also to be implemented. The "wall" will have a belt with sand-tolerant vegetation arranged in checkerboard patterns to stabilize the sand dunes. A gravel platform will be next to the vegetation to hold down sand and encourage a soil crust to form. The trees should also serve as a windbreak from dust storms.
Individual Fights Against the DesertsEdit
As the Chinese State has made efforts to fight the dust storms that have taken over parts of the Grasslands with the rapid use of afforestation. There are various examples of individuals taking its upon themselves to combat the harsh unforgiving environment that the sand lays away to. Yin Yuzhen as well as Li Yungsheng are both predominant figures who have combated the environments that they resided in. These efforts that have taken decades to achieve have transformed ecosystems into vibrant and lush oasis's in what otherwise would be a barren wasteland.
Surrounded by a desolate desert living in a mud cave, Yin Yuzhen took it herself to singlehandedly plant trees rehabilitation the desolate environment in the Uxin Banner of China’s Semi-Arid Western landscape. As an expert by no means coming from humble beginnings, she initially began her botany excursion as experimentation with various vegetation in her backyard in 1985. Producing food for her family, she looked to fight the soil erosion present in her backyard, which quickly transformed into something entirely new. Through trial-and-error, Yin found success and attracted the eye of neighbors around her, who quickly looked to her to rehabilitate their family plots in the effort of reforestation.  As the years went on, she continued to plant her trees, deciding she would rather have her back broken than be bullied into submission by the sandy desert. In 2005, her efforts were recognized when a local party secretary discovered her vegetation in the otherwise barren desert and was labeled a model worker, also known as a laomo.  As a result of this, the state quickly lent her support by paving roads, installing power grids, and supplying her with saplings that grew her project from her backyard to spanning fifteen miles.
Yin’s afforestation efforts have been recognized by individuals such as Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping, who, during the 2020 National People's Congress, described the actions of those such as Yin as a remarkable achievement and an overall improvement of the ecology in China.
As of 2009, China's planted forest covered more than 500,000 square kilometers (increasing tree cover from 12% to 18%) – the largest artificial forest in the world. In 2008, winter storms destroyed 10% of the new forest stock, causing the World Bank to advise China to focus more on quality rather than quantity in its stock species.
Problems and criticismEdit
If the trees succeed in taking root, they could soak up large amounts of groundwater, which would be extremely problematic for arid regions like northern China. Research of reforested areas of the loess plateau has found that the planted vegetation used decreased the moisture from deeper soil levels to some degree compared to farmland.
Furthermore, planting blocks of fast-growing trees reduces the biodiversity of forested areas, creating areas that are not suitable to plants and animals normally found in forests. "China plants more trees than the rest of the world combined", says John McKinnon, the head of the EU-China Biodiversity Programme. "But the trouble is they tend to be monoculture plantations. They are not places where birds want to live." The lack of diversity also makes the trees more susceptible to disease, as in 2000, when one billion poplar trees in Ningxia were lost to a single disease, setting back 20 years of planting efforts.
Liu Tuo, head of the desertification control office in the state forestry administration, is of the opinion that there are huge gaps in the country's efforts to reclaim the land that has become desert. In 2011, there was around 1.73 million km2 of land that had become desert in China, of which 530,000 km2 was treatable. But at the present rate of treating 1,717 km2 per year, it would take 300 years to reclaim the land that has become desert.
The worry is that the fragile land cannot support such massive, forced growth.
Relations to climate changeEdit
China's forest scientists argued that monoculture tree plantations are more effective at absorbing the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide than slow-growth forests, so while diversity may be lower, the trees purportedly help to offset China's carbon emissions. However, a study released in 2016 finds that wild woodlands are much more effective than monocultural forests in storing carbon dioxide, with more resilient and greater tree health, size, lifespan, and depth of organic matter rich soil.
- "Media Reports: China's Great Green Wall". BBC News. 3 March 2001. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- "Three-North Shelterbelt Poplar Tree Death Caused by the Director of the State Forestry Bureau" (in Chinese). Phoenix TV. Archived from the original on 2019-07-23. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- "State Forestry Administration" (in Chinese). English.forestry.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- 李谷城 (Li Kwok-sing) (2006). 中國大陸改革開放新詞語 中國大陸改革開放新詞語 [A Glossary of New Political Terms of the PRC in the Post-Reform Era] (in Chinese). HK: Chinese University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-962-996-258-6.
- Chen, Yuan Julian (2018). "Frontier, Fortification, and Forestation: Defensive Woodland on the Song–Liao Border in the Long Eleventh Century". Journal of Chinese History. 2 (2): 313–334. doi:10.1017/jch.2018.7. ISSN 2059-1632.
- "The Fall of the Green Wall of China". WorldChanging. 29 December 2003. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
- "China's Dust Storms Raise Fears of Impending Catastrophe". National Geographic. 1 June 2001. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- "The Green Wall Of China". Wired. April 2003. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- Li, Shapiro, Yifei, Judith (2020). China Goes Green: Coercive Environmentalism for a Troubled Planet. pp. Chapter 2.
- "Green Dream Comes True". www.chinatoday.com.cn. Retrieved 2021-06-05.
- Watts, Jonathan (11 March 2009). "China's loggers down chainsaws in attempt to regrow forests". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhu, Yuanjun; Luo, Yi (2017-03-01). "Soil moisture decline due to afforestation across the Loess Plateau, China". Journal of Hydrology. 546: 113–122. Bibcode:2017JHyd..546..113J. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.01.011. ISSN 0022-1694.
- Rechtschaffen, Daniel (September 18, 2017). "How China's Growing Deserts Are Choking The Country". Forbes. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
- Jonathan Watts (4 January 2011). "China makes gain in battle against desertification but has long fight ahead | Environment". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- Patience, Martin (2011-01-04). "BBC News - China official warns of 300-year desertification fight". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-09-20. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- McGrath, Matt (9 February 2016). "'Wrong type of trees' in Europe increased global warming". BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.