Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries.
Chemical structures of cis- ((Z)-resveratrol, left) and trans-resveratrol ((E)-resveratrol, right)
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||228.25 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||white powder with|
slight yellow cast
|Melting point||261 to 263 °C (502 to 505 °F; 534 to 536 K)|
|Solubility in water||0.03 g/L|
|Solubility in DMSO||16 g/L|
|Solubility in ethanol||50 g/L|
|UV-vis (λmax)||304nm (trans-resveratrol, in water)|
286nm (cis-resveratrol, in water)
|Safety data sheet||Fisher Scientific|
|R-phrases (outdated)||R36 (irritating to eyes)|
|S-phrases (outdated)||S26 (in case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|23.2 µM (5.29 g)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
There is no evidence of benefit from resveratrol in those who already have heart disease. A 2014 Chinese meta-analysis found a statistically significant 11.90 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure from resveratrol doses of 150 mg/day.
There is no conclusive evidence for an effect of resveratrol on human metabolism. Animal studies indicate that resveratrol induces metabolic adaptations in mice associated with an "exercise-trained" state (i.e., higher physical fitness), but clinical studies have found that these effects might not occur in humans.
A 2018 review of 17 clinical trials on the effects of resveratrol on blood pressure found that one person taking a 1000 mg daily dose developed an itchy rash that resolved after discontinuation, and that in four of the trials, people had increased frequency of bowel movements and loose stools in first month of the trial. In a year long Phase II trial in people with Alzheimers, the most frequent adverse effects were diarrhea, weight loss, and nausea.
Resveratrol has been identified as a pan-assay interference compound, which produces positive results in many different laboratory assays. Its ability for varied interactions may be due to direct effects on cell membranes.
As of 2015, many specific biological targets for resveratrol had been identified or identified, including NQO2 (alone and in interaction with AKT1), GSTP1, estrogen receptor beta, CBR1, and integrin αVβ. It was unclear at that time if any or all of these were responsible for the observed effects in cells and model organisms.
In vitro studies indicate resveratrol activates sirtuin 1, although this may be a downstream effect from its immediate biological target(s). It appears to signal through PGC-1α, thereby affecting mitochondria. In cells treated with resveratrol, an increase is observed in the action of MnSOD (SOD2) and in GPER activity. In vitro, resveratrol was shown to act as an agonist of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a nuclear receptor under pharmacological research as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes.
One way of administering resveratrol in humans may be buccal delivery, that is without swallowing, by direct absorption through tissues on the inside of the mouth. When one milligram of resveratrol in 50 ml 50% alcohol/ water solution was retained in the mouth for one minute before swallowing, 37 ng/ml of free resveratrol was measured in plasma two minutes later. This level of unchanged resveratrol in blood can only be achieved with 250 mg of resveratrol taken in a pill form. However, the viability of a buccal delivery method is called into question due to the low aqueous solubility of the molecule. For a drug to be absorbed transmucosally it must be in free-form or dissolved. Resveratrol fits the criteria for oral transmucosal dosing, except for this caveat. The low aqueous solubility greatly limits the amount that can be absorbed through the buccal mucosa. Resveratrol that is attempted to be taken buccally was expected to pass through the mucous membrane of the mouth and be absorbed as an oral dose, however, the need to explore buccal delivery in future pharmaceutical formulations was expressed.
While 70% of orally administered resveratrol is absorbed, its oral bioavailability is approximately 0.5% due to extensive hepatic glucuronidation and sulfation. Resveratrol given in a proprietary formulation SRT-501 (3 or 5 g), developed by Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, reached five to eight times higher blood levels. These levels did approach the concentration necessary to exert the effects shown in animal models and in vitro experiments.
In a human study involving oral administration of 500 mg over 13 weeks, resveratrol was detected in cerebrospinal fluid, which suggests that it enters the brain via the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier.
Resveratrol gets extensively metabolized in the body, with the liver and lungs as the major sites of its metabolism.
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a stilbenoid, a derivative of stilbene.
Trans-resveratrol in the powder form was found to be stable under "accelerated stability" conditions of 75% humidity and 40 °C in the presence of air. The trans isomer is also stabilized by the presence of transport proteins. Resveratrol content also was stable in the skins of grapes and pomace taken after fermentation and stored for a long period.lH- and 13C-NMR data for the four most common forms of resveratrols are reported in literature.
The grapevine fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is able to oxidise resveratrol into metabolites showing attenuated antifungal activities. Those include the resveratrol dimers restrytisol A, B, and C, resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer, leachinol F, and pallidol. The soil bacterium Bacillus cereus can be used to transform resveratrol into piceid (resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside).
Plants that synthesize resveratrol include knotweeds, pine trees including Scots pine and Eastern white pine, grape vines, peanut plants, cocoa bushes, and Vaccinium shrubs that produce berries, including blueberries, raspberries, mulberries, cranberries, and bilberries.
The levels of resveratrol found in food varies considerably, even in the same food from season to season and batch to batch.
Wine and grape juiceEdit
|Beverage||Resveratrol (mg/150 ml)|
|Red wine||0.27||0 — 2.78|
|Rosé wine||0.12||×10−03 — 0.29 5.00|
|White wine||0.04||0.00 — 0.17|
|Sparkling wine||×10−039.00||×10−03 — 8.00×10−02 1.00|
|Green grape juice||×10−035.08||0.00 — ×10−02 1.00|
In a 2007 review of published resveratrol concentrations, the average in red wines is ±1.7 mg trans-resveratrol/L ( 1.9±7.5 µM, ranging from nondetectable levels to 14.3 mg/l (62.7 μM) trans-resveratrol. Levels of cis-resveratrol follow the same trend as trans-resveratrol. 8.2
In general, wines made from grapes of the Pinot Noir and St. Laurent varieties showed the highest level of trans-resveratrol, though no wine or region can yet be said to produce wines with significantly higher concentrations than any other wine or region. Champagne and vinegar also contain appreciable levels of resveratrol.
Red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/l, depending on the grape variety. White wine has much less because red wine is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to extract the resveratrol, whereas white wine is fermented after the skin has been removed. The composition of wine is different from that of grapes since the extraction of resveratrol from grapes depends on the duration of the skin contact, and the resveratrol 3-glucosides are in part hydrolysed, yielding both trans- and cis-resveratrol.
|Food||Serving||Total resveratrol (mg)|
|Peanuts (raw)||1 cup (146 grams)||0.01 – 0.26|
|Peanut butter||1 cup (258 grams)||0.04 – 0.13|
|Red grapes||1 cup (160 grams)||0.24 – 1.25|
|Cocoa powder||1 cup (200 grams)||0.28 – 0.46|
Ounce for ounce, peanuts have about 25% as much resveratrol as red wine. Peanuts, especially sprouted peanuts, have a content similar to grapes in a range of 2.3 to 4.5 μg/g before sprouting, and after sprouting, in a range of 11.7 to 25.7 μg/g, depending upon peanut cultivar.
Sales of resveratrol supplements increased in 2006 after studies on non-humans.
Harvard University scientist and professor David Sinclair co-founded Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, the initial product of which was a resveratrol formulation; Sinclair became known for making statements about resveratrol like: “(It's) as close to a miraculous molecule as you can find.... One hundred years from now, people will maybe be taking these molecules on a daily basis to prevent heart disease, stroke, and cancer.” Most of the anti-aging field was more cautious, especially with regard to what else resveratrol might do in the body and its lack of bioavailability.
Sinclair and others obtained significant news coverage about resveratrol. Sinclair is often quoted and pictured in online ads for resveratrol supplements, many of which implied endorsement of the advertised product even though Sinclair had not endorsed them.
The first mention of resveratrol was in a Japanese article in 1939 by Michio Takaoka, who isolated it from Veratrum album, variety grandiflorum, and later, in 1963, from the roots of Japanese knotweed.
A 2011 systematic review of existing resveratrol research demonstrated there was not enough evidence to demonstrate its effect on longevity or human diseases, nor could there be recommendations for intake beyond the amount normally obtained through dietary sources, estimated as being less than 4 mg/day. Much of the research showing positive effects has been done on animals, with insufficient clinical research on humans. Resveratrol research in animals and humans remains active.
As of 2014[update], the results of studies on laboratory animals or human clinical trials concerning the effects of resveratrol on cancer are inconsistent, even if massive doses of resveratrol are used.
Resveratrol elicits beneficial actions in vertebrates in animal models of neurodegeneration by modulating neuroimmune function. Resveratrol is under study for its potential to limit secondary damage after ischemic stroke or acute brain trauma. A year-long Phase II trial published in 2015 that found that the resveratrol and its metabolites crossed the blood-brain barrier; most biomarkers (plasma and CSF levels of Aβ42, CSF levels of tau and phospho-tau 181, neuropsychiatric inventory, AD assessment scale–cognitive, clinical dementia rating, mini-mental state examination, hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volume, and insulin and glucose metabolism) were not affected, but there was a decreased in CNS and plasma Aβ40.
A 2018 meta-analysis examined the effects of resveratrol on blood pressure. The authors identified 17 trials that met their criteria. The study found no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure, nor on mean arterial pressure; in sub-analyses they found that a 2 mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure only from resveratrol doses of 300 mg/day and in the presence of diabetes. A 2014 Chinese meta-analysis found six trials that fit the authors' criteria. They found no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure; in sub-analyses they found a statistically significant 11.90 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure from resveratrol doses of 150 mg/day.
Animal studies are being conducted to discern potential metabolic and antidiabetic effects of resveratrol. A 2015 review found that there was little evidence for its use as a possible treatment for diabetes. A 2015 meta-analysis of six sets of data from clinical trials of resveratrol as an adjuvant for people being treated for type 2 diabetes, the authors found no effect on fasting glucose, insulin resistance, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, triglycerides, LDL, or HDL cholesterol but did find a trend toward moderate effects on systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, and creatinine levels.
Despite considerable in vitro and animal research, there is no evidence that resveratrol taken orally or topically has any effect on human skin. Preliminary studies have been conducted on resveratrol to understand its potential as a therapy for melanoma.
- Epsilon-viniferin, Pallidol and Quadrangularin A three different resveratrol dimers
- Trans-diptoindonesin B, a resveratrol trimer
- Hopeaphenol, a resveratrol tetramer
- Oxyresveratrol, the aglycone of mulberroside A, a compound found in Morus alba, the white mulberry
- Piceatannol, an active metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine
- Piceid, a resveratrol glucoside
- Pterostilbene, a doubly methylated resveratrol
- 4'-Methoxy-(E)-resveratrol 3-O-rutinoside, a compound found in the stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii
- Rhaponticin a glucoside of the stilbenoid rhapontigenin, found in rhubarb rhizomes
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- Media related to Resveratrol at Wikimedia Commons