Giuseppe Bottai as Minister of Education, 1937
|Minister of National Education|
15 November 1936 – 5 February 1943
|Prime Minister||Benito Mussolini|
|Preceded by||Cesare Maria De Vecchi|
|Succeeded by||Carlo Alberto Biggini|
|Governor of Addis Ababa|
5 May 1936 – 27 May 1936
|Monarch||Victor Emmanuel III|
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Alfredo Siniscalchi|
|Governor of Rome|
23 January 1935 – 15 November 1936
|Preceded by||Francesco Boncompagni Ludovisi|
|Succeeded by||Piero Colonna|
|Member of the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations|
20 April 1929 – 5 August 1943
|Born||3 September 1895|
|Died||9 January 1959 (aged 63)|
|Political party||Italian Fasces of Combat|
National Fascist Party
|Alma mater||Sapienza University of Rome|
|Allegiance|| Kingdom of Italy|
|Branch/service|| Royal Italian Army|
French Foreign Legion
|Years of service||1915–1917; 1935–1936; 1943–1948|
|Unit||1st Cavalry Regiment (France)|
Born in Rome, Giuseppe was son of Luigi, a wine dealer with republican sympathies, and Elena Cortesia. He graduated at Liceo Torquato Tasso and attended the Sapienza University of Rome until the 1915, when Italy declared war to the Central Powers. The same year, he left his studies to enlist himself in the Italian Royal Army. Wounded in battle, he obtained a Medal of Military Valor after World War I.
In 1919, Bottai met Benito Mussolini during a Futurist meeting and contributed to establish the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento ("Italian Fasces of Combat"). In 1921, Bottai ended his studies at law faculty and became a freemason, member of the Gran Loggia d'Italia. At the same time he also started a journalist career in the Il Popolo d'Italia, the newspaper of the recently-founded National Fascist Party. During the March on Rome, Bottai was along with Ulisse Igliori and Gino Calza-Bini, the head of the Roman squadrismo, supporting the Blackshirts' political violence.
After 1921 election, Bottai was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the National Blocs but was removed for his young age. He returned to the Chamber in 1924 and stayed until 1943. In 1923, he became leader of the intransigent national-syndicalist and revolutionary faction of fascism. To support his ideas, Bottai founded Critica fascista ("Fascist Critic"), a cultural periodical, co-operating with other left-leaning fascists like Filippo De Pisis, Renato Guttuso and Mario Mafai.
Bottai worked to the Ministry of Corporations, introducing the Labour Charter and planning a "Corporative Academic Pole" in Pisa, from 1926 to 1932, when he was excluded by Mussolini from the Ministry. In 1933, Bottai established and chaired the National Institute of the Social Security (Italian: Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale, INPS). He was appointed Fascist Governor of Rome (1935–1936) but resigned to fight in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War with the rank of major. In 5 May 1936, Bottai and Pietro Badoglio entered in Addis Abeba, and Bottai was appointed as vice governor. After the war, Bottai returned in Rome to be Education Minister. During his ministry, Bottai proclaimed a law (the so-called "Bottai Law") on safeguarding public and cultural heritage and the preservation of natural beauties. He also co-worked with art critics Giulio Carlo Argan and Cesare Brandi to improve the Italian cultural life.
In the late 1930s, Bottai became more radical and a germanophile. In 1938 he expressed support to Racial Laws against Italian Jews, and in 1940, he founded Primato ("Record"), a magazine that supported the Aryan race's supremacy and interventionism in the war. Bottai thought that the "Fascist Revolution" was incomplete and that what was needed was a return to the original, "pure" fascism.
World War IIEdit
However, the Italian intervention in World War II resulted in disaster. The Campaign on the Eastern Front caused the death or the injury of approximately 77,000 soldiers, with more than 39,000 injured. Bottai voted for Mussolini's arrest, which had been proposed by Dino Grandi, on 25 July 1943 after Italy's defeat had become evident. In 1944, the Italian Social Republic condemned Bottai to death, during the Verona trial, but Bottai hid in a Roman convent.
After the war, Bottai remained in France and continued to serve in the Foreign Legion until 1948, when he was discharged. For his role in the final stages of World War II, he got an amnesty for his role in fascism.
Returning in Italy in 1953, Bottai founded the periodical ABC (not to be confused with the magazine with the same name) and Il Popolo di Roma, which was financed by ex-fascist Vittorio Cini, who supported centrist and conservative views.
- Trade organisation in Italy under the act and regulations on collective relations in connection with employment
- Economia fascista (1930)
- Grundprinzipien des korporativen Aufbaus in Italien (1933)
- Esperienza corporativa (1929–1935) (1935)
- Corporazioni (1935)
- Scritti giuridici in onore di Santi Romano ... (1940)
- Funzione di Roma nella vita culturale e scientifica della nazione (1940)
- Pagine di critica fascista (1915–1926) (1941, edited by F. M. Pacces)
- Romanità e germanesimo: letture tenute per il Lyceum di Firenze (1941, edited by Jolanda de Blasi)
- Von der römischen zur faschistischen Korporation (1942)
- Köpfe des risorgimento (1943)
- Contributi all'elaborazione delle scienze corporative (1939-XVIII—1942-XX) (1943)
- Vent 'anni e un giorno, 24 luglio 1943 (1949). Republished as Vent'anni e un giorno (24 luglio 1943) (1977).
- Legione è il mio nome (1950). Republished as Legione è il mio nome: il coraggioso epilogo di un gerarca del fascismo (I memoriali) (1999, edited by Marcello Staglieno)
- Scritti (1965, edited by Roberto Bartolozzi and Riccardo Del Giudice)
- Diario, 1935–1944 (1982, edited by Giordano Bruno Guerri)
- Carteggio 1940–1957, correspondence between Bottai and Don Giuseppe De Luca; edited by Renzo De Felice and Renato Moro (1989)
- La politica delle arti: Scritti, 1918–1943 (1992, edited by Alessandro Masi).
- Quaderni giovanili: 1915–1920 (Atti testimonianze convegni) (1996).
- Incontro con Bottai by Mario Carli and Bruno D'Agostini (1938)
- Giuseppe Bottai, un fascista critico : ideologia e azione del gerarca che avrebbe voluto portare l'intelligenza nel fascismo e il fascismo alla liberalizzazione by Giordano Bruno Guerri (1976 – Republished as Giuseppe Bottai, fascista, 1996).
- Bottai : il fascismo come rivoluzione del capitale (1978, edited by Anna Panicali)
- Scuola e la pedagogia del fascismo by Maria Bellucci and Michele Ciliberto (1978).
- Giuseppe Bottai e la riforma fascista della scuola by Rino Gentili. (1979)
- Bottai tra capitale e lavoro by Amleto Di Marcantonio (1980)
- Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 by Philip Rees (1990)
- Sabino Cassese (1971). Bottai, Giuseppe – Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Treccani.
- Maddalena, Carli (2010). "Un movimento artistico crea un partito politico : il futurismo italiano tra avanguardismo e normalizzazione". Memoria e ricerca.
- Michele Terzaghi (1950). Fascismo e massoneria. Arnaldo Forni Editore. p. 171.
- Berto Ricci (1984). Lo Scrittore Italiano. Ciarrapico.
- Paolo Passaniti (2007). Storia del diritto del lavoro. FrancoAngeli. pp. 573–574.
- Vittorio Emiliani (2011). Tutela del paesaggio ed Unità nazionale. Alinea Editrice.
- Roberto Finzi (2008). La cultura italiana e le leggi antiebraiche del 1938. Carocci. p. 915.
- Enzo Forcella (1999). La resistenza in convento. Einaudi.
- Aldo Moro (2009). Lettere dalla prigionia. Einaudi.