Grape therapy, also known as ampelotherapy, is a form of naturopathic alternative medicine that involves heavy consumption of grapes, including seeds, and parts of the vine, including leaves. The concept has no scientific basis and is widely regarded as quackery.[1]

BackgroundEdit

An assumption of grape therapy is that consuming grape constituents would provide unusual therapeutic or nutritional benefits. However, consuming grapes has unknown effects against cardiovascular diseases and other diseases, such as metabolic syndrome.[2] Alternative medicine practitioners have recommended grapes and parts of the vine for treating various diseases, but there is no clinical evidence for any such effects.[1][2]

Grape pomace contains various micronutrients potentially having health properties, such as B group vitamins, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as trace elements such as copper, iron, manganese, and zinc,[3] but the resulting flour from pomace has variable nutrient contents due to processing, drying and storage conditions.[4] Raw grapes are mostly devoid of nutritional benefit, except for moderate amounts of carbohydrates and vitamin K (see grape nutrition).

Proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and resveratrol extracted from grape seeds and grape skins are under basic research for their possible biological effects.[2] Pomace also contains organic acids (tartaric, malic, citric, tannic),[3] but there is no evidence for health effects from these phytochemicals.[2]

HistoryEdit

 
Johanna Brandt - Notice

The documentation of grape cures was first seen in a publication by V.N. Dmitriev called “Treatment With Grapes in Yalta on the Southern Crimean Shore” (1878). In the USSR, the principles of the grape cure were developed in the 1920s by a group of physicians of the Semashko Institute (Yalta), headed by A.V. D'iakov.[5] Ampelotherapy continues to be offered in alternative medicine clinics and spas, particularly in Europe,[6] together with vinotherapy, a cosmetic treatment that involves rubbing grapes into the skin.

Johanna Brandt, a South African doctor, popularized the grape diet as a treatment for cancer from 1925. She published about twenty pamphlets on the subject of natural remedies for health problems with her best-known publication being The Grape Cure, which is said to have been written after Brandt had cured herself of stomach cancer by following the diet.[7] The book was republished in 1989 as How to Conquer Cancer, Naturally, including an endorsement of Brandt’s work by Benedict Lust, who is commonly referred to as "the father of naturopathy". The book may have been inspired by Arnold Ehret, a contemporary, who taught a Grape Cure course.[8]

Resveratrol in red wine is suggested as an explanation for the disputed "French paradox," the apparent low occurrence of heart disease among French people who consume a high-fat diet. Advocates of grape therapy argue that grape phytochemicals inhibit the development of cancer, arthritis or diabetes, but there is no scientific evidence for such effects.[1][2] For example, a study carried out in Chianti in Tuscany, Italy, which assessed 783 people over age 65 who consumed a resveratrol-rich diet, found no link between the diet and rates of heart disease, cancer, or mortality rate.[9]

TreatmentsEdit

The diet proposed by Johanna Brandt recommended fasting for two or three days, consuming only cold water, followed by a diet of only grapes and water for one to two weeks, with seven meals a day. Fresh fruits, tomatoes, and sour milk or cottage cheese are then introduced to the diet followed by raw vegetables.[1]

CriticismsEdit

Available scientific evidence does not support claims that a diet of grapes is alone effective for treating cancer or any other disease.[1] The Brandt diet, in particular, has been described as “quackery” by Barrett who notes that the American Cancer Society reviewed The Grape Cure in 1965, 1971, 1974, and 2000 and found no evidence of benefit against human cancer or any other disease.[1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Barrett, Stephen. "The Grape Cure". Quack Watch. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e Woerdeman, J; van Poelgeest, E; Ket, J C F; Eringa, E C; Serné, E H; Smulders, Y M (1 January 2017). "Do grape polyphenols improve metabolic syndrome components? A systematic review". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 71 (12): 1381–1392. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.227. ISSN 0954-3007. PMID 28145414.
  3. ^ a b Castro Sousa, Eldina; and 11 others (Jan 2014). "Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.), Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil". Food Science and Technology. 34 (1). Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  4. ^ Brazinha, Carla; Cadima, Mafalda; Crespo, João G. (2014). "Optimization of Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Different Types of Grape Pomace Produced at Wineries and Distilleries". Journal of Food Science. 79 (6): E1142–E1149. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12476. ISSN 0022-1147. PMID 24891032.
  5. ^ "Grape Cure". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  6. ^ Maillard, Catherine. "Treat your skin to grape therapy". The Grape Cure. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  7. ^ Brandt, Johanna (2012). The grape cure (Special pocket-size ed.). Yonkers, N.Y.: Ehret Literature Publishing. ISBN 978-1570672798.
  8. ^ Sylvia Saltman, What Ever Happened To Arnold Ehret? Sylvia Saltman, USA: Vegetarian World Magazine, 1977, page 8.
  9. ^ Semba, Richard D.; Ferruci, Luigi; Bartali, Benedetta (July 2014). "Resveratrol Levels and All-Cause Mortality in Older Community-Dwelling Adults". JAMA Intern Med. 174(7): 1077–1084. Retrieved 16 February 2020.