Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa ([adˈdis ˈabəba] (About this soundlisten); Amharic: አዲስ አበባ, romanizedĀdīs Ābeba, lit.'new flower'), also known as Finfinne[4] (Oromo: Finfinne, lit.'natural spring'), is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. According to the 2007 census, the city's population is estimated at 2,739,551 inhabitants.[2] Addis Ababa is a chartered city,[5] and is also the capital of Oromia.[6][7]

Addis Ababa
From top: Addis Ababa City Skyline, Addis Ababa Light Rail Vehicle, Friendship Square, Night view of Addis Ababa Light Rail transport, Addis Ababa University, Holy Trinity Cathedral, St. George's Cathedral
Official seal of Addis Ababa
Nicknames: 
City of Humans, Sheger
Addis Ababa is located in Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Location in Ethiopia
Addis Ababa is located in Africa
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa (Africa)
Coordinates: 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000Coordinates: 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000
CountryEthiopia
Chartered1886
Government
 • MayorAdanech Abebe
Area
 • Chartered city527 km2 (203 sq mi)
 • Land527 km2 (203 sq mi)
 [1]
Elevation
2,355 m (7,726 ft)
Population
 (2008)
 • Chartered city3,384,569
 • Density5,165.1/km2 (13,378/sq mi)
 • Urban
3,384,569
 • Metro
4,567,857
 [2]
Time zoneUTC+3 (East Africa Time)
Area code(s)(+251) 11
HDI (2019)0.722[3]
High · 1st
WebsiteOfficial website (dead link)

Several institutions such as the house of the prime minister, Ministry of Peace, headquarters of the Ethiopian National Defense Force and federal police, as well as national intelligence agencies INSA and the NISS, are located in the city. In addition, it is the seat of Jubilee Palace, African Union and the predecessor Organisation of African Unity (OAU). It also hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), as well as various other continental and international organizations. Addis Ababa is therefore often referred to as "the political capital of Africa" for its historical, diplomatic and political significance for the continent.[8]

The city lies a few miles west of the East African Rift which splits Ethiopia into two, between the Nubian Plate and the Somali Plate.[9] The city is surrounded by the Special Zone of Oromia and populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia. It is home to Addis Ababa University.

HistoryEdit

A study based on DNA evidence from almost 1,000 people around the world suggests that all humans spread out from a place close to current Addis Ababa 100,000 years ago.[10] The research indicated that genetic diversity decreases steadily the farther one's ancestors travelled from Addis Ababa.[11]

Mount Entoto, a high tableland to the north of current Addis Ababa, is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara. This permanent fortified city was established during the early-to-mid 15th century, and it served as the main residence of several successive emperors up to the early 16th-century reign of Lebna Dengel.[12] The city was depicted standing between Mounts Zikwala and Menegasha on a map drawn by the Italian cartographer Fra Mauro in around 1450, and it was razed and plundered by Ahmed Gragn while the imperial army was trapped on the south of the Awash River in 1529, an event witnessed and documented two years later by the Yemeni writer Arab-Faqih. The suggestion that Barara was located on Mount Entoto is supported by the very recent discovery of a large medieval town overlooking Addis Ababa located between rock-hewn Washa Mikael and the more modern church of Entoto Maryam, founded in the late 19th century. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30-hectare site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, along with 520 meters of stone walls measuring up to 5-meter high.[13]

The city's immediate predecessor as the capital of Ethiopia, Entoto, was established by Menelik II. Menelik, initially the King of the Shewa province, had found Mount Entoto a useful base for military operations in the south of his realm, and in 1879 he visited the reputed ruins of the medieval town and the unfinished rock church. His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, and Menelik endowed a second church in the area.[12][13] After some time, Entoto was found to be unsatisfactory as capital because of its cold climate, lack of water, and an acute shortage of firewood.[14] In 1886 settlement began in the valley south of the mountain in a place called Finfinne in Oromo, a name which refers to the presence of hot springs. The area was previously inhabited by various Oromo clans.[15] The site was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul. Initially, she built a house for herself near the "Filwoha" hot mineral springs, where she and members of the Showan Royal Court liked to take mineral baths. Other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, and Menelik expanded his wife's house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today.[16] In 1886, the city was renamed to Addis Ababa as the capital of Menelik's kingdom of Shewa. It become the capital of Ethiopia in 1889, when Menelik became Emperor.[17] The town grew by leaps and bounds. One of Emperor Menelik's contributions that are still visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets.[18]

 
The Te'eka Negist Mausoleum at Menelik Palace in Addis Ababa, 1934.

Following all the major engagements of their invasion, Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea entered Addis Ababa on 5 May 1936. Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment (including the use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas) practised elsewhere in Ethiopia. This also allowed its railway to Djibouti to remain intact. After the occupation, the city served as the Duke of Aosta's capital for unified Italian East Africa until 1941, when it was abandoned in favour of Amba Alagi and other redoubts during the Second World War's East African Campaign. The city was liberated by Major Orde Wingate and negus Haile Selassie for Ethiopian Gideon Force and Ethiopian resistance in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassie's return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left. Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963 and invited the new organisation to keep its headquarters in Addis Ababa. The OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union (AU), which is also headquartered in the city. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa also has its headquarters in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa was also the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965.

Relation with Oromia Regional StateEdit

 
Oromia Cultural Center in Addis Ababa
 
Thanksgiving Irreecha Festival in Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa is located in the heart of the Oromia state[19][20] and the major ecosystem services to the city provided by Oromia state.[21] The city was abandoned by the Oromo since the late 19th century due to its conquest by Menelik. Oromos were physically removed from the vicinity of the city during the Haile Selassie and Derg eras.[22] Article 49(5) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia states:[23][24]

"The special interest of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa, regarding the provision of social services or the utilization of natural resources and other similar matters, as well as joint administrative matters arising from the location of Addis Ababa within the State of Oromia, shall be respected. Particulars shall be determined by law."

In 2000, Oromia's capital was moved from Addis Ababa to Adama.[25] Because this move sparked considerable controversy and protests among Oromo students, the Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization (OPDO), part of the ruling EPRDF coalition, on 10 June 2005, officially announced plans to move the regional capital back to Addis Ababa.[26] Due to the historical and natural connection between the city and the Oromo people, the Oromia Government has asserted its ownership of Addis Ababa.[27][28] Both the current mayor of Addis Ababa, Adanech Abebe, and the former mayor, Takele Uma Banti are from the former ruling party of Oromia.[29]

Addis Ababa Master PlanEdit

A controversial plan to expand the boundaries Addis Ababa, by 1.1 million hectares into the Oromia special zone in April 2014,[30][31] sparked Oromo protests on 25 April 2014 against expansion of boundaries Addis Ababa, and government responded by shooting at and beating peaceful protesters[32] and embarked in full blown strike and streets protests on 12 November 2015 by university student in Ginchi town, located 80 km southwest of Addis Ababa city, encircled by Oromia region.[33][34][35] After the deadly Oromo protests started on 25 April 2014, the controversial master plan was cancelled on 12 January 2016. By that time, 140 protesters were killed.[36][37][38]

GeographyEdit

 
Addis Ababa seen from SPOT satellite
 
District map of Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa lies at an elevation of 2,355 metres (7,726 ft) and is a grassland biome, located at 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000.[39] The city lies at the foot of Mount Entoto and forms part of the watershed for the Awash. From its lowest point, around Bole International Airport, at 2,326 metres (7,631 ft) above sea level in the southern periphery, Addis Ababa rises to over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) in the Entoto Mountains to the north.

SubdivisionEdit

The city is divided into 10 boroughs, called subcities (Amharic: ክፍለ ከተማ, kifle ketema), and 99 wards (Amharic: ቀበሌ, kebele).[40][41] The 10 subcities are:

Nr Subcity Area (km2) Population Density Map
1
Addis Ketema[42]
7.41
271,644
36,659.1
2
Akaky Kaliti[43]
118.08
195,273
1,653.7
3
Arada[44]
9.91
225,999
23,000
4
Bole[45]
122.08
328,900
2,694.1
5
Gullele[46]
30.18
284,865
9,438.9
6
Kirkos[47]
14.62
235,441
16,104
7
Kolfe Keranio[48]
61.25
546,219
7,448.5
8
Lideta[49]
9.18
214,769
23,000
9
Nifas Silk-Lafto[50]
68.30
335,740
4,915.7
10
Yeka[51]
85.46
337,575
3950.1

*lemi-kura sub-city was added as the eleventh sub-city of Addis Ababa.in 2020

Addis Ababa
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
13
 
 
24
7
 
 
30
 
 
25
9
 
 
58
 
 
25
11
 
 
82
 
 
25
11
 
 
84
 
 
25
11
 
 
138
 
 
23
11
 
 
280
 
 
21
11
 
 
290
 
 
21
11
 
 
149
 
 
22
11
 
 
27
 
 
24
9
 
 
7
 
 
23
7
 
 
7
 
 
23
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NMAE[52]

ClimateEdit

Addis Ababa has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen: Cwb) with precipitation varying considerably by the month.[53] The city has a complex mix of alpine climate zones, with temperature differences of up to 10 °C (18 °F), depending on elevation and prevailing wind patterns. The high elevation moderates temperatures year-round, and the city's position near the equator means that temperatures are very constant from month to month. As such the climate would be maritime if its elevation was not taken into account, as no month is above 22 °C (72 °F) in mean temperatures.

Mid-November to January is a season for occasional rain. The highland climate regions are characterised by dry winters, and this is the dry season in Addis Ababa. During this season the daily maximum temperatures are usually not more than 23 °C (73 °F), and the night-time minimum temperatures can drop to freezing. The short rainy season is from February to May. During this period, the difference between the daytime maximum temperatures and the night-time minimum temperatures is not as great as during other times of the year, with minimum temperatures in the range of 10–15 °C (50–59 °F). At this time of the year, the city experiences warm temperatures and pleasant rainfall. The long wet season is from June to mid-September; it is the major winter season of the country. This period coincides with summer, but the temperatures are much lower than at other times of year because of the frequent rain and hail and the abundance of cloud cover and fewer hours of sunshine. This time of the year is characterised by dark, chilly and wet days and nights.[citation needed] The autumn which follows is a transitional period between the wet and dry seasons.

The highest temperature on record was 30.6 °C (87.1 °F) 26 February 2019, while the lowest temperature on record was 0 °C (32 °F) recorded on multiple occasions.[54]

Climate data for Addis Ababa (1981–2010, extremes 1898–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
30.6
(87.1)
30.0
(86.0)
30.2
(86.4)
29.5
(85.1)
29.0
(84.2)
29.1
(84.4)
28.0
(82.4)
25.6
(78.1)
27.1
(80.8)
29.5
(85.1)
26.5
(79.7)
30.6
(87.1)
Average high °C (°F) 24
(75)
24
(75)
25
(77)
24
(75)
25
(77)
23
(73)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(74)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
16.8
(62.2)
17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
18.2
(64.8)
16.8
(62.2)
15.5
(59.9)
15.6
(60.1)
16.1
(61.0)
16.1
(61.0)
15.4
(59.7)
15.2
(59.4)
16.4
(61.5)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
9
(48)
10
(50)
11
(52)
11
(52)
10
(50)
10
(50)
10
(50)
10
(50)
9
(48)
7
(45)
7
(45)
9
(49)
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
0.1
(32.2)
0.0
(32.0)
2.5
(36.5)
4.0
(39.2)
4.2
(39.6)
5.4
(41.7)
5.7
(42.3)
3.9
(39.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 13
(0.5)
30
(1.2)
58
(2.3)
82
(3.2)
84
(3.3)
138
(5.4)
280
(11.0)
290
(11.4)
149
(5.9)
27
(1.1)
7
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
1,165
(45.9)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3 5 7 10 10 20 27 26 18 4 1 1 132
Average relative humidity (%) 52 51 53 59 55 68 78 80 75 57 53 53 62
Mean monthly sunshine hours 266.6 206.2 241.8 210.0 238.7 174.0 111.6 133.3 162.0 248.0 267.0 288.3 2,547.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.6 7.3 7.8 7.0 7.7 5.8 3.6 4.3 5.4 8.0 8.9 9.3 7.0
Source 1: World Meteorological Organisation (average high and low, and rainfall)[55]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (mean temperatures 1961–1990, humidity 1951–1990, and sun 1985–1998)[56] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[54]

DemographicsEdit

 
People in Addis Ababa

As of the latest 2007 population census conducted by the Ethiopian national statistics authorities, Addis Ababa has a total population of 2,739,551 urban and rural inhabitants. For the capital city 662,728 households were counted living in 628,984 housing units, which results in an average of 5.3 persons to a household. Although all Ethiopian ethnic groups are represented in Addis Ababa because it is the capital of the country, the largest groups include the Amhara (47.0%), Oromo (19.5%), Gurage (16.3%), Tigrayan (20.18%), Silt'e (2.94%), and Gamo (1.68%). Languages spoken as mother tongues include Amharic (71.0%), Afaan Oromo (10.7%), Gurage (8.37%), Tigrinya (3.60%), Silt'e (1.82%) and Gamo (1.03%). The religion with the most believers in Addis Ababa is Ethiopian Orthodox with 74.7% of the population, while 16.2% are Muslim, 7.77% Protestant, and 0.48% Catholic.[2]

Languages of Addis Ababa as of 2007 Census[57]

  Amharic (71.0%)
  Oromo (10.7%)
  Gurage (8.37%)
  Tigrinya (3.60%)
  Silt'e (1.82%)
  Gamo (1.03%)
  Other (3.48%)

Religion in Addis Ababa (2007)[58]

  Ethiopian Orthodox (74.6%)
  Muslim (16.2%)
  P'ent'ay (7.8%)
  Catholic (0.5%)
  Other (0.8%)

In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the city's population was reported to be 2,112,737, of whom 1,023,452 were men and 1,089,285 were women. At that time not all of the population were urban inhabitants; only 2,084,588 or 98.7% were. For the entire administrative council there were 404,783 households in 376,568 housing units with an average of 5.2 persons per household. The major ethnic groups included the Amhara (48.3%), Oromo (30.2%), Gurage (13.5%; 2.3% Sebat Bet, and 0.8% Sodo), Tigrayan 7.64%, Silt'e 3.98%, and foreigners from Eritrea 1.33%. Languages spoken included Amharic (51.6%), Afaan Oromo (32.0%), Gurage (6.54%), Tigrinya (5.41%), and Silt'e 2.29%. In 1994 the predominant religion was also Ethiopian Orthodox with 82.0% of the population, while 12.7% were Muslim, 3.87% Protestant, and 0.78% Catholic.[59]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1984 1,412,575—    
1994 2,112,737+49.6%
2007 2,739,551+29.7%
2015 3,273,000+19.5%
source:[60]

LanguagesEdit

Standard of livingEdit

According to the 2007 national census, 98.64% of the housing units of Addis Ababa had access to safe drinking water, while 14.9% had flush toilets, 70.7% pit toilets (both ventilated and unventilated), and 14.3% had no toilet facilities.[61] In 2014, there were 63 public toilets in the city, with plans to build more.[62] Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Addis Ababa as of 2005 include the following: 0.1% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 93.6% and for women 79.95%, the highest in the nation for both sexes; and the civic infant mortality rate is 45 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants' first month of life.[63]

The city is partially powered by water at the Koka Reservoir.

EconomyEdit

 
Addis ababa night skyline 2021

The economic activities in Addis Ababa are diverse. According to official statistics from the federal government, some 119,197 people in the city are engaged in trade and commerce; 113,977 in manufacturing and industry; 80,391 homemakers of a different variety; 71,186 in civil administration; 50,538 in transport and communication; 42,514 in education, health and social services; 32,685 in hotel and catering services; and 16,602 in agriculture. In addition to the residents of rural parts of Addis Ababa, the city dwellers also participate in animal husbandry and the cultivation of gardens. 677 hectares (1,670 acres) of land is irrigated annually, on which 129,880 quintals of vegetables are cultivated.[citation needed] It is a relatively clean and safe city, with the most common crimes being pickpocketing, scams and minor burglary.[64] The city has recently been in a construction boom with tall buildings rising in many places. Various luxury services have also become available and the construction of shopping malls has recently increased. According to Tia Goldenberg of IOL, area spa professionals said that some people have labelled the city, "the spa capital of Africa."[65]

Ethiopian Airlines has its headquarters on the grounds of Addis Ababa Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa.[66]

 
Unity Park and Zoo in Addis Ababa

TourismEdit

Tourism is a growing industry within Addis Ababa and Ethiopia as a whole. The country has seen a 10% increase in tourism over the last decade, subsequently bringing an influx of tourists to Addis Ababa. In 2015, the European Council on Tourism and Trade named Ethiopia the Number One tourist spot in the world.[67]

ZooEdit

 
A male lion at Addis Ababa Zoo

Addis Ababa Zoo kept 15 lions in 2011. Their hair samples were used in a genetic analysis, which revealed that they were genetically diverse. It was therefore proposed to include them in a captive breeding programme.[68]

Law and governmentEdit

GovernmentEdit

Under the Ethiopian Constitution of 1995, the city of Addis Ababa is one of the two federal cities that are accountable to the Federal Government of Ethiopia. The other city with the same status is Dire Dawa in the east of the country and both are federal cities. Earlier, following the establishment of the federal structure in 1991 under the Transitional Charter of Ethiopia, the City Government of Addis Ababa was one of the then-new 14 regional governments. However, that structure was changed by the federal constitution in 1995 and as a result, Addis Ababa does not have statehood status.

The administration of Addis Ababa city consists of the Mayor, who leads the executive branch, and the City Council, which enacts city regulations. However, as part of the Federal Government, the federal legislature enacts laws that are binding in Addis Ababa. Members of the City Council are directly elected by the residents of the city and the council, in turn, elects the Mayor among its members. The term of office for elected officials is five years. However, the Federal Government, when it deems necessary, can dissolve the City Council and the entire administration and replace it with a temporary administration until elections take place next. Residents of Addis Ababa are represented in the federal legislature, the House of Peoples' Representatives. However, the city is not represented in the House of Federation, which is the federal upper house constituted by the representatives of the member states. The executive branch under the Mayor comprises the City Manager and various branches of civil service offices.

Adanech Abebe is serving as the Deputy Mayor of Addis Ababa since 2020, preceded by Takele Uma Banti. She is the first woman to hold mayorship since its creation in 1910. Before Takele, the Federal Government appointed Berhane Deressa to lead the temporary caretaker administration that served from 9 May 2006 to 30 October 2008 following the 2005 election crisis. In the 2005 national election, the ruling EPRDF party suffered a major defeat in Addis Ababa. However, the opposition who won in Addis Ababa did not take part in the government both on the regional and federal levels. This situation forced the EPRDF-led Federal Government to assign a temporary administration until a new election was carried out. As a result, Berhane Deressa, an independent citizen, was appointed.

Some of the notable past mayors of Addis Ababa are Arkebe Oqubay (2003–06), Zewde Teklu (1985–89), Alemu Abebe (1977–85) and Zewde Gebrehiwot (1960–69).

CrimeEdit

Addis Ababa is considered to be extremely safe in comparison to the other cities in the region.[69] On a crime index, Addis Ababa scores a 44.28, putting it at a crime level of moderate. Pickpocketing and petty unarmed thefts are more common within the city. Corruption and bribery are extremely common crimes in Addis Ababa. Violent crimes are very unlikely to happen in the city.[70]

Places of worshipEdit

 
Grand Anwar mosque

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples:Seventh-day Adventist Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus (Lutheran World Federation), Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church, Ethiopian Catholic Archeparchy of Addis Abeba (Catholic Church), Ethiopian Full Gospel Believers' Church[71] and also Muslim mosques.

ArchitectureEdit

 
City view of Addis Ababa
 
Old Train Station
 
Wegagen bank building

A financial district is under construction in Addis Ababa.[72]

Mayor Kuma Demeksa embarked on a quest to improve investment for the buildings in the city. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the African Union.[73]

Notable taller architecture in Addis Ababa includes the CBE headquarters, NIB international bank, Zemen bank, Hibret bank, Huda Tower, Nani Tower, Bank Misr Building, as well as the approved Angola World Trade Center Tower, Abyssinia Bank Tower, Mexico Square Tower, and the $200m AU Conference Center and Office Complex.[74]

Notable buildings include St George's Cathedral (founded in 1896 and also home to a museum), Holy Trinity Cathedral (once the largest Ethiopian Orthodox Cathedral and the location of Sylvia Pankhurst's tomb) as well as the burial place of Emperor Haile Selassie and the Imperial family, and those who fought the Italian invasion during World War II.

In the Merkato district, which is the largest open market in Africa, is the Grand Anwar Mosque, the biggest mosque in Ethiopia built during the Italian occupation. A few meters to the southwest of the Anwar Mosque is the Raguel Church built after the liberation by Empress Menen. The proximity of the mosque and the church has symbolised the long peaceful relations between Christianity and Islam in Ethiopia. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Family is also in the Merkato district. Near Bole International Airport is the new Medhane Alem (Savior of the World) Orthodox Cathedral, which is the second-largest in Africa.

The Entoto Mountains start among the northern suburbs. Suburbs of the city include Shiro Meda and Entoto in the north, Urael and Bole (home to Bole International Airport) in the east, Nifas Silk in the south-east, Mekanisa in the south, and Keraniyo and Kolfe in the west. Kolfe was mentioned in Nelson Mandela's Autobiography "A Long Walk to Freedom", as the place he got military training.

Addis Ababa has a distinct architectural style. Unlike many African cities, Addis Ababa was not built as a colonial settlement. This means that the city has not a European style of architecture. This changed with the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1936. The Piazza district in the city centre is the most evident indicator of Italian influence. The buildings are very much Italian in style and there are many Italian restaurants, as well as small cafes, and European-style shopping centres.[75]

Parks include the Africa Park, which is situated along Menelik II Avenue and Unity Park at the Palace.[76]

Other features of the city include the large Mercato market, the Jan Meda racecourse, Bihere Tsige Recreation Centre and a railway line to Djibouti.

The city is home to the Ethiopian National Library, the Ethiopian Ethnological Museum (and former Guenete Leul Palace), the Addis Ababa Museum, the Ethiopian Natural History Museum, the Ethiopian Railway Museum and National Postal Museum.

There is also Menelik's old Imperial palace which remains the official seat of government, and the National Palace formerly known as the Jubilee Palace (built to mark Emperor Haile Selassie's Silver Jubilee in 1955) which is the residence of the President of Ethiopia. Jubilee Palace was also modelled after Buckingham Palace in the United Kingdom. Africa Hall is located across Menelik II avenue from this Palace and is where the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa is headquartered as well as most UN offices in Ethiopia. It is also the site of the founding of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), which eventually became the African Union (AU). The African Union is now housed in a new headquarters built on the site of the demolished Akaki Prison, on land donated by Ethiopia for this purpose in the southwestern part of the city. The Hager Fikir Theatre, the oldest theatre in Ethiopia, is located in the Piazza district. Near Holy Trinity Cathedral is the art deco Parliament building, built during the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie, with its clock tower. It continues to serve as the seat of Parliament today. Across from the Parliament is the Shengo Hall, built by the Derg regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam as its new parliament hall. The Shengo Hall was the world's largest pre-fabricated building, which was constructed in Finland before being assembled in Addis Ababa. It is used for large meetings and conventions. Itegue Taitu Hotel, built-in 1898 (Ethiopian Calendar) in the middle of the city (Piazza), was the first hotel in Ethiopia.

Meskel Square is one of the noted squares in the city and is the site for the annual Meskel at the end of September annually when thousands gather in celebration.

The fossilised skeleton and a plaster replica of the early hominid Lucy (known in Ethiopia as Dinkinesh) is preserved at the National Museum of Ethiopia.

SportEdit

Sport facilities include Addis Ababa Stadium, Abebe Bikila Stadium named after Shambel Abebe Bikila, and Nyala Stadiums. The 2008 African Championships in Athletics were held in Addis Ababa.

DevelopmentEdit

The city hosts the We Are the Future centre, a child care centre that provides children with a higher standard of living. The centre is managed under the direction of the mayor's office, and the international NGO Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser and program planner and coordinator for the WAF child centre in each city. Each WAF city is linked to several peer cities and public and private partners to create a unique international coalition.

Launched in 2004, the program is the result of a strategic partnership between the Glocal Forum, the Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation and Mr Hani Masri, with the support of the World Bank, UN agencies and major companies.

GalleryEdit

EducationEdit

Addis Ababa University was founded in 1950 and was originally named "University College of Addis Ababa", then renamed in 1962 for the former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I who had donated his Genete Leul Palace to be the university's main campus in the previous year. It is the home of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies and the Ethnological Museum. The city also has numerous public universities and private colleges including Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Admas University College, St. Mary's University, Unity University, Kotebe Metropolitan University and Rift Valley University.

TransportEdit

 
Bole international airport

Public transport is through public buses from three different companies (Anbessa City Bus Service Enterprise, Sheger, Alliance), Light Rail or blue and white taxis. The taxis are usually minibuses that can seat at most twelve people, which follow somewhat pre-defined routes. The minibus taxis are typically operated by two people, the driver and a weyala who collects fares and calls out the taxi's destination. Sedan taxis work like normal taxis and are driven to the desired destination on demand. In recent years, new taxi companies have appeared, which use other designs, including one large company using yellow sedan taxis and a few ride-hailing companies(ride taxi, feres, etc.) have become widely accessible in the city.

RoadEdit

The construction of the Addis Ababa Ring Road was initiated in 1998 to implement the city master plan and enhance peripheral development. The Ring Road was divided into three major phases that connect all the five main gates in and out of Addis Ababa with all other regions (Jimma, Bishoftu, Dessie, Gojjam and Ambo). For this project, China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) was the partner of Addis Ababa City Roads Authority (AACRA).[77] The Ring Road has greatly helped to decongest and alleviate city traffic.

Intercity bus service is provided by the Lion City Bus Services.

AirEdit

The city is served by Addis Ababa Bole International Airport, where a new terminal opened in 2003.

RailwayEdit

Addis Ababa originally had a railway connection with Djibouti City, with a picturesque French-style railway station, but this route has been abandoned. The new Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway started operation in September 2016, running parallel to the route of the original railway line.

Light railEdit

 
Underground Station of Light rail system

Addis Ababa opened its light rail system to the public on 20 September 2015. The system is the first of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Ethiopian Railway Corporation reached a funding agreement worth millions of dollars with the Export and Import Bank of China in September 2010 and the light rail project was completed in January 2015. The route is a 34.25-kilometre (21.28 mi) network with two lines; the operational line running from the centre to the south of the city. Upon completion, the east-west line will run from Ayat to the Torhailoch ring-road, and from Menelik Square to Merkato Bus Station, Meskel Square and Akaki.[78]

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Addis Ababa is twinned with:[79][80]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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Further readingEdit

  • Pankhurst, Richard (2001). The Ethiopians: A History (Peoples of Africa). Wiley-Blackwell; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-631-22493-9.

External linksEdit